Merck KGaA is a German chemical and pharmaceutical company headquartered in Darmstadt, with around 40,000 employees in around 70 countries. Merck was founded in 1668 and is the world's oldest operating chemical and pharmaceutical company. The company was privately owned until going public in 1995. However, the Merck family still controls a majority of the company's shares.Following World War I, Merck lost possession of some of its foreign assets, including the Merck & Co. subsidiary in the United States. Merck & Co., which operates as Merck Sharp and Dohme outside the U.S. and Canada, is now an independent company. While Merck in Darmstadt is the legal successor of the original Merck and retains the rights to the name "Merck" in all countries except the U.S. and Canada, it is sometimes known as the "German Merck" or "Merck Darmstadt" in North America. The company was formerly also referred to as "E. Merck" .Merck KGaA operates mainly in Europe, Africa, Asia, Oceania and Latin America. Since Merck & Co. holds the rights to the Merck name in the U.S. and Canada, the company operated under the umbrella brand EMD Chemicals in North America, and since 2010 as EMD Millipore , formed from the initials of Emanuel Merck, Darmstadt. Wikipedia.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENERGY.2009.3.3.1 | Award Amount: 36.65M | Year: 2010
The development and implementation of bio-refinery processes is an absolute necessity and the key to meet the vision towards bio-based economy. The EuroBioRef concept is an integrated, sustainable and diversified bio-refinery involving all biomass value chain stakeholders. The latter will allow large-scale research, testing, optimisation and demonstration of processes in the production of a wide range of products with the dual aim to use all fractions of various biomasses and exploit their potential to produce the highest value possible in an eco-efficient and sustainable way. Moreover, the project attempts to overcome the efforts fragmentation of the whole biomass value chain requiring greater networking, coordination and cooperation among a large variety of actors from biochemical and chemical industry, SMEs, scientific knowledge chain, and European organisations. The new concept will adopt a flexible and a modular process design adapted to large- but also small-scale production units easier to install in various European areas. The overall efficiency of this approach will clearly exceed existing pathways and will consider sustainable options in order to: - Produce and use a high diversity of sustainable biomasses adapted for European regions - Produce high specific energy bio-jet fuels (42 MJ/kg) - Produce multiple products (chemicals, polymers, materials) in a flexible and optimised way that take advantage of the differences in biomass components and intermediates - Improve cost-efficiency by 30% through improved reaction and separation effectiveness, reduced capital investments, improved plant and feedstock flexibility, reduction of production time and logistics - Reduce by 30% the energy - Produce zero waste and rationalise use of raw materials The impact of the project in terms of environment, social and economic benefits is important and could give a serious advantage for European bio-industry.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: HEALTH.2010.4.2-9-4 | Award Amount: 6.80M | Year: 2011
The COSMOS project will address the assessment needs of the cosmetics industry by delivering an integrated suite of computational tools to predict the effects of long-term exposure to cosmetic ingredients in humans, thus reducing the need for repeated dose toxicity testing in animals. To achieve this, individual modules comprising: (new) databases, thresholds of toxicological concern (TTC), in silico toxicology (grouping, read-across and QSAR), in vitro data and physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modelling, will be used to construct flexible workflows for assessing toxicity. The COSMOS project will be informed by the needs of industry through active stakeholder engagement, and will utilise innovative technologies from outside the cosmetics area. New databases for TTC and modelling studies will be created by harvesting US FDA legacy data for cosmetics. New and current databases will be combined to advance the state-of-the-art providing a transparent, freely-available public resource. Grouping and read-across will be achieved mechanistically and on the basis of structural similarity. The effective dose-response at the target organ will be estimated from in vitro effects and PBPK models, establishing an alternative (non-animal) basis for risk assessment. All models and Workflows developed will be transparent, fully documented and open access. The partners include world leaders committed to donating software and algorithms to support the open architecture. Data and models will be integratable with existing systems. Workflows will be automated through the KNIME software.
Samel S.A.,University of Marburg |
Czodrowski P.,Merck KGaA |
Essen L.-O.,University of Marburg
Acta Crystallographica Section D: Biological Crystallography | Year: 2014
Tyrocidine, a macrocyclic decapeptide from Bacillus brevis, is nonribosomally assembled by a set of multimodular peptide synthetases, which condense two d-amino acids and eight l-amino acids to produce this membrane-disturbing antibiotic. d-Phenylalanine, the first amino acid incorporated into tyrocidine, is catalytically derived from enzyme-bound l-Phe by the C-terminal epimerization (E) domain of tyrocidine synthetase A (TycA). The 1.5Å resolution structure of the cofactor-independent TycA E domain reveals an intimate relationship to the condensation (C) domains of peptide synthetases. In contrast to the latter, the TycA E domain uses an enlarged bridge region to plug the active-site canyon from the acceptor side, whereas at the donor side a latch-like floor loop is suitably extended to accommodate the III helix of the preceding peptide-carrier domain. Additionally, E domains exclusively harbour a conserved glutamate residue, Glu882, that is opposite the active-site residue His743. This active-site topology implies Glu882 as a candidate acid-base catalyst, whereas His743 stabilizes in the protonated state a transient enolate intermediate of the l↔d isomerization. © 2014 International Union Of Crystallography.
Rogov V.,Goethe University Frankfurt |
Dotsch V.,Goethe University Frankfurt |
Johansen T.,University of Tromsø |
Kirkin V.,Merck KGaA
Molecular Cell | Year: 2014
Selective autophagy ensures recognition and removal of various cytosolic cargos. Hence, aggregated proteins, damaged organelles, or pathogens are enclosed into the double-membrane vesicle, the autophagosome, and delivered to the lysosome for degradation. This process is mediated by selective autophagy receptors, such as p62/SQSTM1. These proteins recognize autophagic cargo and, via binding to small ubiquitin-like modifiers (UBLs)-Atg8/LC3/GABARAPs and ATG5-mediate formation of selective autophagosomes. Recently, it was found that UBLs can directly engage the autophagosome nucleation machinery. Here, we review recent findings on selective autophagy and propose a model for selective autophagosome formation in close proximity to cargo. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ICT-2011.3.6 | Award Amount: 4.98M | Year: 2011
SCOOP is focussed on OLED technology, microdisplays based on the combination of OLED with CMOS technology, and innovative visualisation systems. OLED microdisplays are based on Above-IC integration with the principal value chain being located in Europe. SCOOP intends to improve the competitiveness of European industry by helping the industrial partners to maintain and improve their technological advance and to extend their market share by enabling new products. The project will also contribute to strengthen Europes scientific and technology base in the field of OLED and thin film encapsulation, which can be leveraged for a variety of applications through the institutional partners and the material supplier involved in the project. The project will also provide system integrators with components with outstanding features enabling innovative products like informative eyewear or augmented reality glasses. Technical focus is on the development of OLED materials and devices with high brightness and high reliability as well as corresponding thin film encapsulation stacks, in order to overcome current limitations of OLED microdisplays, in particular for high end applications like electronic viewfinders, Head Mounted Displays for augmented reality, CAD, or professional applications. Moreover, by developing a new approach producing colour subpixels without colour filter in a simplified process, we will extend the field of application of OLED microdisplays to systems that require higher luminance for readability even in bright sunlight, like e.g. augmented reality glasses for medical, sports, or logistics. The partners cover the whole value chain, from research, materials, components to systems. All industrial partners have their main manufacturing sites located in Europe. The outcomes of the project are not limited to microdisplay applications but can apply to many OLAE devices like biosensors, small to large size direct view displays, lighting devices, or solar cells
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: ENERGY.2011.2.1-2;NMP.2011.1.2-1 | Award Amount: 10.02M | Year: 2012
This project will exploit the potential of chalcogenide based thin film photovoltaic technologies for the development and scale-up of new processes based on nanostructured materials for the production of high efficiency and low cost photovoltaic devices and modules compatible with mass production requirements. Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 (CIGS) chalcogenide based devices have the highest efficiency of all thin film PV technologies, having recently achieved a record value of 20.3% at cell level. These technologies have already entered the stage of mass production, with commercial modules that provide stable efficiencies in the 11-12% range, and a predicted world-side production capacity over 2 GW/a for 2011. However, current production methods in CIGS industrial technologies typically rely on costly, difficult to control (over large surfaces) vacuum-based deposition processes that are known for low material utilisation of 30-50%. This compromises the potential reduction of material costs inherent to thin film technologies. At the forefront of this, the SCALENANO project proposes the development of alternative environmental friendly and vacuum free processes based on the electrodepositon of nanostructured precursors with the objective to achieve a much more efficient exploitation of the cost saving and efficiency potential of CIGS based PV. The project also includes the exploration and development of alternative new processes with very high potential throughput and process rate based in the use of printing techniques with novel nanoparticle ink formulations and new cost effective deposition techniques, that will allow proposing an industrial roadmap for the future generation of chalcogenide based cells and modules
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-ITN | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2012-ITN | Award Amount: 466.73K | Year: 2012
Electronic, label-free biosensors characterized by rapidity and detection proved to be very promising being able to directly detect biological recognition events without the need of markers. In this respect, organic bioelectronics has gained a huge interest among scientists coming from different disciplines and sectors due to its high impact on medical, clinical, food and environmental fields. Presently Europe holds a leading position in this research area, being almost all the world-leading research groups and industrial companies in this field located in Europe. Realizing the promise of Organic electronic sensors requires research and training in crossing disciplines, such as chemistry, biology, physics, materials science, and electrical engineering. The objective of this project is to strengthen the research in this new and fast developing strategic research field by teaching and training the next generation of scientists on OFET biosensors developments both in the academia and the private sectors. Innovative OFET biosensors for point-of-care application capable of sensitive, selective and reliable detection of analytes of clinical relevance will be developed. The novelty of the proposal is the development of OFET devices that fully integrate biological recognition elements, such as antibodies or other receptors to confer specificity. Specific reactions (i.e. antigen/antibody binding) will be then used for analyte detection. However, not only medical diagnostics but also a wide range of sensing applications (e.g. food monitoring, detection of chemical, biological poisoning agents, etc.) will benefit from these new OFET device configurations.
Kaufmann W.,Merck KGaA
Toxicologic pathology | Year: 2012
Harmonization of diagnostic nomenclature used in the pathology analysis of tissues from rodent toxicity studies will enhance the comparability and consistency of data sets from different laboratories worldwide. The INHAND Project (International Harmonization of Nomenclature and Diagnostic Criteria for Lesions in Rats and Mice) is a joint initiative of four major societies of toxicologic pathology to develop a globally recognized nomenclature for proliferative and nonproliferative lesions in rodents. This article recommends standardized terms for classifying changes observed in tissues of the mouse and rat central (CNS) and peripheral (PNS) nervous systems. Sources of material include academic, government, and industrial histopathology databases from around the world. Covered lesions include frequent, spontaneous, and aging-related changes as well as principal toxicant-induced findings. Common artifacts that might be confused with genuine lesions are also illustrated. The neural nomenclature presented in this document is also available electronically on the Internet at the goRENI website (http://www.goreni.org/).
Czodrowski P.,Merck KGaA
Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling | Year: 2013
A detailed analysis of the hERG content inside the ChEMBL database is performed. The correlation between the outcome from binding assays and functional assays is probed. On the basis of descriptor distributions, design paradigms with respect to structural and physicochemical properties of hERG active and hERG inactive compounds are challenged. Finally, classification models with different data sets are trained. All source code is provided, which is based on the Python open source packages RDKit and scikit-learn to enable the community to rerun the experiments. The code is stored on github (https://github.com/pzc/herg-chembl-jcim). © 2013 American Chemical Society.
Merck KGaA | Date: 2012-02-16
In a process for the preparation of ring compounds via a combinatorial synthesis, the reaction procedure is based on a Suzuki coupling; subsequent halo-demetallation and finally a further Suzuki coupling. The Suzuki couplings are each carried out with a boronic acid or a boronic acid ester. The reaction procedure uses provides novel ring compounds and uses novel synthesis units used for this purpose. The novel ring compounds are suitable for use as constituents in liquid-crystalline mixtures.