Scotch Plains, NJ, United States
Scotch Plains, NJ, United States

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Crepeau T.N.,Monmouth County Mosquito Extermination Commission | Unlu I.,Rutgers University | Healy S.P.,Monmouth County Mosquito Extermination Commission | Farajollahi A.,Mercer County Mosquito Control | Fonseca D.M.,Rutgers University
Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association | Year: 2013

We obtained 160 Biogents Sentinel™ traps (BGS-traps) to monitor adult mosquito populations for the Area-wide Pest Management Program for the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) in New Jersey. We deployed between 90 and 110 BGS-traps weekly from May through October of 2008, 2009, 2010, and 2011. Here we detail our experience: challenges with acquisition, defects in construction, as well as actions taken to correct problems we found and preempt them in the future. Further, we describe the impact of these problems on our research and provide a cost analysis of repairs. © 2013 by The American Mosquito Control Association, Inc.


Fonseca D.M.,Rutgers University | Unlu I.,Rutgers University | Crepeau T.,Monmouth County Mosquito Extermination Commission | Farajollahi A.,Mercer County Mosquito Control | And 7 more authors.
Pest Management Science | Year: 2013

Background: Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse) is an important disease vector and biting nuisance. During the 2009 active season, six ∼1000-parcel sites were studied, three in urban and three in suburban areas of New Jersey, United States, to examine the efficacy of standard integrated urban mosquito control strategies applied area wide. Active source reduction, larviciding, adulticiding and public education (source reduction through education) were implemented in one site in each county, an education-only approach was developed in a second site and a third site was used as an untreated experimental control. Populations were surveyed weekly with BG-Sentinel traps and ovitraps. Results: A substantial reduction in Ae. albopictus populations was achieved in urban sites, but only modest reductions in suburban sites. Education alone achieved significant reductions in urban adult Ae. albopictus. Egg catches echoed adult catches only in suburban sites. Conclusions: There are significant socioeconomic and climatic differences between urban and suburban sites that impact upon Ae. albopictus populations and the efficacy of the control methods tested. An integrated pest management approach can affect abundances, but labor-intensive, costly source reduction was not enough to maintain Ae. albopictus counts below a nuisance threshold. Nighttime adult population suppression using truck-mounted adulticides can be effective. Area-wide cost-effective strategies are necessary. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.


Suman D.S.,Rutgers University | Farajollahi A.,Mercer County Mosquito Control | Healy S.,Monmouth County Mosquito Extermination Commission | Williams G.M.,Hudson County Mosquito Control | And 3 more authors.
Acta Tropica | Year: 2014

Autodissemination of insecticides is a novel strategy for mosquito management. We tested if contaminated Aedes albopictus (Skuse) mosquitoes from a small area treated with commercial formulations (79gm a.i. pyriproxyfen/ha) using conventional techniques, would disseminate pyriproxyfen over a wider area. Pyriproxyfen showed LC50=0.012 ppb for Ae. albopictus. Direct treatment and autodissemination efficacy was measured as a pupal mortality by conducting Ae. albopictus larval bioassay. A tire pile (n=100 tires) treated by backpack sprayer as a point-source treatment showed higher pupal mortality in 2010 (60.8% for week 0-6) than in 2011 (38.3% for week 0-6). The sentinel containers placed for autodissemination in four compass directions out to 200-400m from the tire pile showed 15.8% pupal mortality (week 1-6) in the first year, and 1.4% pupal mortality in the second year. No significant difference was detected among the distances and direction for pupal mortality. In area-wide treatments, vegetation was sprayed in checkerboard pattern (3.7% of 105ha) using backpack sprayer in 2010 and in strips (24.8% of 94ha) using truck-mounted ultra-low volume (ULV) sprayer in 2011. In both years, the area-wide direct treatment efficacy was lower (30.3% during 2010 and 5.3% in 2011) than point-source treatments. Autodissemination in area-wide plots was higher in 2010 (10.3%) than 2011 (2.9%). However, area-wide treatments were ineffective on field populations of Ae. albopictus as monitored by using BGS traps. We found accumulation of pyriproxyfen in the week 6 autodissemination containers in both experiments. The differences in autodissemination in 2010 and 2011 can be attributed to higher rainfall in the second year that may have eroded the pyriproxyfen from treatment surfaces and sentinel containers. Our study shows that ULV surface treatments of conventional formulation do not work for autodissemination. The effectiveness of pyriproxyfen in autodissemination may be improved by developing specific formulations to treat vegetation and tires that can load high doses on mosquitoes. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Unlu I.,Rutgers University | Farajollahi A.,Mercer County Mosquito Control | Healy S.P.,Monmouth County Mosquito Extermination Commission | Crepeau T.,Monmouth County Mosquito Extermination Commission | And 6 more authors.
Pest Management Science | Year: 2011

BACKGROUND: Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse), the Asian tiger mosquito, is an introduced invasive species in the United States that is responsible for a significant proportion of service requests to local mosquito control programs. This container-utilizing mosquito is refractory to standard mosquito abatement measures in the United States. This study is part of a USDA-ARS project to develop an area-wide management strategy for Ae. albopictus. The goal was to identify three study sites, similar in socioeconomic parameters, geography and Ae. albopictus abundance, in urban and suburban areas in Mercer and Monmouth counties in New Jersey. Prior service requests and light trap counts and also detailed county maps were used to chose nine preliminary sites (four in Mercer and five in Monmouth) where weekly surveillance for Ae. albopictus was performed throughout the 2008 active season. RESULTS: Although outliers were detected, socioeconomic variables in the study sites within each county were fairly consistent. Ae. albopictus abundance was associated with poverty levels and had the highest maxima in Mercer, although average mosquito abundance was similar in urban Mercer and suburban Monmouth. CONCLUSION: Three study sites in each county were identified for future studies. The summer-long surveillance also revealed socioeconomic variables critical for the development of integrated mosquito management. © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.


Crepeau T.N.,Monmouth County Mosquito Extermination Commission | Healy S.P.,Monmouth County Mosquito Extermination Commission | Bartlett-Healy K.,Rutgers University | Unlu I.,Rutgers University | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

The Biogents® Sentinel (BGS) trap is the standard tool to monitor adult Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae), the Asian tiger mosquito. BGS traps are commonly placed in residential properties during surveillance operations, but locations within properties may have significant differences in ambient light, temperature, and humidity (e.g. between a sunlit lawn and shady underbrush). We examined the effect of BGS trap placement on Ae. albopictus capture rates in three residential properties in Monmouth County, New Jersey, USA. In each property we visually selected locations as shade, partial shade, and sun. Traps in "partial shade" locations were under vegetation and were exposed to filtered sunlight during some parts of the day while "shaded" locations were never exposed to direct sunlight. Locations defined as "sun" were exposed to direct sunlight for large parts of the day. We placed a BGS trap in each of the three location types and used small data loggers to measure temperature, relative humidity, and light exposure at each trap during a 24-hour deployment. To address temporal variability, we made seven separate measurements from 31 August to 22 September 2010. We found that "partial shade" and "full shade" locations did not differ but that "full sun" locations had significantly higher light exposure, higher temperature, and lower humidity. Importantly, Ae. albopictus catches (males, females, or both) were consistently and significantly over 3 times higher in traps located in shaded locations. To further investigate the effects of local temperature and humidity on surveillance we examined Ae. albopictus collections from 37 BGS traps fitted with data loggers and deployed weekly from August through mid October, during the 2009 season, in three urban sites in Mercer County, NJ. We confirmed that local climate influences capture rates and that Ae. albopictus surveillance projects need to monitor trap placement carefully for maximum efficiency. © 2013 Crepeau et al.


Rochlin I.,Suffolk County Vector Control | Ninivaggi D.V.,Suffolk County Vector Control | Farajollahi A.,Mercer County Mosquito Control | Farajollahi A.,Rutgers University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Skuse), is an invasive species with substantial biting activity, high disease vector potential, and a global distribution that continues to expand. New Jersey, southern New York, and Pennsylvania are currently the northernmost boundary of established Ae. albopictus populations in the eastern United States. Using positive geographic locations from these areas, we modeled the potential future range expansion of Ae. albopictus in northeastern USA under two climate change scenarios. The land area with environmental conditions suitable for Ae. albopictus populations is expected to increase from the current 5% to 16% in the next two decades and to 43%-49% by the end of the century. Presently, about one-third of the total human population of 55 million in northeastern USA reside in urban areas where Ae. albopictus is present. This number is predicted to double to about 60% by the end of the century, encompassing all major urban centers and placing over 30 million people under the threat of dense Ae. albopictus infestations. This mosquito species presents unique challenges to public health agencies and has already strained the resources available to mosquito control programs within its current range. As it continues to expand into areas with fewer resources and limited organized mosquito control, these challenges will be further exacerbated. Anticipating areas of potential establishment, while planning ahead and gathering sufficient resources will be the key for successful public health campaigns. A broad effort in community sanitation and education at all levels of government and the private sector will be required until new control techniques are developed that can be applied efficiently and effectively at reasonable cost to very large areas. © 2013 Rochlin et al.


Unlu I.,Mercer County Mosquito Control | MacKay A.J.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Roy A.,Louisiana State University | Yates M.M.,East Baton Rouge Parish Mosquito Abatement and Rodent Control District | Foil L.D.,Louisiana State University
Journal of Vector Ecology | Year: 2010

Male and nulliparous female mosquitoes were surveyed for evidence of vertical WNV infection in East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana. Adult male mosquitoes collected by trapping and aspiration, and adult male and nulliparous female mosquitoes reared from field-collected larvae were tested. Adult male Culex spp., female Aedes albopictus (Skuse), and female Culex quinquifasciatus Say mosquitoes that were collected as larvae were test-positive for WNV RNA. Infectious WNV was detected using virus isolation in field-collected male Aedes triseriatus Say and Culex salinarius Coquillett; these data represent the first field evidence of vertical transmission of WNV in Ae. triseriatus and Cx. salinarius.


Unlu I.,Rutgers University | Faraji A.,Rutgers University | Indelicato N.,Mercer County Mosquito Control | Fonseca D.M.,Rutgers University
Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2014

Background: The primary sources of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) in its exotic range in North America are artificialcontainers in backyards, which vary widely in accessibility. In this study we examined their prevalence in twocontainer types that are difficult to inspect: catch basins and corrugated extension spouts (CES), the latterused to divert rainwater in downspouts away from house foundations.Methods: We conducted larval and pupal surveys in catch basins, CES and open containers such as buckets andplant saucers in three urban locations in Mercer County, New Jersey, USA.Results: We found that Ae. albopictus were rare in catch basins but prevalent in CES, and were often the onlyspecies collected in CES. Specific characteristics of the CES were not significantly associated with the presenceor number of Ae. albopictus in them, but those longer and closer to the ground were significantly more likelyto contain water, and therefore mosquitoes. During peak season (July-August), the abundance of immatureAe. albopictus was significantly higher in CES than open containers.Conclusions:We found that CES are an important source of Ae. albopictus in our region and propose that effectivecontrol strategies should be implemented to minimize mosquito populations from these cryptic habitats. © 2014.


PubMed | Mercer County Mosquito Control and Rutgers University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of medical entomology | Year: 2016

Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and other container-inhabiting species have become important public health concerns due to the transmission of dengue, chikungunya, and Zika viruses. Effective surveillance is dependent on the ability to collect a sufficient number of mosquitoes for population monitoring and pathogen isolation. The Biogents Sentinel (BGS) trap supplied with a proprietary human skin lure has become the standard tool for container-inhabiting Aedes species collections worldwide. Recently, R-octenol, a single isomer of the well characterized mosquito attractant octenol, was shown to greatly improve the capture rate of some Aedes species when utilized with the Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) light traps and Mosquito Magnet traps. This study evaluated the effectiveness of the TrapTech lure (TT lure), containing R-octenol, alone or in combination with the human skin lure in a BGS trap to capture Ae. albopictus and other species. BGS traps with human skin lures or a combination of the two lures collected approximately twice as many Ae. albopictus females compared to those with TT lures. Unlike previous studies, baiting BGS traps with TT lures did not result in increased diversity of mosquito species, or in higher numbers of other container-inhabiting Aedes species. Although human skin lures were clearly superior to TT R-octenol lures in BGS traps, R-octenol lures are more widely available and might still be used as an alternative lure, especially when Ae. albopictus populations are high.


PubMed | Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, Mercer County Mosquito Control and Rutgers University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Pest management science | Year: 2016

Recent changes in climate and human behavior have led to dramatic increases in the abundance and geographic expansion of invasive mosquito vectors such as Aedes albopictus. Although source reduction has been shown to be effective in reducing mosquito populations, thousands of backyards need to be inspected during door-to-door campaigns, which is labor intensive and expensive. We identified hot spots as high (five or more female or male Ae. albopictus) adult mosquito populations at very focal locations. We tested whether hot spot source reduction efforts were effective in reducing mosquito populations in the early summer season (June to July).Analysis of historical data from the study sites indicated the proportion of hot spots in the control site relative to the intervention site was much greater in 2011, when hot spot treatments were applied to the intervention site, than in 2012, 2013 and 2014 combined, when no sites were treated [OR (95% CI)=3.9 (1.8, 8.5), Z=3.39, P<0.001).Hot spot treatments can be incorporated into existing integrated mosquito management programs to increase effectiveness while reducing the time, cost and effort spent on methods such as door-to-door source reduction. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

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