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Trenton, NJ, United States

Rochlin I.,Suffolk County Vector Control | Ninivaggi D.V.,Suffolk County Vector Control | Farajollahi A.,Mercer County Mosquito Control | Farajollahi A.,Rutgers University
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

The Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus (Skuse), is an invasive species with substantial biting activity, high disease vector potential, and a global distribution that continues to expand. New Jersey, southern New York, and Pennsylvania are currently the northernmost boundary of established Ae. albopictus populations in the eastern United States. Using positive geographic locations from these areas, we modeled the potential future range expansion of Ae. albopictus in northeastern USA under two climate change scenarios. The land area with environmental conditions suitable for Ae. albopictus populations is expected to increase from the current 5% to 16% in the next two decades and to 43%-49% by the end of the century. Presently, about one-third of the total human population of 55 million in northeastern USA reside in urban areas where Ae. albopictus is present. This number is predicted to double to about 60% by the end of the century, encompassing all major urban centers and placing over 30 million people under the threat of dense Ae. albopictus infestations. This mosquito species presents unique challenges to public health agencies and has already strained the resources available to mosquito control programs within its current range. As it continues to expand into areas with fewer resources and limited organized mosquito control, these challenges will be further exacerbated. Anticipating areas of potential establishment, while planning ahead and gathering sufficient resources will be the key for successful public health campaigns. A broad effort in community sanitation and education at all levels of government and the private sector will be required until new control techniques are developed that can be applied efficiently and effectively at reasonable cost to very large areas. © 2013 Rochlin et al. Source

Williges E.,Rutgers University | Faraji A.,Mercer County Mosquito Control | Faraji A.,Rutgers University | Gaugler R.,Rutgers University
Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association | Year: 2014

As a hyperaggressive mosquito that is also a public health threat, Aedes albopictus (Skuse), the Asian tiger mosquito, is a major priority for control efforts. We examine one aspect of Ae. albopictus biology: oviposition height. Field-based research in an urban habitat was conducted to determine if a height preference exists for this species. Larval and egg counts showed a significant preference for oviposition at ground level (0 m) compared to heights of 1, 2, 3, or 4 m (P < 0.01). An experiment conducted under semi-field conditions supported our conclusion of oviposition preference at ground level (P < 0.001), and further defines the search image needed by mosquito control personnel when dealing with this invasive species. © 2014 by The American Mosquito Control Association, Inc. Source

Unlu I.,Rutgers University | Faraji A.,Rutgers University | Indelicato N.,Mercer County Mosquito Control | Fonseca D.M.,Rutgers University
Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene | Year: 2014

Background: The primary sources of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) in its exotic range in North America are artificialcontainers in backyards, which vary widely in accessibility. In this study we examined their prevalence in twocontainer types that are difficult to inspect: catch basins and corrugated extension spouts (CES), the latterused to divert rainwater in downspouts away from house foundations.Methods: We conducted larval and pupal surveys in catch basins, CES and open containers such as buckets andplant saucers in three urban locations in Mercer County, New Jersey, USA.Results: We found that Ae. albopictus were rare in catch basins but prevalent in CES, and were often the onlyspecies collected in CES. Specific characteristics of the CES were not significantly associated with the presenceor number of Ae. albopictus in them, but those longer and closer to the ground were significantly more likelyto contain water, and therefore mosquitoes. During peak season (July-August), the abundance of immatureAe. albopictus was significantly higher in CES than open containers.Conclusions:We found that CES are an important source of Ae. albopictus in our region and propose that effectivecontrol strategies should be implemented to minimize mosquito populations from these cryptic habitats. © 2014. Source

Fonseca D.M.,Rutgers University | Unlu I.,Rutgers University | Crepeau T.,Monmouth County Mosquito Extermination Commission | Farajollahi A.,Mercer County Mosquito Control | And 7 more authors.
Pest Management Science | Year: 2013

Background: Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse) is an important disease vector and biting nuisance. During the 2009 active season, six ∼1000-parcel sites were studied, three in urban and three in suburban areas of New Jersey, United States, to examine the efficacy of standard integrated urban mosquito control strategies applied area wide. Active source reduction, larviciding, adulticiding and public education (source reduction through education) were implemented in one site in each county, an education-only approach was developed in a second site and a third site was used as an untreated experimental control. Populations were surveyed weekly with BG-Sentinel traps and ovitraps. Results: A substantial reduction in Ae. albopictus populations was achieved in urban sites, but only modest reductions in suburban sites. Education alone achieved significant reductions in urban adult Ae. albopictus. Egg catches echoed adult catches only in suburban sites. Conclusions: There are significant socioeconomic and climatic differences between urban and suburban sites that impact upon Ae. albopictus populations and the efficacy of the control methods tested. An integrated pest management approach can affect abundances, but labor-intensive, costly source reduction was not enough to maintain Ae. albopictus counts below a nuisance threshold. Nighttime adult population suppression using truck-mounted adulticides can be effective. Area-wide cost-effective strategies are necessary. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry. Source

Crepeau T.N.,Monmouth County Mosquito Extermination Commission | Unlu I.,Rutgers University | Healy S.P.,Monmouth County Mosquito Extermination Commission | Farajollahi A.,Mercer County Mosquito Control | Fonseca D.M.,Rutgers University
Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association | Year: 2013

We obtained 160 Biogents Sentinel™ traps (BGS-traps) to monitor adult mosquito populations for the Area-wide Pest Management Program for the Asian tiger mosquito (Aedes albopictus) in New Jersey. We deployed between 90 and 110 BGS-traps weekly from May through October of 2008, 2009, 2010, and 2011. Here we detail our experience: challenges with acquisition, defects in construction, as well as actions taken to correct problems we found and preempt them in the future. Further, we describe the impact of these problems on our research and provide a cost analysis of repairs. © 2013 by The American Mosquito Control Association, Inc. Source

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