Aachen, Germany
Aachen, Germany

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Jung O.,University of Hamburg | Smeets R.,University of Hamburg | Porchetta D.,Meotec GmbH and Co. KG | Porchetta D.,FH Aachen | And 10 more authors.
Acta Biomaterialia | Year: 2015

Magnesium (Mg) is a promising biomaterial for degradable implant applications that has been extensively studied in vitro and in vivo in recent years. In this study, we developed a procedure that allows an optimized and uniform in vitro assessment of the cytocompatibility of Mg-based materials while respecting the standard protocol DIN EN ISO 10993-5:2009. The mouse fibroblast line L-929 was chosen as the preferred assay cell line and MEM supplemented with 10% FCS, penicillin/streptomycin and 4 mM l-glutamine as the favored assay medium. The procedure consists of (1) an indirect assessment of effects of soluble Mg corrosion products in material extracts and (2) a direct assessment of the surface compatibility in terms of cell attachment and cytotoxicity originating from active corrosion processes. The indirect assessment allows the quantification of cell-proliferation (BrdU-assay), viability (XTT-assay) as well as cytotoxicity (LDH-assay) of the mouse fibroblasts incubated with material extracts. Direct assessment visualizes cells attached to the test materials by means of live-dead staining. The colorimetric assays and the visual evaluation complement each other and the combination of both provides an optimized and simple procedure for assessing the cytocompatibility of Mg-based biomaterials in vitro. © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc.

Klocke F.,RWTH Aachen | Schwade M.,RWTH Aachen | Welling D.,RWTH Aachen | Kopp A.,Meotec GmbH and Co. KG
International Journal of Mechatronics and Manufacturing Systems | Year: 2013

Major deficits concerning biodegradable and non-biodegradable orthopaedic implants are a result of insufficient osseointegration and an accelerated corrosion rate. These in turn are significantly influenced by the surface tissue-interface. Cells belonging to different steps of the osteoblast differentiation cascade respond differently to the same surface structure. Therefore, a combination of particular micro and macro structures resulting in a multi-scale directed surface topography may significantly improve the cell response throughout the whole osseointegration process. This paper proposes the possibility to adapt the structural properties of a surface independently throughout different magnitudes of topography by a combination of electro discharge machining and a plasma electrolytic conversion process. Examples of such structures are demonstrated in samples made of the magnesium alloy WE43 as well as the most commonly used titanium alloy for orthopaedic implants Ti6Al4V. Copyright © 2013 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

Klocke F.,RWTH Aachen | Schwade M.,RWTH Aachen | Klink A.,RWTH Aachen | Veselovac D.,RWTH Aachen | Kopp A.,Meotec GmbH and Co. KG
Procedia CIRP | Year: 2013

Biodegradable implants are in the focus of recent research approaches in the medical engineering sector for the treatment of many different defects. In comparison to permanent implants the risk of inflammatory reactions is significantly reduced and no foreign material is left in the body using degradable materials. Due to the extraordinary biocompatibility and initial structural stability, similar to the human bone, magnesium alloys are best suited for degradable orthopedic implants. But up until now the degradation of magnesium inside the human body is too fast and therefore the structural stability is lost too early. Newest research suggests that the degradation kinematic as well as the cell response of the implant can be improved by adjusting certain surface properties, e.g. complex micro- and macrostructures. Since these structures are very difficult to be machined with conventional processes, especially for complex and filigree 3D-structures, alternative manufacturing processes need to be developed. Electro Discharge Machining in combination with a Plasma Electrolytic Conversion of the surface is very well suited for the creation of geometries with high aspect ratios and microstructures. The focus of this paper lies on the investigation of the influence of the production processes on the biocompatibility of the machined part. The process chain for such implants will therefore be analyzed in regard to macro and micro surface properties using SEM and EDX-analysis. These results are then compared to biocompatibility testing concerning cell viability and toxicity. © 2013 The Authors.

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