Menzies Health Institute Queensland
Menzies Health Institute Queensland
Jefferies L.N.,Griffith University |
Jefferies L.N.,Menzies Health Institute Queensland |
Jefferies L.N.,Murdoch University |
Di Lollo V.,Simon Fraser University
Attention, Perception, and Psychophysics | Year: 2017
The main question examined in the present work was whether spatial attention can be deployed to an appropriate structural framework not only endogenously when the framework is displayed continuously, as in previous work, but also exogenously, when it is displayed transiently 100 ms before the target. The results of five experiments answered that question in the negative. We found that the onset transient triggered by a brief presentation of the structural framework did enhance the response to the upcoming target. That enhancement, however, was due not to the framework itself but to the alerting effect produced by its sudden onset, witness the finding that the same enhancement was produced by an onset transient triggered by a featureless stimulus (i.e., by a brief dimming of the entire screen, in the absence of a structural framework). We conclude that spatial attention can be deployed to the region demarcated by a structural framework when it is deployed endogenously but not when it is deployed exogenously. A theoretical account of the results is proposed in terms of the temporal dynamics of the locus cœruleus/norepinephrine neuromodulatory system. © 2017 The Psychonomic Society, Inc.
PubMed | Arizona State University and Menzies Health Institute Queensland
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Emotion (Washington, D.C.) | Year: 2016
The temperamental trait of negative emotionality (NE) plays an important role in maladaptation among adults experiencing significant life stress. However, the prospective relation between childhood NE and subsequent interrelated behavioral, emotional, and biological dysregulation in later life has not yet been established among children who experience early adversity. Using a longitudinal sample of youth who experienced parental divorce during childhood (N = 160; 53% male; 83% White), we tested the hypothesis that childhood NE would predict physiological, emotional, and behavioral dysregulation 15 years later. NE was assessed by maternal report when youth were between 9 and 12 years old. Fifteen years later, young adults (mean age = 25.55 years) participated in a psychosocial stress task to assess cortisol reactivity and reported on internalizing symptoms and problematic alcohol use. Structural equation modeling revealed that higher childhood NE predicted significantly greater alcohol use, internalizing symptoms, and total cortisol output during a stress task 15 years later. Importantly, these findings held after adjusting for childhood internalizing symptoms. In addition, problematic alcohol use was associated with greater cortisol reactivity and internalizing symptoms. Findings suggest that childhood NE is a critical risk marker for interrelated forms of dysregulation in young adulthood among at-risk youth. (PsycINFO Database Record
News Article | December 12, 2016
(PHILADELPHIA) Dec. 12, 2016 - In one of the first studies to examine priorities in recovery identified by trauma patients, family members and clinicians over time, an international research partnership that was launched from the University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing (Penn Nursing) and Griffith University School of Nursing & Midwifery in Australia has helped advance the importance of patient-reported outcome measures for improved trauma care and research. The study, "Indicators of Injury Recovery Identified by Patients, Family Members and Clinicians," was recently published in the journal Injury and is available here in digital format. "While it is recognized that focusing on what patients envision to be good outcomes is an important part of patient-centered care, asking trauma patients and their families what they consider to be the priorities of care and recovery has been neglected," said Penn Nursing's Therese S. Richmond, PhD, FAAN, CRNP, the Andrea B. Laporte Professor of Nursing and Associate Dean for Research & Innovation. Richmond, and study's lead author Leanne M. Aitken, PhD, RN, Professor of Nursing, now at the City, University of London, conceived the research while Aitken was undertaking a Fulbright Senior Scholarship at the University of Pennsylvania. The study focused on two areas: learning what patients, family members and clinicians considered to be the indicators of successful recovery from an acute hospitalization after traumatic injury; and understanding if these indicators differed between these groups of stakeholders or changed over time, from during hospitalization to three months after discharge. Thirty-three trauma patients, 22 family members and 40 clinicians were recruited from trauma departments in two Australian teaching hospitals. Stakeholders in the study identified five specific Indicators of recovery, including returning to work, resuming family roles, achieving independence, recapturing normality and achieving comfort. Trauma patients articulated the most detail in these indicators, compared to the responses from the study's other stakeholders. "Understanding different perceptions in relation to outcomes is particularly important in trauma, where patients may not be able to participate in decision making for a period of their hospitalization," said Aitken. Perceptions of indicators of injury recovery changed for some participants over the three months after they were discharged. These changes fell into three broad groups: increasing recognition that activities of daily living were important; increasing realization of the impact of the injury; and unfolding appreciation that life could not be taken for granted. While in the hospital, trauma patients in the study often noted the desire to be able to care for themselves. The practical implications of their physical limitations, however, did not fully reveal themselves until after discharge. Instead, the ripple effects of limitations in their abilities to undertake basic self-care activities or have full range of movement of their limbs became increasingly apparent within the first month of being at home. "Changes in expectations and priorities over time have implications for how we provide education and support that should be tailored to different phases in the recovery trajectory," said Richmond. "As patients and family members change their expectations over time, appropriate care needs to be provided across the care continuum." The study's findings indicate a further need to explore recovery priorities using quantitative techniques to determine relevance to a broad cross-section of trauma patients and to develop an appropriate set of outcome measures that patients consider to be important. Although some differences between stakeholder groups were identified, similarities and differences should be tested further in larger groups. "It is expected that by understanding what matters to patients and family members will help us empower patients to be active participants in the healthcare process and will underpin development of patient-reported outcomes that should be used in practice and research in trauma care," said Aitken. "This information will also inform future trauma outcome research to ensure these priority areas are appropriate for a broader range of participants." In addition to Aitken and Richmond, the research team included: Wendy Chaboyer, RN, PhD, NHMRC Centre of Research Excellence in Nursing (NCREN), Menzies Health Institute Queensland & School of Nursing and Midwifery, Griffith University, Australia ; Carol Jeffrey, RN, MHSc, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Australia, and School of Nursing and Midwifery, Griffith University, Australia; Bronte Martin, RN, MNurs, National Critical Care Trauma Response Centre, Royal Darwin Hospital, Australia; Jennifer A. Whitty, BPharm(Hons) GradDipClinPharm PhD, Health Economics, Norwich Medical School, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK, Menzies Health Institute Queensland & School of Medicine, Griffith University, Australia and School of Pharmacy, The University of Queensland, Australia; Michael Schuetz, FRACS, Dr.med. Dr.med.habil., Charité Hospital, Humboldt University Berlin, Germany. Editor's Note: The team of researchers report no conflicts of interest. About the University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing The University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing is one of the world's leading schools of nursing and is ranked the #1 graduate nursing school in the United States by U.S. News & World Report. Penn Nursing is consistently among the nation's top recipients of nursing research funding from the National Institutes of Health. Penn Nursing prepares nurse
Conaughton R.J.,Menzies Health Institute Queensland |
Donovan C.L.,Menzies Health Institute Queensland |
March S.,University of Southern Queensland
Journal of Affective Disorders | Year: 2017
Background All trials conducted to date on BRAVE-ONLINE for youth anxiety disorders have excluded children with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder (HFASD) and therefore it is unknown whether these programs might be beneficial to HFASD children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of BRAVE-ONLINE in HFASD children with an anxiety disorder. Methods Forty-two HFASD children, aged 8–12 years, with an anxiety disorder, and their parents, were randomly assigned to either the BRAVE-ONLINE condition (NET) or a waitlist control (WLC). Diagnostic interviews and parent/child questionnaires were completed at pre-treatment, post-treatment and 3-month follow-up. Results At post- assessment, compared to children in the WLC condition, children in the NET condition demonstrated a significantly greater reduction in number of anxiety diagnoses, clinical severity of diagnosis, and self and parent reported anxiety symptoms, as well as significantly greater increases in overall functioning. However, loss of primary diagnosis in this sample was lower than in previous studies. Limitations The small sample size, coupled with attrition rates, makes it difficult to generalise the findings of the study to HFASD population and to conduct analyses regarding mediators, moderators and predictors of outcomes. Conclusions The BRAVE-ONLINE program may be useful in reducing anxiety symptoms in HFASD children, although the effects are less strong than those found in neurotypical children for a variety of reasons. © 2017
PubMed | The Global Fund, Family of Health International 360, Ministry of Health and Menzies Health Institute Queensland
Type: | Journal: BMC public health | Year: 2016
The number of people living with HIV (PLWH) in Vietnam was estimated to rise from 156,802 in 2009 to 256,000 in 2014. Although the number of new HIV reported cases has decreased by roughly 14,000 cases per year from 2010 to 2013 a concerning increase in HIV prevalence has been identified among men who have sex with men (MSM) from 1.7% in 2005 to 2.4% in 2013. There are signs of increased HIV (+) prevalence among MSM in a number of cities/provinces, especially in the two largest cities, Ho Chi Minh City (HCMC) and Hanoi. HCMC is the countrys major hot spot for HIV/AIDS, with over a third of the total national AIDS patients. This paper is based on a secondary analysis of Integrated Biological and Behavioural Surveillance (IBBS) data collected in Vietnam in 2009 to examine the research question Do behavioural risk factors contribute to HIV infection among the MSM population in HCMC?.A cross-sectional design was employed to sample males aged over 15 from communities in HCMC, who reported having any types of sex with another man at least once during the last 12months. Participants (399) were recruited using the respondent driven sampling (RDS) method and provided both biological data (specimens) and behavioural data collected through a questionnaire survey.The study found high HIV prevalence (14.8%) among the MSM sample from HCMC. Multivariate analysis found age and level of formal education completed, to be significantly associated with HIV infection. MSM aged over 25 were more likely to be HIV (+) than the younger group (OR=7.82, 95%CI=3.37-18.16, p<0.001); as were participants who had low educational (OR=2.74, p<0.05) and medium educational levels (OR=2.68, p<0.05). In addition, those participants who had anal sex with male partners (OR=2.7, p<0.05) and whose sexual partners injected drugs (OR=2.24, p<0.05) and who felt at risk of HIV infection (OR=2.42, p<0.01) had a higher risk of HIV infection.The high proportion of HIV (+) MSM in our sample from HCMC indicates that we need a better understanding of MSM behaviour patterns, risk practices and social networks as well as improved HIV prevention and control measures. More targeted and relevant HIV prevention programs for older and less educated MSM are urgently needed to address the key risk factors we have identified. MSM engaging in drug-related risk behaviours require multi-strategy HIV interventions relating to both sex and drug behaviour among MSM and their partners who engage in drug use. Further work is needed to identify locations and strategies where these high-risk individuals can be accessed as well as to reduce barriers related to social discrimination and stigma. Targeting high risk individuals and groups should supplement existing efforts aimed at the MSM population in HCMC.
Grieve R.,University of Tasmania |
Padgett C.R.,University of Tasmania |
Moffitt R.L.,Griffith University |
Moffitt R.L.,Menzies Health Institute Queensland
Internet and Higher Education | Year: 2016
This study provided the first empirical and direct comparison of preferences for online versus offline assignment marking in higher education. University students (N = 140) reported their attitudes towards assignment marking and feedback both online and offline, perceptions of social presence in each modality, and attitudes towards computers. The students also ranked their preferences for receiving feedback in terms of three binary characteristics: modality (online or offline), valence (positive or negative), and scope of feedback (general or specific). Although attitudes towards online and offline marking did not significantly differ, positive attitudes towards one modality were strongly correlated with negative attitudes towards the other modality. Greater perceptions of social presence within a modality were associated with more positive attitudes towards that modality. Binary characteristics were roughly equally weighted. Findings suggest that the online feedback modality will most effectively maximise student engagement if online assignment marking and feedback tools facilitate perceptions of social presence. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.
Castillo M.I.,Griffith University |
Cooke M.L.,Menzies Health Institute Queensland |
Macfarlane B.,Menzies Health Institute Queensland |
Macfarlane B.,Princess Alexandra Hospital |
And 3 more authors.
Critical Care Medicine | Year: 2016
Objective: To determine the association between anxiety during critical illness and symptoms of anxiety and depression over 6 months after ICU discharge in survivors of intensive care treatment. Design: Longitudinal study. Setting: One closed mixed ICU in an adult tertiary hospital in Brisbane, Australia. Patients: Participants (n = 141) were adults (≥ 8 yr), admitted to ICU for at least 24 hours, able to communicate either verbally or nonverbally, understand English, and open their eyes spontaneously or in response to voice. Interventions: None. Measurements and Main Results: The outcomes of symptoms of anxiety and depression over 6 months after ICU discharge were assessed using the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale. The primary variable of interest was anxiety during critical illness. Two components of anxiety (state and trait) were assessed during critical illness using the Faces Anxiety Scale and the trait component of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Perceived social support, cognitive functioning, and posttraumatic stress symptoms were also assessed using standardized instruments. Clinical and demographic data were obtained from patients and medical records. Participants were followed up in hospital wards and at 3 and 6 months after ICU discharge. During ICU treatment, 81 of the 141 participants (57%) reported moderate to severe levels of state anxiety. Of the 92 participants who completed the surveys at the 6-month follow-up, 26 participants (28%) reported symptoms of anxiety and 21 (23%) symptoms of depression. Symptoms of anxiety and depression were strongly correlated in this cohort of survivors. Trait anxiety was significantly associated with both anxiety and depression symptoms over time; however, state anxiety was not associated with either outcome. Participants who reported post-ICU memories of intra-ICU anxiety were significantly more anxious during recovery over 6 months. Cognitive functioning and posttraumatic stress symptoms were both significantly associated with anxiety and depression symptoms over time. Conclusion: Symptoms of anxiety and depression are a significant issue for general ICU survivors. Trait anxiety was significantly associated with adverse emotional outcomes over 6 months after ICU discharge. There was also a significant relationship between post-ICU memories of intra-ICU anxiety and anxiety during recovery. Interventions to reduce anxiety during critical illness need to be considered and evaluated for their longer term benefits for survivors of critical illness. Copyright © 2015 by the Society of Criti.
PubMed | Griffith University and Menzies Health Institute Queensland
Type: | Journal: Clinical epidemiology | Year: 2016
No epidemiological investigations have previously been conducted in Australia according to the current clinical definitions of chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME). The aim of this study was to describe sociodemographic and illness characteristics of Australian patients with CFS/ME.A cross-sectional survey on the medical history of patients enrolled in an Australian CFS/ME research database between April 2013 and April 2015. Participants were classified according to Fukuda criteria and International Consensus Criteria.A total of 535 patients diagnosed with CFS/ME by a primary care physician were identified. The mean age of all patients was 46.4 years (standard deviation 12.0); the majority were female (78.61%), Caucasian, and highly educated. Of these, 30.28% met Fukuda criteria. A further 31.96% met both Fukuda criteria and International Consensus Criteria. There were 14.58% reporting chronic fatigue but did not meet criteria for CFS/ME and 23.18% were considered noncases due to exclusionary conditions. Within those meeting CFS/ME criteria, the most common events prior to illness included cold or flu, gastrointestinal illness, and periods of undue stress. Of the 60 symptoms surveyed, fatigue, cognitive, and short-term memory symptoms, headaches, muscle and joint pain, unrefreshed sleep, sensory disturbances, muscle weakness, and intolerance to extremes of temperature were the most commonly occurring symptoms (reported by more than two-thirds of patients). Significant differences in symptom occurrence between Fukuda- and International Consensus Criteria-defined cases were also identified.This is the first study to summarize sociodemographic and illness characteristics of a cohort of Australian CFS/ME patients. This is vital for identifying potential risk factors and predictors associated with CFS/ME and for guiding decisions regarding health care provision, diagnosis, and management.
PubMed | Menzies Health Institute Queensland
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Alcoholism, clinical and experimental research | Year: 2017
Breath alcohol responses may be affected by the presence of carbohydrate (CHO) in a beverage. This study investigated the impact of consuming alcohol with mixers containing various doses of CHO or an artificial sweetener on breath alcohol concentration (BrAC), ratings of intoxication and impairment, and cognitive performance in females.Twenty-six females (age 25.10.7years, meanstandard deviation) completed a crossover study involving 4 trials. A dose of alcohol was consumed in each trial mixed with water (W), artificial sweetener (1501mg aspartame [AS]), or CHO (15g sucrose [15CHO] and 50g sucrose [50CHO]). BrAC was sampled for 210 minutes following beverage ingestion and analyzed for peak BrAC and other parameters using WinNonlin noncompartmental pharmacokinetic modeling (cMean peak BrAC was reduced in a dose-response manner when alcohol was consumed with CHO compared to both W and AS treatments (W: 0.0540.015%, AS: 0.0520.011%, 15CHO: 0.0490.008%, 50CHO: 0.0380.007%). No difference in peak BrAC was observed between W and AS treatments. WinNonlin parameters revealed significant differences in cConsuming alcohol with CHO-containing mixers attenuates peak BrAC and reduces total alcohol exposure in a dose-response manner compared to drinks containing artificial sweetener or no additives. The effect of adding CHO to alcoholic beverages may translate to reduced risk of alcohol-related harms.
PubMed | Griffith University and Menzies Health Institute Queensland
Type: | Journal: European journal of nutrition | Year: 2016
Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a key folate pathway enzyme with the T variant of the MTHFR gene increasing the risk of low folate status, particularly coupled with low folate intake. As genetic variability of MTHFR influences folate status, it is important to ensure an adequate intake that overrides genetic effects but minimises any adverse effects. Our aim was to assess the influence of MTHFR genotype on folate status followed by response to supplementation.We performed a meta-analysis of ten folate intervention studies to assess the degree to which MTHFR C677T genotype influenced plasma homocysteine and serum folate levels as measures of folate status. We then examined response after supplementation at intake values up to the upper tolerable limit.The MTHFR 677TT genotype was associated with higher plasma homocysteine (2.7mol/L, TT vs. CT/CC; 2.8mol/L, TT vs. CC) and lower serum folate (2.5nmol/L, TT vs. CT/CC; 3.6nmol/L, TT vs. CC). In two studies, the TT groups had mean plasma Hcy>15mol/L. Serum folate levels were >7nmol/L for all genotype groups. After supplementation of 400 up to 1670g DFEs of folic acid or folic acid+fortified foods and/or natural food folates for a minimum of 4weeks, there were no significant differences in plasma homocysteine levels; however, individuals with the TT genotype had a lower serum folate response to supplementation (7.2nmol/L, TT vs. CT/CC; 8.7nmol/L, TT vs. CC).This meta-analysis confirms observations from observational and intervention studies that MTHFR TT genotype is associated with increased plasma homocysteine and lowered serum folate and less response to short-term supplementation. The results can be used for modelling and guiding personalised intake recommendations for the nutrient folate.