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San Diego, CA, United States

Buchanan R.W.,University of Maryland Baltimore County | Keefe R.S.E.,Duke University | Umbricht D.,Hoffmann-La Roche | Green M.F.,University of California at Los Angeles | And 4 more authors.
Schizophrenia Bulletin | Year: 2011

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)-Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) clinical trial guidelines for cognitive-enhancing drugs in schizophrenia and the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) were designed to facilitate novel compound development in the treatment of cognitive impairments. Several studies have recently utilized the FDA-NIMH-MATRICS guidelines and MCCB and allow an evaluation of the feasibility of guideline implementation and MCCB performance. In light of the study results, we would recommend the following inclusion criteria revisions-(1) clinical status and symptom inclusion criteria: maximum allowed score for hallucinations and delusions should be increased from moderate to moderately severe and the negative symptom criterion should be dropped in phase 2 studies; (2) antipsychotic medication inclusion criteria: first-generation antipsychotics should be allowed, but only in the context of no concomitant anticholinergic agents and minimal extrapyramidal symptoms, and antipsychotic polypharmacy should be allowed in the absence of pertinent pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic considerations; and (3) people who use illicit substances should not be allowed in phase 1B or 2A proof-of-concept studies but may be included in phase 2B and 3 studies in which proof of effectiveness and generalizability of results become more important goals. These revisions are recommended to enhance recruitment while maintaining sufficient methodological rigor to ensure the validity of study results. The MCCB has been shown to have excellent psychometric characteristics, including reliability for multisite clinical trials, clinical relevance for real-world functioning, and possible sensitivity to behavioral treatment, and should continue to serve as the standard outcome measure for cognitive enhancement studies in schizophrenia. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. Source


McKenna B.S.,22 Mental Illness Research | McKenna B.S.,University of California at San Diego | Theilmann R.J.,University of California at San Diego | Sutherland A.N.,Veterans Medical Research Foundation | And 2 more authors.
Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society | Year: 2015

Evidence for abnormal brain function as measured with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and cognitive dysfunction have been observed in inter-episode bipolar disorder (BD) patients. We aimed to create a joint statistical model of white matter integrity and functional response measures in explaining differences in working memory and processing speed among BD patients. Medicated inter-episode BD (n=26; age=45.2±10.1 years) and healthy comparison (HC; n=36; age=46.3±11.5 years) participants completed 51-direction DTI and fMRI while performing a working memory task. Participants also completed a processing speed test. Tract-based spatial statistics identified common white matter tracts where fractional anisotropy was calculated from atlas-defined regions of interest. Brain responses within regions of interest activation clusters were also calculated. Least angle regression was used to fuse fMRI and DTI data to select the best joint neuroimaging predictors of cognitive performance for each group. While there was overlap between groups in which regions were most related to cognitive performance, some relationships differed between groups. For working memory accuracy, BD-specific predictors included bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex from fMRI, splenium of the corpus callosum, left uncinate fasciculus, and bilateral superior longitudinal fasciculi from DTI. For processing speed, the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum and right superior longitudinal fasciculus from DTI were significant predictors of cognitive performance selectively for BD patients. BD patients demonstrated unique brain-cognition relationships compared to HC. These findings are a first step in discovering how interactions of structural and functional brain abnormalities contribute to cognitive impairments in BD. Copyright © The International Neuropsychological Society 2015. Source

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