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Charvet G.,CEA Grenoble | Rousseau L.,School of Engineering in Information and Communication Science and Technology | Billoint O.,CEA Grenoble | Gharbi S.,CEA Grenoble | And 18 more authors.
Biosensors and Bioelectronics | Year: 2010

Microelectrode arrays (MEAs) offer a powerful tool to both record activity and deliver electrical microstimulations to neural networks either in vitro or in vivo. Microelectronics microfabrication technologies now allow building high-density MEAs containing several hundreds of microelectrodes. However, dense arrays of 3D micro-needle electrodes, providing closer contact with the neural tissue than planar electrodes, are not achievable using conventional isotropic etching processes. Moreover, increasing the number of electrodes using conventional electronics is difficult to achieve into compact devices addressing all channels independently for simultaneous recording and stimulation. Here, we present a full modular and versatile 256-channel MEA system based on integrated electronics. First, transparent high-density arrays of 3D-shaped microelectrodes were realized by deep reactive ion etching techniques of a silicon substrate reported on glass. This approach allowed achieving high electrode aspect ratios, and different shapes of tip electrodes. Next, we developed a dedicated analog 64-channel Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) including one amplification stage and one current generator per channel, and analog output multiplexing. A full modular system, called BIOMEA™, has been designed, allowing connecting different types of MEAs (64, 128, or 256 electrodes) to different numbers of ASICs for simultaneous recording and/or stimulation on all channels. Finally, this system has been validated experimentally by recording and electrically eliciting low-amplitude spontaneous rhythmic activity (both LFPs and spikes) in the developing mouse CNS. The availability of high-density MEA systems with integrated electronics will offer new possibilities for both in vitro and in vivo studies of large neural networks. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Li C.,DRS Network and Imaging Systems | Han C.J.,DRS Network and Imaging Systems | George D.S.,DRS Network and Imaging Systems | Cook G.,DRS Network and Imaging Systems | And 7 more authors.
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2013

The DRS Tamarisk® 320 camera, introduced in 2011, is a low cost commercial camera based on the 17 μm pixel pitch 320x240 VOx microbolometer technology. A higher resolution 17 μm pixel pitch 640x480 Tamarisk® 640 has also been developed and is now in production serving the commercial markets. Recently, under the DARPA sponsored Low Cost Thermal Imager-Manufacturing (LCTI-M) program and internal project, DRS is leading a team of industrial experts from FiveFocal, RTI International and MEMSCAP to develop a small form factor uncooled infrared camera for the military and commercial markets. The objective of the DARPA LCTI-M program is to develop a low SWaP camera (<3.5 cm3 in volume and <500 mW in power consumption) that costs less than US $500 based on a 10,000 units per month production rate. To meet this challenge, DRS is developing several innovative technologies including a small pixel pitch 640x512 VOx uncooled detector, an advanced digital ROIC and low power miniature camera electronics. In addition, DRS and its partners are developing innovative manufacturing processes to reduce production cycle time and costs including wafer scale optic and vacuum packaging manufacturing and a 3-dimensional integrated camera assembly. This paper provides an overview of the DRS Tamarisk® project and LCTI-M related uncooled technology development activities. Highlights of recent progress and challenges will also be discussed. It should be noted that BAE Systems and Raytheon Vision Systems are also participants of the DARPA LCTI-M program. © 2013 SPIE.


Torfs T.,IMEC | Sterken T.,Ghent University | Brebels S.,IMEC | Santana J.,Holst Center | And 5 more authors.
IEEE Sensors Journal | Year: 2013

A wireless sensor network is proposed for monitoring buildings to assess earthquake damage. The sensor nodes use custom-developed capacitive microelectromechanical systems strain and 3-D acceleration sensors and a low power readout application-specified integrated circuit for a battery life of up to 12 years. The strain sensors are mounted at the base of the building to measure the settlement and plastic hinge activation of the building after an earthquake. They measure periodically or on-demand from the base station. The accelerometers are mounted at every floor of the building to measure the seismic response of the building during an earthquake. They record during an earthquake event using a combination of the local acceleration data and remote triggering from the base station based on the acceleration data from multiple sensors across the building. A low power network architecture was implemented over an 802.15.4 MAC in the 900-MHz band. A custom patch antenna was designed in this frequency band to obtain robust links in real-world conditions. The modules have been validated in a full-scale laboratory setup with simulated earthquakes. © 2012 IEEE.


Santana J.,Holst Center | Van Den Hoven R.,Holst Center | Van Liempd C.,Holst Center | Colin M.,Memscap Inc. | And 6 more authors.
Sensors and Actuators, A: Physical | Year: 2012

An Ultra-Low-Power readout architecture for capacitive MEMS-based accelerometers and strain sensors is presented. The system can read both accelerometers and strain sensors in a half-bridge configuration. An accurate VerilogA model of the sensor was made to improve simulations. The gain of the system is controlled by integrating pulses from the excitation circuit allowing accurate control of the Signal-to-Noise ratio. A Figure-of-Merit of 4.41 × 10-20 F√(W/Hz) was achieved for a sensor range of ±2.0 g and ±20,000 με over a 100 Hz bandwidth. A minimum of 440 nW power consumption was recorded. Residual motion artifacts are also cancelled by the system. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Courtois B.,CMP | Karam J.-M.,Memscap Inc.
DTIP 2012 - Symposium on Design, Test, Integration and Packaging of MEMS/MOEMS | Year: 2012

This Symposium is a follow-up to the very successful issues held in 1999 and 2000 in Paris and in 2001, 2002 and 2003 in Mandelieu-La Napoule, in 2004 and 2005 in Montreux, Switzerland and in 2006 and in 2007 in Stresa, Italy, in 2008 in Nice, France, in 2009 in Rome, Italy, in 2010 in Sé ville, Spain and Aix-en-Provence, France in 2011. This series of Symposia is a unique single-meeting event expressly planned to bring together participants interested in manufacturing microstructures and participants interested in design tools to facilitate the conception of these microstructures. Again, a special emphasis will be put on the very crucial needs of MEMS/MOEMS in terms of packaging solutions. The goal of the Symposium is to provide a forum for in-depth investigations and interdisciplinary discussions involving design, modeling, testing, micromachining, microfabrication, integration and packaging of structures, devices, and systems. We hope you enjoy the technical presentations of two conferences - CAD, Design and Test / Microfabrication, Integration and Packaging -, of three joint invited talks, and of four special sessions, on Point of Care Diagnostic Devices, on Bio-MEMS/NEMS, on Wireless Networked Green Sensor Systems and on Low Temperature Cofired Ceramic for MEMS. © 2012 CMP.


Santana J.,Holst Center | Van Den Hoven R.,Holst Center | Van Liempd C.,Holst Center | Colin M.,Memscap Inc. | And 3 more authors.
2011 16th International Solid-State Sensors, Actuators and Microsystems Conference, TRANSDUCERS'11 | Year: 2011

An Ultra-Low-Power readout architecture for capacitive MEMS-based accelerometers and strain sensors is presented. The system can read both accelerometers and strain sensors in a half-bridge configuration. The gain is controlled by integrating pulses from the excitation voltage allowing accurate control of the Signal-to-Noise ratio. A Figure-of-Merit of 4.41×10 20 F√(W/Hz) was achieved for a sensor range of ±2.0g and ±20,000 με over a 100Hz bandwidth. Residual motion artifacts are also cancelled by the system. © 2011 IEEE.


Malta D.,Rti International | Gregory C.,Rti International | Temple D.,Rti International | Knutson T.,Memscap Inc. | And 4 more authors.
Proceedings - Electronic Components and Technology Conference | Year: 2010

The fabrication of through-silicon vias (TSVs) is a major component in the development of three-dimensional (3D) integration technology and advanced 3D packaging approaches. The large diameter and length of TSVs, as compared to traditional interconnects, create some unique process challenges. Via plating and chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP) processes used in standard copper interconnect technology are generally not suitable for TSV fabrication. Therefore, efforts are being made to develop such processes specifically for TSV technology. This paper will describe the development of a void-free Cu electroplating process for TSV filling, along with CMP processing to remove the overburden layer and expose the Cu-filled vias for subsequent metallization. The focus of the paper will be the integration of the TSV plating and CMP processes, with discussion regarding observed integration challenges and their solutions. First, a Cu electroplating process was developed for defect-free, bottom-up filling of silicon vias from 20-200μm in diameter and 150-375μm deep, with aspect ratios from 1:1 to 8:1. Next, CMP tests were conducted using Cu-filled silicon vias of 50μm diameter and 150μm depth, designed for use in a MEMS wafer-level packaging application. These tests indicated that plating nonuniformity and Cu mound defects over filled vias caused significant CMP process issues. The plating process was then modified to eliminate these problems in the Cu films, resulting in improved CMP uniformity and reduced polishing time. ©2010 IEEE.


An apparatus for an atomic clock includes first and second distinctive substrates, each having at least a planar surface substantially parallel therebetween. The apparatus also includes a medium having particles capable of undergoing energetic transition between at least two energy levels, said medium being located in the space defined between the planar surfaces. It further includes a magnetic device arranged to the first substrate and generating at least in the volume of the medium a predetermined static magnetic field B the direction of which is substantially parallel or perpendicular to the planar surfaces and an excitation device arranged to the second substrate and generating an excitation magnetic field H at, at least an excitation frequency, the direction of said excitation magnetic field H in the volume of the medium being substantially orthogonal to said direction of the static magnetic field B.


Memscap Inc. | Entity website

Optical communications:Fiber optic components in general can be classified, based on their functions, into two categories passive components and active components. Passive components are those whichonly pass on a signal but do not alter the signals basic characteristics or transmission format ...

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