Abdelnour C.,Fundacio ACE |
van Steenoven I.,Alzheimer Center |
Londos E.,Clinical Memory Research Unit |
Blanc F.,University of Strasbourg |
And 3 more authors.
Movement Disorders | Year: 2016
Introduction: Alzheimer's disease pathologies are common in dementia with Lewy bodies, but their clinical relevance is not clear. CSF biomarkers amyloid beta 1-42, total tau, and tau phosphorylated at threonine 181 reflect Alzheimer's disease neuropathology antemortem. In PD, low CSF amyloid beta 1-42 predict long-term cognitive decline, but little is known about these biomarkers as predictors for cognitive decline in Lewy body dementia. The aim of this study was to assess whether Alzheimer's disease CSF biomarkers predict cognitive decline in Lewy body dementia. Methods: From a large European dementia with Lewy bodies multicenter study, we analyzed baseline Alzheimer's disease CSF biomarkers and serial MMSE (baseline and 1- and 2-year follow-up) in 100 patients with Lewy body dementia. Linear mixed-effects analyses, adjusted for sex, age, baseline MMSE, and education, were performed to model the association between CSF biomarkers and rate of cognitive decline measured with MMSE. An Alzheimer's disease CSF profile was defined as pathological amyloid beta 1-42 plus pathological total tau or phosphorylated tau. Results: The Alzheimer's disease CSF profile, and pathological levels of amyloid beta 1-42, were associated with a more rapid decline in MMSE (2.2 [P < 0.05] and 2.9 points difference [P < 0.01], respectively). Higher total tau values showed a trend toward association without statistical significance (2.0 points difference; P = 0.064), whereas phosphorylated tau was not associated with decline. Conclusions: Reduced levels of CSF amyloid beta 1-42 were associated with more rapid cognitive decline in Lewy body dementia patients. Future prospective studies should include larger samples, centralized CSF analyses, longer follow-up, and biomarker-pathology correlation. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
Winblad B.,Karolinska University Hospital |
Andreasen N.,Karolinska University Hospital |
Minthon L.,Clinical Memory Research Unit |
Floesser A.,Novartis |
And 8 more authors.
The Lancet Neurology | Year: 2012
Background: Immunotherapy targeting the amyloid β (Aβ) peptide is a potential strategy to slow the progression of Alzheimer's disease. We aimed to assess the safety and tolerability of CAD106, a novel active Aβ immunotherapy for patients with Alzheimer's disease, designed to induce N-terminal Aβ-specific antibodies without an Aβ-specific T-cell response. Methods: We did a phase 1, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 52-week study in two centres in Sweden. Participants, aged 50-80 years, with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease were entered into one of two cohorts according to time of study entry and then randomly allocated (by use of a computer-generated randomisation sequence) to receive either CAD106 or placebo (4:1; cohort one received CAD106 50 μg or placebo, cohort two received CAD106 150 μg or placebo). Each patient received three subcutaneous injections. All patients, caregivers, and investigators were masked to treatment allocation throughout the study. Primary objectives were to assess the safety and tolerability of CAD106 and to identify the Aβ-specific antibody response. Safety assessment was done by recording of all adverse events, assessment of MRI scans, physical and neurological examinations, vital signs, electrocardiography, electroencephalography, and laboratory analysis of blood and CSF. Patients with Aβ-IgG serum titres higher than 16 units at least once during the study were classified as responders. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00411580. Findings: Between August, 2005, and March, 2007, we randomly allocated 31 patients into cohort one (24 patients to CAD106 treatment and seven to placebo) and 27 patients into cohort two (22 patients to CAD106 treatment and five to placebo). 56 of 58 patients reported adverse events. In cohort one, nasopharyngitis was the most commonly reported adverse event (10 of 24 CAD106-treated patients). In cohort two, injection site erythema was the most commonly reported adverse event (14 of 22 CAD106-treated patients). Overall, nine patients reported serious adverse events-none was thought to be related to the study drug. We recorded no clinical or subclinical cases of meningoencephalitis. 16 of 24 (67%) CAD106-treated patients in cohort one and 18 of 22 (82%) in cohort two developed Aβ antibody response meeting pre-specified responder threshold. One of 12 placebo-treated patients (8%) had Aβ-IgG concentrations that qualified them as a responder. Interpretation: Our findings suggest that CAD106 has a favourable safety profile and acceptable antibody response in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Larger trials with additional dose investigations are needed to confirm the safety and establish the efficacy of CAD106. Funding: Novartis Pharma AG. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.