Zhu H.,Boston University |
Wang X.,Boston University |
Wallack M.,Boston University |
Li H.,Boston University |
And 12 more authors.
Molecular Psychiatry | Year: 2015
Amylin, a pancreatic peptide, and amyloid-beta peptides (Aβ), a major component of Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain, share similar β-sheet secondary structures, but it is not known whether pancreatic amylin affects amyloid pathogenesis in the AD brain. Using AD mouse models, we investigated the effects of amylin and its clinical analog, pramlintide, on AD pathogenesis. Surprisingly, chronic intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of AD animals with either amylin or pramlintide reduces the amyloid burden as well as lowers the concentrations of Aβ in the brain. These treatments significantly improve their learning and memory assessed by two behavioral tests, Y maze and Morris water maze. Both amylin and pramlintide treatments increase the concentrations of Aβ1-42 in cerebral spinal fluid (CSF). A single i.p. injection of either peptide also induces a surge of Aβ in the serum, the magnitude of which is proportionate to the amount of Aβ in brain tissue. One intracerebroventricular injection of amylin induces a more significant surge in serum Aβ than one i.p. injection of the peptide. In 330 human plasma samples, a positive association between amylin and Aβ1-42 as well as Aβ1-40 is found only in patients with AD or amnestic mild cognitive impairment. As amylin readily crosses the blood-brain barrier, our study demonstrates that peripheral amylin's action on the central nervous system results in translocation of Aβ from the brain into the CSF and blood that could be an explanation for a positive relationship between amylin and Aβ in blood. As naturally occurring amylin may play a role in regulating Aβ in brain, amylin class peptides may provide a new avenue for both treatment and diagnosis of AD. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited.
Miller P.,Harvard University |
Al-Shahrour F.,Harvard University |
Al-Shahrour F.,The Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard |
Hartwell K.,The Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard |
And 30 more authors.
Cancer Cell | Year: 2013
We used an invivo small hairpin RNA (shRNA) screening approach to identify genes that are essential for MLL-AF9 acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We found that Integrin Beta 3 (Itgb3) is essential for murine leukemia cells invivo and for human leukemia cells in xenotransplantation studies. In leukemia cells, Itgb3 knockdown impaired homing, downregulated LSC transcriptional programs, and induced differentiation via the intracellular kinase Syk. In contrast, loss of Itgb3 in normal hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells did not affect engraftment, reconstitution, or differentiation. Finally, using an Itgb3 knockout mouse model, we confirmed that Itgb3 is dispensable for normal hematopoiesis but is required for leukemogenesis. Our results establish the significance of the Itgb3 signaling pathway as a potential therapeutic target in AML. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.
PubMed | Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, City of Hope and Memorial Sloan Kettering Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Genes, chromosomes & cancer | Year: 2016
Locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) is treated with chemoradiation prior to surgical excision, leaving residual tumors altered or completely absent. Integrating layers of genomic profiling might identify regulatory pathways relevant to rectal tumorigenesis and inform therapeutic decisions and further research. We utilized formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded pre-treatment LARC biopsies (n=138) and compared copy number, mRNA, and miRNA expression with matched normal rectal mucosa. An integrative model was used to predict regulatory interactions to explain gene expression changes. These predictions were evaluated in vitro using multiple colorectal cancer cell lines. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) was also used as an external cohort to validate our genomic profiling and predictions. We found differentially expressed mRNAs and miRNAs that characterize LARC. Our integrative model predicted the upregulation of miR-92a, miR-182, and miR-221 expression to be associated with downregulation of their target genes after adjusting for the effect of copy number alterations. Cell line studies using miR-92a mimics and inhibitors demonstrate that miR-92a expression regulates IQGAP2 expression. We show that endogenous miR-92a expression is inversely associated with endogenous KLF4 expression in multiple cell lines, and that this relationship is also present in rectal cancers of TCGA. Our integrative model predicted regulators of gene expression change in LARC using pre-treatment FFPE tissues. Our methodology implicated multiple regulatory interactions, some of which are corroborated by independent lines of study, while others indicate new opportunities for investigation.
Azoitei N.,University of Ulm |
Diepold K.,University of Ulm |
Brunner C.,University of Ulm |
Rouhi A.,University of Ulm |
And 9 more authors.
Cancer Research | Year: 2014
The kinase PRKD2 (protein kinase D) is a crucial regulator of tumor cell-endothelial cell communication in gastrointestinal tumors and glioblastomas, but its mechanistic contributions to malignant development are not understood. Here, we report that the oncogenic chaperone HSP90 binds to and stabilizes PRKD2 in human cancer cells. Pharmacologic inhibition of HSP90 with structurally divergent small molecules currently in clinical development triggered proteasome-dependent degradation of PRKD2, augmenting apoptosis in human cancer cells of various tissue origins. Conversely, ectopic expression of PRKD2 protected cancer cells from the apoptotic effects of HSP90 abrogation, restoring blood vessel formation in two preclinical models of solid tumors. Mechanistic studies revealed that PRKD2 is essential for hypoxiainduced accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF1α) and activation of NF-κB in tumor cells. Notably, ectopic expression of PRKD2 was able to partially restore HIF1α and secreted VEGF-A levels in hypoxic cancer cells treated with HSP90 inhibitors. Taken together, our findings indicate that signals from hypoxia and HSP90 pathways are interconnected and funneled by PRKD2 into the NF-κB/VEGF-A signaling axis to promote tumor angiogenesis and tumor growth. ©2014 AACR.
PubMed | German Cancer Research Center, Catholic University of Leuven, University of Ulm and Memorial Sloan Kettering Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Cancer research | Year: 2014
The kinase PRKD2 (protein kinase D) is a crucial regulator of tumor cell-endothelial cell communication in gastrointestinal tumors and glioblastomas, but its mechanistic contributions to malignant development are not understood. Here, we report that the oncogenic chaperone HSP90 binds to and stabilizes PRKD2 in human cancer cells. Pharmacologic inhibition of HSP90 with structurally divergent small molecules currently in clinical development triggered proteasome-dependent degradation of PRKD2, augmenting apoptosis in human cancer cells of various tissue origins. Conversely, ectopic expression of PRKD2 protected cancer cells from the apoptotic effects of HSP90 abrogation, restoring blood vessel formation in two preclinical models of solid tumors. Mechanistic studies revealed that PRKD2 is essential for hypoxia-induced accumulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF1) and activation of NF-B in tumor cells. Notably, ectopic expression of PRKD2 was able to partially restore HIF1 and secreted VEGF-A levels in hypoxic cancer cells treated with HSP90 inhibitors. Taken together, our findings indicate that signals from hypoxia and HSP90 pathways are interconnected and funneled by PRKD2 into the NF-B/VEGF-A signaling axis to promote tumor angiogenesis and tumor growth.
Jeong J.,Memorial Sloan Kettering Institute |
White N.E.,University of Missouri |
Loyalka S.K.,University of Missouri
Annals of Nuclear Energy | Year: 2015
"Three-dimensional transport theory: an analytical solution of an internal beam searchlight problem, I", Annals of Nuclear Energy, 36(8), 1256-1261 (2009) by Williams extends the range of analytical solutions, and the associated development of techniques, numerical results and analysis near singularities. The final integrals are not easy to evaluate as the integrands are highly oscillatory, singular and also on infinite range. We report here some further numerical evaluations of expressions of Williams, and also compare these with those of Williams and Ganapol and Kornreich. The numerical results compare very well. The disagreements are very rare, and even then in the fifth decimal place. We are also able to explore the nature of the results near singularities in conformity with the results of Williams. We also verify MCNP-5, the widely used Monte Carlo code against these analytical results. We have found that MCNP is easily able to provide results within 0.1% deviation from the "exact" results for most cases, and within 1% for almost all cases. It is challenged near the singularities, however, where the deviations are larger. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Weber U.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine |
Gault W.J.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine |
Gault W.J.,Memorial Sloan Kettering Institute |
Olguin P.,Mount Sinai School of Medicine |
And 2 more authors.
Genetics | Year: 2012
Planar cell polarity (PCP) is a common feature of many epithelia and epithelial organs. Although progress has been made in the dissection of molecular mechanisms regulating PCP, many questions remain. Here we describe a screen to identify novel PCP regulators in Drosophila. We employed mild gain-of-function (GOF) phenotypes of two cytoplasmic Frizzled (Fz)/PCP core components, Diego (Dgo) and Prickle (Pk), and screened these against the DrosDel genome-wide deficiency collection for dominant modifiers. Positive genomic regions were rescreened and narrowed down with smaller overlapping deficiencies from the Exelixis collection and RNAi-mediated knockdown applied to individual genes. This approach isolated new regulators of PCP, which were confirmed with loss-of-function analyses displaying PCP defects in the eye and/or wing. Furthermore, knockdown of a subset was also sensitive to dgo dosage or dominantly modified a dishevelled (dsh) GOF phenotype, supporting a role in Fz/PCP-mediated polarity establishment. Among the new "PCP" genes we identified several kinases, enzymes required for lipid modification, scaffolding proteins, and genes involved in substrate modification and/or degradation. Interestingly, one of them is a member of the Meckel-Gruber syndrome factors, associated with human ciliopathies, suggesting an important role for cell polarity in nonciliated cells. © 2012 by the Genetics Society of America.
Pan G.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute |
Feng Y.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute |
Feng Y.,Memorial Sloan Kettering Institute |
Ambegaonkar A.A.,Howard Hughes Medical Institute |
And 4 more authors.
Development (Cambridge) | Year: 2013
The large atypical cadherin Fat is a receptor for both Hippo and planar cell polarity (PCP) pathways. Here we investigate the molecular basis for signal transduction downstream of Fat by creating targeted alterations within a genomic construct that contains the entire fat locus, and by monitoring and manipulating the membrane localization of the Fat pathway component Dachs. We establish that the human Fat homolog FAT4 lacks the ability to transduce Hippo signaling in Drosophila, but can transduce Drosophila PCP signaling. Targeted deletion of conserved motifs identifies a four amino acid C-terminal motif that is essential for aspects of Fat-mediated PCP, and other internal motifs that contribute to Fat-Hippo signaling. Fat-Hippo signaling requires the Drosophila Casein kinase 1ε encoded by discs overgrown (Dco), and we characterize candidate Dco phosphorylation sites in the Fat intracellular domain (ICD), the mutation of which impairs Fat-Hippo signaling. Through characterization of Dachs localization and directed membrane targeting of Dachs, we show that localization of Dachs influences both the Hippo and PCP pathways. Our results identify a conservation of Fat-PCP signaling mechanisms, establish distinct functions for different regions of the Fat ICD, support the correlation of Fat ICD phosphorylation with Fat-Hippo signaling, and confirm the importance of Dachs membrane localization to downstream signaling pathways. © 2013.
Gustafsson K.,Uppsala University |
Jamalpour M.,Uppsala University |
Trinh C.,Uppsala University |
Kharas M.G.,Memorial Sloan Kettering Institute |
Welsh M.,Uppsala University
Journal of Hematology and Oncology | Year: 2014
Background: The Src homology-2 domain protein B (Shb) is an adapter protein operating downstream of several tyrosine kinase receptors and consequently Shb regulates various cellular responses. Absence of Shb was recently shown to reduce hematopoietic stem cell proliferation through activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and thus we sought to investigate Shb's role in the progression of leukemia. Methods. Wild type and Shb knockout bone marrow cells were transformed with a retroviral BCR-ABL construct and subsequently transplanted to wild type or Shb knockout recipients. Disease latency, bone marrow and peripheral blood cell characteristics, cytokine expression, signaling characteristics and colony formation were determined by flow cytometry, qPCR, western blotting and methylcellulose colony forming assays. Results: It was observed that Shb knockout BCR-ABL-transformed bone marrow cells produced a disease with death occurring at earlier time points compared with corresponding wild type controls due to elevated proliferation of transformed bone marrow cells. Moreover, significantly elevated interleukin-6 and granulocyte colony-stimulation factor mRNA levels were observed in Shb knockout c-Kit + leukemic bone marrow cells providing a plausible explanation for the concurrent peripheral blood neutrophilia. Shb knockout leukemic bone marrow cells also showed increased ability to form colonies in methylcellulose devoid of cytokines that was dependent on the concomitantly observed increased activity of FAK. Transplanting BCR-ABL-transformed Shb knockout bone marrow cells to Shb knockout recipients revealed decreased disease latency without neutrophilia, thus implicating the importance of niche-derived cues for the increase of blood granulocytes. Conclusions: Absence of Shb accelerates disease progression by exerting dual roles in BCR-ABL-induced leukemia: increased cell expansion due to elevated FAK activity and neutrophilia in peripheral blood, the latter dependent on the genetic background of the leukemic niche. © 2014 Gustafsson et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.