Ostrosky-Zeichner L.,University of Houston |
Ostrosky-Zeichner L.,Memorial Hermann Texas Medical Center
American Journal of Medicine | Year: 2012
Despite the availability of newer antifungal drugs, outcomes for patients with invasive fungal infections (IFIs) continue to be poor, in large part due to delayed diagnosis and initiation of appropriate antifungal therapy. Standard histopathologic diagnostic techniques are often untenable in at-risk patients, and culture-based diagnostics typically are too insensitive or nonspecific, or provide results after too long a delay for optimal IFI management. Newer surrogate markers of IFIs with improved sensitivity and specificity are needed to enable earlier diagnosis and, ideally, to provide prognostic information and/or permit therapeutic monitoring. Surrogate assays should also be accessible and easy to implement in the hospital. Several nonculture-based assays of newer surrogates are making their way into the medical setting or are currently under investigation. These new or up-and-coming surrogates include antigens/antibodies (mannan and antimannan antibodies) or fungal metabolites (d-arabinitol) for detection of invasive candidiasis, the Aspergillus cell wall component galactomannan used to detect invasive aspergillosis, or the fungal cell wall component and panfungal marker β-glucan. In addition, progress continues with use of polymerase chain reaction or other nucleic acid or molecular-based assays for diagnosis of either specific or generic IFIs, although the various methods must be better standardized before any of these approaches can be more fully implemented into the medical setting. Investigators are also beginning to explore the possibility of combining newer surrogate markers with each other or with more standard diagnostic approaches to improve sensitivity, specificity, and capacity for earlier diagnosis, at a time when fungal burden is still relatively low and more responsive to antifungal therapy.
Maselli D.J.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio |
Fernandez J.F.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio |
Whong C.Y.,Memorial Hermann Texas Medical Center |
Echevarria K.,University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio |
And 4 more authors.
Infection and Drug Resistance | Year: 2012
Ceftaroline fosamil (ceftaroline) was recently approved for the treatment of community- acquired pneumonia (CAP) and complicated skin infections. This newly developed cephalosporin possesses a broad spectrum of activity against gram-positive and gramnegative bacteria. Most importantly, ceftaroline demonstrates potent in vitro antimicrobial activity against multi-drug resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus. In two Phase III, double-blinded, randomized, prospective trials (FOCUS 1 and FOCUS 2), ceftaroline was shown to be non-inferior to ceftriaxone for the treatment of CAP in hospitalized patients. Ceftaroline exhibits low resistance rates and a safety profile similar to that of other cephalosporins. In this review, we will evaluate the pharmacological characteristics, safety, antimicrobial properties, and efficacy of ceftaroline and its applications in the treatment of CAP. © 2012 Maselli et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.
Roldan C.J.,University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston |
Roldan C.J.,Memorial Hermann Texas Medical Center |
Roldan C.J.,University of Houston
Journal of Emergency Medicine | Year: 2014
Background Chest pain is an alarming symptom; it justifies many visits to the emergency department (ED). The etiology is often unknown. Chest wall pain in the presence of migraine headache, although not a common occurrence, is intriguing when it resolves with antimigraine treatment. Objectives To characterize the manifestations and outcomes and investigate the relationship between chest wall pain and headache as a manifestation of migraine exacerbation. Methods Among patients visiting our ED, we identified those individuals whose pain originated in the chest wall in the setting of migraine exacerbation. Patients with clinical indications for specific treatments were dispositioned accordingly. Control of symptoms including chest pain and headache with antimigraine agents was considered the primary outcome. A prospective follow-up via telephone interview and medical records review was performed. Results We collected a convenience sample of 33 patients. All manifested migraine headache with an earlier onset than the chest pain, and all had taken medications prior to visiting the ED. Twelve patients reported a higher visual analog scale score for the headache than for the chest pain. Still, chest pain was the main complaint. The chest pain originated at the chest wall. Ten patients received sublingual nitroglycerin or opiates, or both; no pain relief was reported. However, all symptoms resolved with metoclopramide. On follow-up, 6 patients reported recurrence of chest pain with subsequent migraines. Conclusions Chest pain can be a complication of migraine. The treatment should be focused on migraine control. Migraine should be included in the differential diagnosis of chest pain. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.
Dutta M.,Medical College and Hospital |
Chatterjee I.,R G Kar Medical College And Hospital |
Roy S.,University of Houston |
Roy S.,Memorial Hermann Texas Medical Center |
Gure P.K.,Medical College and Hospital
Laryngoscope | Year: 2013
Primary embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma of anterior neck involving the thyroid is extremely rare. This report is only the second of its kind that describes this form of nonorbital nonparameningeal rhabdomyosarcoma in a 7-year-old boy and adds to a new, seldom-reported variant of rhabdomyosarcoma in the head-neck region. The child presented with a huge anterior neck swelling that clinically resembled a thyroid mass. Computed tomography scan showed a heterogeneous mass in the anterior neck replacing the entire right lobe of thyroid. Fine-needle aspiration cytology was nondiagnostic. Right hemithyroidectomy with selective neck dissection suggested embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma by histopathology; the diagnosis was confirmed by positive reactions to desmin and myogenin. The child was subsequently treated with chemotherapy. Repeat chemotherapy with radiotherapy was required when recurrences were detected in the mediastinum and cervical lymph nodes at 13-month follow-up. Laryngoscope, 123:2072-2076, 2013 © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
Weeks P.A.,Memorial Hermann Texas Medical Center |
Sieg A.,Memorial Hermann Texas Medical Center |
Gass J.A.,Memorial Hermann Texas Medical Center |
Rajapreyar I.,University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston
Heart Failure Reviews | Year: 2016
Sudden cardiac death remains a significant threat to the survival of patients with heart failure. Long-term cardiac remodeling predisposes these patients to develop malignant ventricular arrhythmias. Permanent implantable and temporary external defibrillators remain a mainstay for the prevention of sudden cardiac death in this population. For decades, researchers have attempted to identify reliable drug therapies to avoid such arrhythmias; however, to date, success has been inconsistent. This review aims to explore the evidence defining the role of drug therapies for direct and indirect suppression of arrhythmias that may cause sudden cardiac death in patients with heart failure. © 2016, Springer Science+Business Media New York.