Memorial Hermann Memorial City Medical Center

Houston, TX, United States

Memorial Hermann Memorial City Medical Center

Houston, TX, United States
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Hu D.,Memorial Hermann Memorial City Medical Center | Onel E.,Pacira Pharmaceuticals | Singla N.,Lotus Clinical Research LLC | Kramer W.G.,Kramer Consulting LLC | Hadzic A.,St Lukes Hospital
Clinical Drug Investigation | Year: 2013

Local anaesthetics are often used as part of multimodal pain management techniques to manage postsurgical pain and lessen the need for opioid analgesics; however, the duration of action of traditional formulations of local anaesthetics is short. Liposome bupivacaine is a novel, multivesicular formulation designed for rapid absorption, prolonged release of bupivacaine, and analgesia following a single intra-operative administration into the surgical wound. This article provides a summary of the pharmacokinetic profile of liposome bupivacaine compared with bupivacaine HCl based on data compiled from four randomized, active- and placebo-controlled trials that included pharmacokinetic assessments following single administrations of study drug. Each study evaluated the safety, efficacy and pharmacokinetic profile of liposome bupivacaine in separate surgical populations (patients undergoing inguinal hernia repair, total knee arthroplasty, haemorrhoidectomy or bunionectomy). Pharmacokinetic parameters included maximum plasma drug concentration (C max), area under the curve (AUC) for plasma bupivacaine concentration over time extrapolated to infinity (AUC∞), time to observed Cmax (tmax) and terminal elimination half-life of bupivacaine (t1/2). The studies assessed single administrations of liposome bupivacaine at dose levels ranging from 106 to 532 mg or bupivacaine HCl 100 to 150 mg or placebo (0.9 % sodium chloride) given locally via wound infiltration at the end of surgery prior to wound closure. Male and non-pregnant female patients (n = 253) aged ≥18 years, scheduled to undergo surgery as per the specific protocol for each study, were enrolled. Patient characteristics were stratified by liposome bupivacaine doses ≤266 mg and >266 mg, and bupivacaine HCl treatment arms. Pharmacokinetic parameters for liposome bupivacaine doses of 106, 266, 399 and 532 mg were compared. Plasma concentration versus time profiles were quantitatively similar across these four dose levels of liposome bupivacaine, with an initial peak occurring within 1 h after administration followed by a second peak about 12-36 h later. The overall incidence of adverse events was lower in the liposome bupivacaine ≤266-mg group than the liposome bupivacaine >266-mg and bupivacaine HCl groups (100- or 150-mg doses). In summary, liposome bupivacaine was well tolerated across the four studies and varied surgical models, and exhibited bimodal kinetics with rapid uptake observed during the first few hours and prolonged release through 96 h after administration. © 2012 Springer International Publishing Switzerland.


Richards P.,QRxPharma | Gimbel J.S.,Arizona Research Center | Minkowitz H.S.,Memorial Hermann Memorial City Medical Center | Kelen R.,QRxPharma | Stern W.,QRxPharma
Clinical Therapeutics | Year: 2013

Background: In acute pain models, coadministration of low doses of morphine and oxycodone markedly enhanced analgesia relative to either opioid given alone. Enhanced analgesia with coadministration of morphine and oxycodone has also been reported in acute and chronic moderate to severe pain conditions during double-blind studies. Objective: The goal of this study was to compare the efficacy and tolerability of a flexible dose regimen of the morphine/oxycodone combination versus oxycodone/acetaminophen and fixed low-dose morphine/oxycodone. Methods: This was a 5-center, randomized, open-label study of hospitalized patients (n = 44) with acute moderate to severe postoperative pain after total knee arthroplasty. Inpatients were randomized to a flexible dose regimen of morphine/oxycodone (3 mg/2 mg to 24 mg/16 mg), fixed low-dose morphine/oxycodone regimen (3 mg/2 mg), or oxycodone/acetaminophen (5 mg/325 mg). Treatment was initiated following surgery after intravenous (IV) morphine patient-controlled analgesia. An algorithm was evaluated for converting the patient-controlled analgesia morphine dose to an initial oral dose of morphine/oxycodone. The primary efficacy variable was the time-weighted sum of pain intensity difference from 0 to 48 hours. Results: The median values for the sum of the pain intensity difference from 0 to 48 hours for the morphine/oxycodone flexible dose and oxycodone/acetaminophen were similar and approximately twice that of fixed morphine/oxycodone 3 mg/2 mg (148.0, 139.5, and 71.3, respectively). Moderate to severe gastrointestinal adverse events occurred in 50% of patients in the oxycodone/acetaminophen group compared with 15% of the equianalgesic morphine/oxycodone group. On several items of the Brief Pain Inventory (general activity, walking ability, and sleep), the morphine/oxycodone flexible dose produced greater benefit than oxycodone/acetaminophen. Conclusions: Flexible dose morphine/oxycodone was superior to low-dose morphine/oxycodone and comparable to oxycodone/acetaminophen. Flexible dose morphine/oxycodone-treated patients had a lower rate of moderate to severe nausea or vomiting than equianalgesic oxycodone/acetaminophen-treated patients. Thus, morphine/oxycodone offers an attractive alternative to oxycodone/acetaminophen for the management of moderate to severe postoperative pain. ClinicalTrials.gov: identifier: NCT00818493. © 2013.


Wininger S.J.,Precision Trials LLC | Miller H.,Womans Hospital of Texas | Minkowitz H.S.,Memorial Hermann Memorial City Medical Center | Royal M.A.,Cadence Pharmaceuticals | And 3 more authors.
Clinical Therapeutics | Year: 2010

Background: Intravenous acetaminophen has been approved in Europe and elsewhere for the treatment of acute pain and fever, and was recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the man-agement of mild to moderate pain, the management of moderate to severe pain with adjunctive opioid anal-gesics, and the reduction of fever. Objective: The aim of this work was to evaluate the analgesic efficacy and safety of repeated doses of 2 dosing regimens of intravenous acetaminophen compared with placebo over 24 hours in subjects with moderate to severe pain after abdominal laparoscopic surgery. Methods: This double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study was conducted at 17 sites in the United States and enrolled adult subjects (aged 18-80 years) who were randomized to 4 groups (IV acetaminophen 1000 mg [100 mL] q6h; IV acetaminophen 650 mg [65 mL] q4h; IV placebo 100 mL q6h; or IV placebo 65 mL q4h), each given as a 15-minute infusion after surgery for 24 hours. An open-label extension was offered to all subjects who remained in the hospital beyond the study period. Two subjects (1 in the placebo 100 mL q6h group and 1 in the IV acetaminophen 1000 mg q6h group) were enrolled in the open-label extension and were eligible to receive unblinded IV acetaminophen 1000 mg. Before randomization, the choice of opioid for patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) rescue was left to the investigator; however, acetaminophen-containing products, NSAIDs, and aspirin were not allowed. The morning after abdominal laparoscopic surgery procedure, subjects' PCA was withheld until pain intensity (PI) was moderate (2) or severe (3) on a categorical scale (range, 0-3) and between 40 and 70 mm, inclusive, on a 100-mm visual analog scale, at which point they were randomized. After the first dose of study medication, intravenous rescue was restricted to morphine or hydro-morphone, and oral rescue was restricted to morphine or oxycodone immediate-release tablets. Efficacy analyses were performed using the modified intent-to-treat (mITT) population, defined as all randomized subjects who received ≥1 complete dose of study medication before requesting rescue medication, and who had ≥1 completed PI/pain relief (PR) assessment after baseline. The primary efficacy end point was the weighted sum of PI differences over 24 hours (SPID24) using an ANCOVA model. Time to meaningful PR was documented after the first dose of study medication using a double-stopwatch method: at T0, 2 stopwatches were started, and subjects were instructed to stop the first stopwatch when they felt perceptible PR and the second when it became meaningful. Safety was assessed via spontaneous adverse event (AE) reporting and laboratory tests. Results: A total of 349 subjects were screened before elective surgery for eligibility. Of these, 244 subjects were randomized to a study arm (IV acetaminophen 1000 mg [n = 92]; IV acetaminophen 650 mg [n = 42]; IV placebo 100 mL [n = 43]; or IV placebo 65 mL [n = 67]) and included in the ITT population, of whom 81.1% (198/244) were women and 87.3% (213/244) were white; the mean (SD) age was 46.2 (12.51) years (range, 18-78 years), and the mean weight was 174.3 (35.7) lb (range, 103-284 lb). There was an allocation error in the contract research organization's program linking group assignment and kit randomization; therefore, the original randomization procedure was replaced with a modified randomization schedule created by an independent biostatistician under the supervision of the FDA. The mITT population included 241 subjects; of these, 227 completed 24 hours of treatment. Four subjects withdrew before completing treatment because of AEs (1 subject in the placebo group because of fever and 3 in the IV acetaminophen 1000 mg q6h group because of infusion-site pain [n = 1] or infiltration [n = 2]), 8 because of withdrawal of consent, 2 because of early discharge from the hospital, and 2 for other reasons. Only 2 subjects participated in the elective open-label extension. Both intravenous acetaminophen dosing regimens were associated with significantly reduced SPID24 compared with placebo (1000 mg q6h, P < 0.007; 650 mg q4h, P < 0.019). Among the mITT population, SPID24 (using nonimputed data after first rescue: 1000 mg q6h, P < 0.001; 650 mg q4h, P = 0.020), sum of PR scores over 24 hours (1000 mg q6h, P < 0.001; 650 mg q4h, P = 0.003) and 12 hours (1000 mg q6h, P < 0.001; 650 mg q4h, P = 0.001), and subjects' global evaluations at 24 hours (1000 mg q6h, P < 0.001; 650 mg q4h, P = 0.005) were statistically significant in favor of both acetaminophen dosing regimens compared with the combined placebo group. Time to meaningful PR (by double stopwatch method) after the first dose was significantly shorter among subjects who received IV acetaminophen 1000 mg compared with subjects in the placebo 100 mL group (median of 24.9 vs 53.9 minutes, respectively). The most common overall AEs (ie, those that occurred in >10% of any group) were constipation, flatulence, nausea, and headache. The frequency of treatment-emergent AEs (TEAEs) across the treatment groups was not statistically significant. Most TEAEs were deemed to be unrelated to study medication. There were 6 subjects with serious TEAEs (1 [0.9%] in the IV acetaminophen 1000 mg group, 3 [7.0%] in the IV acetaminophen 650 mg group, and 2 [1.8%] in the placebo group). There was 1 (2.3%) related hepatic TEAE (transaminase increased) in the placebo group. Conclusion: Both regimens of intravenous acetaminophen (1000 mg q6h and 650 mg q4h) were associated with statistically significant analgesic efficacy compared with placebo and were well tolerated in these adults after abdominal laparoscopic surgery. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00564486. © 2010 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc.


Singla N.,Huntington Hospital | Singla S.,Glendale Adventist Medical Center | Minkowitz H.S.,Memorial Hermann Memorial City Medical Center | Moodie J.,Waikato Clinical Research | Brown C.,Waikato Clinical Research
Current Medical Research and Opinion | Year: 2010

Background: Efficacy and tolerability of intranasal ketorolac (SPRIX®) was assessed in abdominal surgery patients. Methods: Adult patients were randomly assigned to receive ketorolac 31.5mg (n214) or placebo (n107) every 6hr after surgery for 48hr, then up to 4 times/day for up to 5 days. Morphine sulfate via patient controlled analgesia was available in both groups as needed. Results: Least square mean 6hr summed pain intensity difference scores were significantly greater in the ketorolac group indicating better analgesic efficacy compared to placebo (117.4 vs. 89.9, p0.032; difference 27.6, 95 CI 2.552.7). Pain intensity difference indicated significantly better pain relief in the ketorolac group at 20min after the first dose (p0.01). Morphine use over 48hr decreased 26 in the ketorolac group compared to placebo (p0.004). Day 1 global pain control scores were significantly higher in the ketorolac group compared to placebo (p0.009). Quality of analgesia was rated significantly higher (p0.009) in the ketorolac group by 20min after first dose. Adverse event and serious adverse event incidences were similar in both groups. Rhinalgia and nasal irritation, generally mild and transient in nature, occurred more frequently in the ketorolac group. Conclusion: Intranasal ketorolac was well tolerated and provided effective pain relief within 20minutes with reduced opioid analgesia use. While IN ketorolac was assessed in an inpatient, conventional surgery setting in this study, IN ketorolac use may have more relevance for use in outpatient settings and ambulatory surgery or fast-track surgical procedures. © 2010 Informa UK Ltd All rights reserved: reproduction in whole or part not permitted.


Minkowitz H.S.,Memorial Hermann Memorial City Medical Center | Singla N.K.,Lotus Clinical Research | Evashenk M.A.,AcelRx Pharmaceuticals | Hwang S.S.,AcelRx Pharmaceuticals | And 3 more authors.
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine | Year: 2013

Background and Objectives: A sublingual sufentanil tablet is being developed as a potential alternative to intravenous (IV) opioids for the management of postoperative pain. The objective of these studies was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety of sublingual sufentanil tablets for postoperative pain management. Methods: The pharmacokinetics of sublingual sufentanil 10 and 80 μg were compared with IV sufentanil in 12 subjects in a phase 1 study. The safety and efficacy of sublingual sufentanil (5-15 μg) were evaluated in double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled phase 2 studies in patients undergoing knee replacement surgery (n = 101) or open abdominal (ABD) surgery (n = 94). The primary efficacy measurement was the summed pain intensity difference compared with baseline over 12 hours (SPID-12). Results: Sublingual sufentanil pharmacokinetics were dose proportional following single doses of 10 and 80 μg. Plasma half-time (time from peak plasma concentration to 50% of peak concentration) was 80 to 90 minutes for sublingual sufentanil compared with 15 minutes or less for IV sufentanil. In the phase 2 studies, greater SPID-12 scores (ie, lower pain intensity) compared with placebo were observed for sublingual sufentanil 15 μg in the knee replacement study (P < 0.05) and for 10 and 15 μg in the ABD study (P < 0.01). All doses of sublingual sufentanil were well tolerated, and the incidence of adverse events was similar between the sublingual sufentanil and placebo groups. Conclusions: Sufentanil formulated as a sublingual solid dosage form provides a duration of action that allows effective analgesia for postoperative patients in a medically supervised setting. © 2013 by American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine.


Ringold F.G.,United Mobile | Minkowitz H.S.,Memorial Hermann Memorial City Medical Center | Gan T.J.,Duke University | Aqua K.A.,Visions Clinical Research | And 3 more authors.
Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine | Year: 2015

Background and Objectives: This study evaluates the efficacy and safety of a sufentanil sublingual tablet system (SSTS) for the management of postoperative pain following open abdominal surgery. Methods: At 13 hospital sites in the United States, patients following surgery with pain intensity of greater than 4 on an 11-point numerical rating scalewere randomized to receive SSTS dispensing a 15-μg sufentanil tablet sublingually with a 20-minute lockout or an identical system dispensing a placebo tablet sublingually. Pain intensity scores were recorded at baseline and for up to 72 hours after starting study drug. The primary end point was time-weighted summed pain intensity difference (SPID) over 48 hours. Secondary end points included SPID and total pain relief (TOTPAR) for up to 72 hours and patient and health care provider global assessments of the method of pain control. Results: Summed pain intensity difference over 48 hours was significantly higher in the SSTS group than in the placebo group (least squares mean [SEM], 105.60 [10.14] vs 55.58 [13.11]; P = 0.001). Mean SPID and TOTPAR scoreswere significantly higher in the SSTS group at all time points from 1 hour (SPID) or 2 hours (TOTPAR) until 72 hours (P < 0.05). In the SSTS group, patient global assessment and health care provider global assessment ratings of good or excellent were greater than placebo at all time points (P < 0.01). Safety parameters, including adverse events and vital signs, were similar for SSTS and placebo. Conclusions: These results suggest that SSTS is effective and safe for the management of postoperative pain in patients following open abdominal surgery. Copyright © 2014 by American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine.


Minkowitz H.S.,Memorial Hermann Memorial City Medical Center | Onel E.,Pacira Pharmaceuticals
Aesthetic Surgery Journal | Year: 2012

Background: Two-year safety outcomes in patients who received DepoFoam bupivacaine during two prior breast augmentation studies were evaluated. Objectives: The authors assess the clinical sequelae observed during follow-up examination with respect to the integrity of the breast implants. Methods: In Study 1, patients received bupivacaine HCl (75 mg) in one breast pocket and DepoFoam bupivacaine (133 or 266 mg) in the other. In Study 2, patients received either bupivacaine HCl (200 mg) or DepoFoam bupivacaine (532 mg), divided equally into each breast pocket. Investigators and patients remained blinded to the treatment administered. Patients completed a questionnaire regarding breast pain, tenderness, tingling, numbness, burning, changes in sensation, and any relevant life events potentially affecting the implants. Patients were also assessed for postoperative healing and implant integrity. Results: Ninety-four women were evaluated. Most patients in all groups had no change in breast size or shape and no changes in the skin or nipple. There were no reports of palpable hard knots or swelling. There was one report of irritation/implant leakage (in a patient who received bupivacaine HCl [75 mg] in the relevant breast). Most patients reported no breast pain, tenderness, tingling, numbness, burning, other changes in sensation, chest wall surgery or trauma, or life events affecting the implant. Conclusions: At a two-year follow-up assessment, DepoFoam bupivacaine was not associated with any complications that would compromise the integrity of the breast implants. There was no indication of an association between DepoFoam bupivacaine or bupivacaine HCl and changes in sensation or other abnormal findings in these patients. © 2012 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc.


Ramalingam P.,University of Houston | Zoroquiain P.,University of Santiago de Chile | Valbuena J.R.,University of Santiago de Chile | Kemp B.L.,Memorial Hermann Memorial City Medical Center | Medeiros L.J.,University of Houston
Annals of Diagnostic Pathology | Year: 2012

Lymphoma-like lesion (LLL) of the female genital tract is an older term in the literature that describes a florid reactive lymphoid proliferation that can be misinterpreted as lymphoma. Multiple causes of LLL have been suggested but most cases remain unexplained. We describe the clinicopathologic features of 6 patients with LLL involving the uterine cervix. Five patients presented with abnormal Papanicolaou test (Pap smear), and 3 patients had a biopsy procedure performed prior to detection of LLL in a loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP). In each specimen, surface epithelial erosion was associated with a superficial, polymorphous lymphoid infiltrate with numerous scattered large cells, without cellular necrosis or sclerosis. Squamous dysplasia was present in 4 patients. Immunohistochemical studies revealed a mixed population of B- and T-lymphoid cells. T-cells were more numerous but B-cells and formed aggregates or sheets in areas. The large cells were predominantly B-cells positive for CD20 and negative for CD3 in all cases. CD30 was positive 3 cases, and Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNA was positive in 3 cases. Assessment for clonality in 1 patient using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods revealed monoclonal immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) gene rearrangements. At last clinical follow-up there was no evidence of progressive or systemic disease. We conclude that LLL of the cervix has a number of etiologies and that a prior surgical procedure, present in 3 patients in this study, is another possible etiology. As has been reported by others, monoclonal IgH gene rearrangements can be detected in this entity which has a benign clinical course. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Minkowitz H.S.,Memorial Hermann Memorial City Medical Center | Candiotti K.,University of Miami
Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery | Year: 2015

Introduction: The authors discuss a novel patient controlled analgesia system utilizing a preprogrammed device that delivers a small submucosal tablet of sufentanil.Areas covered: This submucosal sufentanil system is not yet commercially available. A literature review of the current patient controlled analgesia systems and current information of this device are discussed.Expert opinion: This novel device has the potential to enhance patient safety as it is preprogrammed and delivers a standard dose of sufentanil, a rapidly acting opioid devoid of active metabolites. © 2015 Informa UK, Ltd.


Minkowitz H.S.,Memorial Hermann Memorial City Medical Center | Shah M.,Bristol Myers Squibb | Raju A.,Global Health Economics and Outcomes Research
American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy | Year: 2014

Purpose. Results of a study of postsurgical opioid-related adverse drug events (ORADEs) within a large health system are reported. Methods. In a retrospective cohort study, data from the information database of an 11-hospital Texas health system were analyzed to (1) describe postsurgical opioid use among adult patients undergoing elective or emergency surgery over a one-year period, (2) identify ORADE risk factors and associated costs, and (3) compare clinical and economic outcomes in patients who experienced ORADEs and those who did not. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify ORADE risk factors. Propensity score - matched comparisons of outcomes in patients with and without ORADEs were conducted. Results. Among 6,285 patients in the study population, 6,274 (99.8%) received postsurgical opioids; 11.5% of those patients experienced an ORADE. ORADE risk factors included age (≥65 years), male sex, prior opioid use, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cardiac dysrhythmias, regional enteritis, diverticulitis, and ulcerative colitis. Patients with multiple risk factors had higher mean hospitalization costs ($21,073) relative to patients with one risk factor ($14,110) or no risk factor ($11,433) and accounted for a disproportionately large share of overall costs; patients who experienced ORADEs were more likely to be cost and length of stay (LOS) outliers. Conclusion. Analysis of information from a large database demonstrated that opioid-treated postsurgical inpatients who had multiple risk factors for ORADEs were more likely to have higher mean costs, greater readmission rates, and longer LOS than patients with fewer risk factors. Copyright © 2014 American Society of Health-System Pharmacists Inc. All rights reserved.

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