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Bavaria J.E.,University of Pennsylvania | Brinkman W.T.,Heart Hospital Baylor | Hughes G.C.,Duke University | Khoynezhad A.,Cedars Sinai Medical Center | And 4 more authors.
Annals of Thoracic Surgery | Year: 2015

Background Acute type B aortic dissection complicated by malperfusion or rupture carries a risk of death. We report 30-day and 12-month results of endovascular treatment with the Valiant Captivia Thoracic Stent Graft (Medtronic, Santa Rosa, CA) in patients with acute, complicated type B aortic dissection. Methods The Medtronic DISSECTION Trial is a prospective, nonrandomized, United States Food and Drug Administration-regulated, pivotal trial that enrolled patients at 16 United States sites between June 2010 and May 2012. Follow-up examinations were at 1, 6, and 12 months, and annually through 5 years. Results Fifty patients were enrolled. Mean age was 57 years (range, 18 to 83 years). Rupture was present in 20% and malperfusion in 86%. Mean time from symptom onset to procedure was 4.7 days (range, 0 to 23 days). Successful deployment and coverage of the primary entry tear was achieved in all patients. Two patients (4%) underwent open repair 5 and 56 days postprocedure for retrograde aortic dissections. Thirty-day mortality was 8% (4 of 50) and 12-month mortality was 15% (7 of 48). Spinal ischemia was 6%. Serious adverse events occurred in 23 of 49 patients within 12 months. Four patients underwent secondary endovascular procedures. Through 12 months, true lumen diameter in the stented region remained stable or increased in 93.1% (27 of 29) of patients. False lumen diameter remained stable or decreased in 22 patients and was partially or completely thrombosed in 91% (30 of 33). Conclusions The initial results of the Valiant Thoracic Stent Graft in the treatment of acute type B aortic dissection are encouraging, but longer-term outcomes are needed. © 2015 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons.

Wang B.,University of Texas at Austin | Su J.L.,University of Texas at Austin | Karpiouk A.B.,University of Texas at Austin | Sokolov K.V.,University of Texas at Austin | And 4 more authors.
IEEE Journal on Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics | Year: 2010

Intravascular photoacoustic (IVPA) imaging is a catheter-based, minimally invasive, imaging modality capable of providing high-resolution optical absorption map of the arterial wall. Integrated with intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) imaging, combined IVPA and IVUS imaging can be used to detect and characterize atherosclerotic plaques building up in the inner lining of an artery. In this paper, we present and discuss various representative applications of combined IVPA/IVUS imaging of atherosclerosis, including assessment of the composition of atherosclerotic plaques, imaging of macrophages within the plaques, and molecular imaging of biomarkers associated with formation and development of plaques. In addition, imaging of coronary artery stents using IVPA and IVUS imaging is demonstrated. Furthermore, the design of an integrated IVUS/IVPA imaging catheter needed for in vivo clinical applications is discussed. © 2006 IEEE.

Guo D.-C.,University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston | Regalado E.,University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston | Casteel D.E.,University of California at San Diego | Santos-Cortez R.L.,Baylor College of Medicine | And 20 more authors.
American Journal of Human Genetics | Year: 2013

Gene mutations that lead to decreased contraction of vascular smooth-muscle cells (SMCs) can cause inherited thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections. Exome sequencing of distant relatives affected by thoracic aortic disease and subsequent Sanger sequencing of additional probands with familial thoracic aortic disease identified the same rare variant, PRKG1 c.530G>A (p.Arg177Gln), in four families. This mutation segregated with aortic disease in these families with a combined two-point LOD score of 7.88. The majority of affected individuals presented with acute aortic dissections (63%) at relatively young ages (mean 31 years, range 17-51 years). PRKG1 encodes type I cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG-1), which is activated upon binding of cGMP and controls SMC relaxation. Although the p.Arg177Gln alteration disrupts binding to the high-affinity cGMP binding site within the regulatory domain, the altered PKG-1 is constitutively active even in the absence of cGMP. The increased PKG-1 activity leads to decreased phosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain in fibroblasts and is predicted to cause decreased contraction of vascular SMCs. Thus, identification of a gain-of-function mutation in PRKG1 as a cause of thoracic aortic disease provides further evidence that proper SMC contractile function is critical for maintaining the integrity of the thoracic aorta throughout a lifetime. © 2013 The American Society of Human Genetics.

Feldman T.,Evanston Hospital | Kar S.,Cedars Sinai Medical Center | Elmariah S.,Massachusetts General Hospital | Elmariah S.,Harvard University | And 22 more authors.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology | Year: 2015

Background In EVEREST II (Endovascular Valve Edge-to-Edge Repair Study), treatment of mitral regurgitation (MR) with a novel percutaneous device showed superior safety compared with surgery, but less effective reduction in MR at 1 year. Objectives This study sought to evaluate the final 5-year clinical outcomes and durability of percutaneous mitral valve (MV) repair with the MitraClip device compared with conventional MV surgery. Methods Patients with grade 3+ or 4+ MR were randomly assigned to percutaneous repair with the device or conventional MV surgery in a 2:1 ratio (178:80). Patients prospectively consented to 5 years of follow-up. Results At 5 years, the rate of the composite endpoint of freedom from death, surgery, or 3+ or 4+ MR in the as-treated population was 44.2% versus 64.3% in the percutaneous repair and surgical groups, respectively (p = 0.01). The difference was driven by increased rates of 3+ to 4+ MR (12.3% vs. 1.8%; p = 0.02) and surgery (27.9% vs. 8.9%; p = 0.003) with percutaneous repair. After percutaneous repair, 78% of surgeries occurred within the first 6 months. Beyond 6 months, rates of surgery and moderate-to-severe MR were comparable between groups. Five-year mortality rates were 20.8% and 26.8% (p = 0.4) for percutaneous repair and surgery, respectively. In multivariable analysis, treatment strategy was not associated with survival. Conclusions Patients treated with percutaneous repair more commonly required surgery for residual MR during the first year after treatment, but between 1- and 5-year follow-up, comparably low rates of surgery for MV dysfunction with either percutaneous or surgical therapy endorse the durability of MR reduction with both repair techniques. (EVEREST II Pivotal Study High Risk Registry; NCT00209274) © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation.

Eldin C.,Research Unit on Infectious and Emerging Tropical Diseases | Mailhe M.,Research Unit on Infectious and Emerging Tropical Diseases | Lions C.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Carrieri P.,French National Center for Scientific Research | And 5 more authors.
Medicine (United States) | Year: 2016

Coxiella burnetii vascular infections continue to be very severe diseases and no guidelines exist about their prevention. In terms of treatment, the benefit of the surgical removal of infected tissues has been suggested by 1 retrospective study. We present a case of a C burnetii abdominal aortic graft infection for which we observed a dramatic clinical and biological recovery after surgery. We thus performed a retrospective cohort study to evaluate the impact of surgery on survival and serological outcome for patients with Q fever vascular infections diagnosed in our center. Between 1986 and February 2015, 100 patients were diagnosed with Q fever vascular infections. The incidence of these infections has significantly increased over the past 5 years, in comparison with the mean annual incidence over the preceding 22 years (8.83 cases per year versus 3.14 cases per year, P=0.001). A two-and-a-half-year follow-up was available for 66 patients, of whom 18.2% died. We observed 6.5% of deaths in the group of patients who were operated upon at 2 and a half years, in comparison with 28.6% in the group which were not operated upon (P=0.02). Surgery was the only factor that had a positive impact on survival at 2 and a half years using univariate analysis [hazard ratio: 0.17 [95% CI]: [0.039-0.79]; P=0.024]. Surgery was also associated with a good serological outcome (74.1% vs 57.1% of patients, P=0.03). In the group of patients with vascular graft infections (n=47), surgery had a positive impact on serological outcome at 2 and a half years (85.7% vs 42.9%, P<0.001) [hazard ratio: 0.40 [95% CI]: [0.17-098]; P=0.046] and tended to be associated with lower although not statistically significant mortality (11.1% vs 27.6% of deaths, P=0.19). Surgical treatment confers a benefit in terms of survival following C burnetii vascular infections. However, given the high mortality of these infections and their rising incidence, we propose a strategy that consists of screening for vascular graft and aneurysms in the context of primary Q fever, to decide when to start prophylactic treatment, similar to the strategy recommended for the prophylaxis of Q fever endocarditis. © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

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