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Savannah, GA, United States

Britton T.,Birmingham Veterans Administration Medical Center | Robinson N.,Memorial Health University Medical Center
Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology | Year: 2016

18F-FDG PET imaging of tumors has pitfalls and pearls of wisdom that begin at the point of scheduling and continue through the patient interview, the resting phase, the scan itself, and the image review. Interviewing the patient at the time of scheduling, followed by placing a reminder phone call shortly before the appointment, can save a nuclear medicine department the financial loss of wasted doses and missed appointment slots in the schedule. The pitfalls and pearls of wisdom in tumor imaging are ever changing, and the technologist is in a constant state of inquiry about the patient's disease process and ability to comply. Consideration of each item on the worksheets in this article affects every scan. On completing this article, the reader will be able to identify questions that should be asked in the scheduling and preinjection patient interviews, interpret the answers to those questions, determine how the images may be affected, and adapt the scan. © 2016 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

Nagendra D.C.,Michigan State University | Burke J.,Memorial Health University Medical Center | Maxwell G.L.,U.S. Army | Risinger J.I.,Michigan State University
Molecular Carcinogenesis | Year: 2012

Recently unbiased sequencing efforts identified PPP2R1A mutations in clear cell ovarian cancers (OCC). Similar mutations were also noted with high frequency in uterine serous carcinoma. Because the endometrium develops from the same developmental precursors we further examined the hypothesis that PPP2R1A mutations might also occur in diverse histologic subtypes of uterine cancer. We sequenced the PPP2R1A in 22 cell line models of uterine cancer and 10 primary cancers. We found no mutations in the cell lines originally derived from endometrioid (n=13), undifferentiated (n=3), clear cell (n=1), and carcinosarcoma (n=3) cancers. However, we found a CCC (Pro) to CGC (Arg) codon 179 mutation in the ACI-158 serous carcinoma cell line, a CCC (Pro) to CTC (Leu) in a primary serous carcinoma as well as a CGC (Arg) to CAC (His) codon 258 mutation in a poorly differentiated endometrioid cancer. We sequenced a large panel of endometrial malignancies (n=181) and found 12 mutants. Importantly, we confirmed a high frequency of mutation in 8 of 25 (32%) serous carcinomas a subtype with well-recognized poor prognosis. Mutations were infrequent in endometrioid cancer and absent in clear cell and carcinosarcoma subtypes. The PPP2R1A mutation regions are conserved among species and known to interact with the regulatory subunits of the PP2A enzyme. PPP2R1A mutant endometrial cancers may represent good candidates for personalized drug therapies particularly for women with the lethal serous histologic variant of uterine cancer. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Purwaha P.,North Dakota State University | Gu Y.,North Dakota State University | Kelavkar U.,Memorial Health University Medical Center | Kelavkar U.,Mercer University | And 4 more authors.
Free Radical Biology and Medicine | Year: 2011

Docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) is a unique fatty acid that exists in two isomeric forms (n-3 and n-6), which differ in their physiological behaviors. DPA can undergo free radical-mediated peroxidation via lipoxygenase (LOX). 15-LOX, one of the LOX isomers, has received much attention in cancer research because of its very different expression level in normal tissues compared to tumors and some bioactive fatty acid metabolites modulating the tumorigenic pathways in cancer. However, the mechanism linking 15-LOX, DPA metabolites, and their bioactivities is still unclear, and the free radicals generated in DPA peroxidation have never been characterized. In this study, we have studied radicals formed from both soybean and human cellular (PC3-15LOS cells) 15-LOX-catalyzed peroxidation of DPAs at various pH's using a combination of LC/ESR/MS with the spin trapping technique. We observed a total of three carbon-centered radicals formed in 15-LOX-DPA (n-3) stemming from its 7-, 17-, and 20-hydroperoxides, whereas only one formed from 17-hydroperoxide in DPA (n-6). A change in the reaction pH from 8.5 (15-LOX enzyme optimum) to 7.4 (physiological) and to 6.5 (tumor, acidic) not only decreased the total radical formation but also altered the preferred site of oxygenation. This pH-dependent alteration of radical formation and oxygenation pattern may have significant implications and provide a basis for our ongoing investigations of LOXs as well as fatty acids in cancer biology. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Huang Q.,Xian Jiaotong University | Huang Q.,Mercer University | Chen H.,Shantou University | Wang F.,China National Institute of Biological Sciences | And 7 more authors.
Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences | Year: 2014

Placentas associated with preeclampsia are characterized by extensive apoptosis in trophoblast lineages. Syncytin-1 (HERVWE1) mediates the fusion of cytotrophoblasts to form syncytiotrophoblasts, which assume the placental barrier, fetal-maternal exchange and endocrine functions. While decreased syncytin-1 expression has been observed in preeclamptic placentas, it is not clear if this alteration is involved in trophoblast apoptosis. In the current study, we found that siRNa-mediated knockdown of syncytin-1 led to apoptosis in choriocarcinoma BeWo, a cell line of trophoblastic origin. Characterization of the apoptotic pathways indicated that this effect does not rely on the activation of caspases. Rather, decreased syncytin-1 levels activated the apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) apoptotic pathway by inducing the expression, cleavage, and nuclear translocation of AIF. Moreover, calpain1, the cysteine protease capable of cleaving AIF, was upregulated by syncytin-1 knockdown. Furthermore, treatment with calpain1 inhibitor MDL28170 effectively reversed AIF cleavage, AIF nuclear translocation, and cell apoptosis triggered by syncytin-1 downregulation, verifying the specific action of calpain1-AIF pathway in trophoblast apoptosis. We confirmed that preeclamptic placentas express lower levels of syncytin-1 than normal placentas, and observed an inverse correlation between syncytin-1 and AIF/calpain1 mRNa levels, a result consistent with the in vitro findings. Immunohistochemistry analyses indicated decreased syncytin-1 and increased AIF and calpain1 protein levels in apoptotic cells of preeclamptic placentas. these findings have for the first time revealed that decreased levels of syncytin-1 can trigger the AIF-mediated apoptosis pathway in BeWo cells. this novel mechanism may contribute to the structural and functional deficiencies of syncytium frequently observed in preeclamptic placentas. © Springer Basel 2014.

Goldfarb M.,Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center | Brower S.,Memorial Health University Medical Center | Schwaitzberg S.D.,Cambridge Health Alliance
Surgical Endoscopy and Other Interventional Techniques | Year: 2010

Perhaps there is no more important issue in the care of surgical patients than the appropriate use of minimally invasive surgery (MIS) for patients with cancer. Important advances in surgical technique have an impact on early perioperative morbidity, length of hospital stay, pain management, and quality of life issues, as clearly proved with MIS. However, for oncology patients, historically, the most important clinical questions have been answered in the context of prospective randomized trials. Important considerations for MIS and cancer have been addressed, such as what are the important immunologic consequences of MIS versus open surgery and what is the role of laparoscopy in the staging of gastrointestinal cancers? This review article discusses many of the key controversies in the minimally invasive treatment of cancer using the procon debate format. Copyright © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

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