Memorial SloanKettering Cancer Center

New York City, NY, United States

Memorial SloanKettering Cancer Center

New York City, NY, United States
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Michel L.S.,Memorial SloanKettering Cancer Center | Dyroff S.,Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology | Brooks F.J.,Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology | Spayd K.J.,Mallinckrodt Institute of Radiology | And 11 more authors.
Radiology | Year: 2017

Purpose: To demonstrate that positron emission tomography (PET) with fluorine 18 (18F) fluorthanatrace (FTT) depicts activated poly (adenosine diphosphate-ribose)polymerase (PARP) expression and is feasible for clinical trial evaluation. Materials and Methods: All studies were conducted prospectively from February 2012 through July 2015 under protocols approved by the local animal studies committee and institutional review board. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC, in g/mL• min) for 18F-FTT was assessed in normal mouse organs before and after treatment with olaparib (n = 14), a PARP inhibitor, or iniparib (n = 11), which has no PARP inhibitory activity. Murine biodistribution studies were performed to support human translational studies. Eight human subjects with cancer and eight healthy volunteers underwent imaging to verify the human radiation dosimetry of 18F-FTT. The Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to assess for differences among treatment groups for the mouse studies. Results: In mice, olaparib, but not iniparib, signifcantly reduced the 18F-FTT AUC in the spine (median difference before and after treatment and interquartile range [IQR]: 217 g/mL• min and 10 g/mL • min, respectively [P =.0001], for olaparib and 23 g/mL • min and 13 g/mL • min [P =.70] for iniparib) and in nodes (median difference and interquartile range [IQR] before and after treatment: 223 g/mL • min and 13 g/mL • min [P =.0001] for olaparib; 29 g/mL • min and 17 g/mL • min [P =.05] for iniparib). The effective dose was estimated at 6.9 mSv for a 370-MBq 18F-FTT dose in humans. In humans, the organs with the highest uptake on images were the spleen and pancreas. Among fve subjects with measurable tumors, increased 18F-FTT uptake was seen in one subject with pancreatic adenocarcinoma and another with liver cancer. Conclusion: The results suggest that 18F-FTT uptake re?ects PARP expression and that its radiation dosimetry profle is compatible with those of agents currently in clinical use. © 2016 RSNA.

Blazic I.M.,Memorial SloanKettering Cancer Center | Lilic G.B.,Center for Radiology and MRI | Gajic M.M.,Institute for Medical Statistics and Informatics
Radiology | Year: 2017

Purpose: To determine the impact of three different methods of region of interest (ROI) positioning for apparent diffusion coeffcient (ADC) measurements on the assessment of complete response (CR) to neoadjuvant combined chemotherapy and radiation therapy (CRT) in patients with rectal cancer. Materials and Methods: Institutional review board approval was obtained for this study; all patients gave written informed consent. ADCs were measured by two radiologists using three circular ROIs (three-ROIs), single-section (SS), and whole-tumor volume (WTV) methods in 62 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer on pre-and post-CRT images. Interobserver variability was analyzed by calculating intraclass correlation coeffcient (ICC). Descriptive statistics and areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs) were calculated to evaluate performance in determining CR from pre-and post-CRT ADCs and ADC change. Histopathologic tumor regression grade was the reference standard. Results: SS and WTV methods yielded higher AUCs than did the three-ROIs method when determining CR from post-CRT ADC (0.874 [95% confdence interval {CI}: 0.778, 0.970] and 0.886 [95% CI: 0.781, 0.990] vs 0.731 [95% CI: 0.583, 0.878], respectively; P =.033 and P =.003) and numeric change (0.892 [95% CI: 0.812, 0.972] and 0.897 [95% CI: 0.801, 0.994] vs 0.740 [95% CI: 0.591, 0.890], respectively; P =.048 and P =.0021). Respective accuracies of SS, WTV, and three-ROIs methods were 79% (49 of 62), 77% (48 of 62), and 61% (38 of 62) for post-CRT, 79% (49 of 62), 86% (53 of 62), and 60% (37 of 62) for numeric ADC change, and 77% (48 of 62), 84% (52 of 62), and 57% (35 of 62) for percentage ADC change (ADC cut-offs: 1.21, 1.30, and 1.05 × 1023 mm2/sec, 0.33, 0.45, and 0.27 × 1023 mm2/sec increases, and 40%, 54%, and 27% increases, respectively). Post-CRT and ADC change measurements achieved negative predictive values of 96% (44 of 46) to 100% (39 of 39). Intraobserver agreement was highest for WTV-derived ADCs (ICC, 0.742 [95% CI: 0.316, 0.892] to 0.891 [95% CI: 0.615, 0.956]) and higher for all pretreatment than posttreatment measurements (ICC, 0.761 [95% CI: 0.209, 0.930] and 0.648 [95% CI: 0.164, 0.895] for three-ROIs method, 0.608 [95% CI: 0.287, 0.844] and 0.582 [95% CI: 0.176, 0.870] for SS method, 0.891 [95% CI: 0.615, 0.956] and 0.742 for WTV method [95% CI: 0.316, 0.892]). Conclusion: Tumor ADCs are highly dependent on the ROI positioning method used. Larger area measurements yield greater accuracy in response assessment. Post-CRT ADCs and values of ADC changes accurately identify noncomplete responders. WTV measurement of percentage ADC change provides the best results. © 2016 RSNA.

Shuman A.G.,Memorial SloanKettering Cancer Center | Shuman A.G.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | Shuman A.G.,New York Medical College | McCabe M.S.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | And 5 more authors.
Head and Neck | Year: 2013

Background The purpose of this study was to describe the impact of clinical ethics consultations among patients with head and neck cancer in order to better anticipate and manage clinical challenges. Methods A database was queried to identify patients with head and neck cancer for whom ethics consultation was performed at a comprehensive cancer center (n = 14). Information from the database was verified via data abstraction and analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. Results Common requests for ethics consultation involved code status (6 of 14) and withdrawal/withholding life-sustaining treatments (6 of 14). Common contextual features were interpersonal conflicts (6 of 14) and communication barriers (5 of 14). Airway management concerns were frequent (5 of 14). Whereas 21% of patients had do not resuscitate (DNR) orders before ethics consultation, 79% were DNR subsequently. Conclusion Ethics consultations among patients with head and neck cancer reflect distinctive complexities inherent to their disease, but are entirely consistent with global clinical ethical themes. Consideration of communication barriers, social isolation/stigma, symptom control, and airway management are critical. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Rebeiz K.,American University of Beirut | Shamseddine A.,American University of Beirut | Hachem R.,American University of Beirut | Brown K.,Memorial SloanKettering Cancer Center | And 7 more authors.
Clinical Imaging | Year: 2016

Gastroduodenal artery (GDA) aneurysm is a very rare condition. It is divided into false aneurysms (pseudoaneurysms) associated with pancreatitis and true aneurysms secondary to celiac trunk stenosis. We report a 24-year-old patient who was diagnosed with pancreatic head neuroendocrine tumor and was incidentally found to have multiple GDA aneurysms in the absence of celiac artery stenosis. The aneurysms were embolized because of the presumed high risk of bleeding. The procedure was successful with no recurrence on follow-up computed tomography scan. © 2015 Elsevier Inc..

Monson J.R.T.,University of Rochester | Probst C.P.,University of Rochester | Wexner S.D.,Cleveland Clinic | Remzi F.H.,Cleveland Clinic | And 4 more authors.
Annals of Surgery | Year: 2014

Objective: This study examines recent adherence to recommended neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy guidelines for patients with rectal cancer across geographic regions and institution volume and assesses trends over time. CopyrightBackground: A recent report by the Institute of Medicine described US cancer care as chaotic. Cited deficiencies included wide variation in adherence to evidencebased guidelines even where clear consensus exists.Methods: Patients operated on for clinical stage II and III rectal cancer were selected from the 2006-2011 National Cancer Data Base.Multivariable logistic regressions were used to assess variation in chemotherapy and radiation use by cancer center type, geographical location, and hospital volume. The analysis controlled for patient age at diagnosis, sex, race/ethnicity, primary payer, average household income, average education, urban/rural classification of patient residence, comorbidity, and oncologic stage.Results: There were 30,994 patients who met the inclusion criteria. Use of neoadjuvant radiation therapy and chemotherapy varied significantly by type of cancer center. The highest rates of adherence were observed in highvolume centers compared with lowvolume centers (78% vs 69%; adjusted odds ratio =1.46; P0.001). This variation ismirrored by hospital geographic location. Primary payer and year of diagnosiswere not predictive of rates of neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy.Conclusions: Adherence to evidencebased treatment guidelines in rectal cancer is suboptimal in the United States, with significant differences based on hospital volume and geographic regions. Little improvement has occurred in the last 5 years. These results support the implementation of standardized care pathways and a Centers of Excellence program for US patients with rectal cancer. © 2014 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

PubMed | City College of New York, Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, Queens Hospital Center and Memorial SloanKettering Cancer Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: American journal of health behavior | Year: 2015

To assess heath literacy, health information seeking, and trust in health-related information among Haitian immigrants seen in primary care.Health literacy was measured by the Brief Health Literacy Screen (BHLS); items on health information use were from the 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey.BHLS scores differed according to age, education, and survey language. Participants with lower levels of health literacy tended to be more likely to place a lot or some trust in family and friends and religious organizations and leaders as sources of information about health or medical topics.Constructing a culturally-tailored and appropriate intervention regarding health promotion requires understanding how the population accesses and conveys health information.

Lee S.Y.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | Lee S.Y.,Singapore General Hospital | Lee S.Y.,The Surgical Center | Konstantinidis I.T.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | And 8 more authors.
HPB | Year: 2014

Background: The reliable prediction of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) recurrence patterns potentially allows for the prioritization of patients for liver resection (LR) or transplantation. Objectives: The aim of this study was to analyse clinicopathological factors and preoperative Milan criteria (MC) status in predicting patterns of HCC recurrence. Methods: During 1992-2012, 320 patients undergoing LR for HCC were categorized preoperatively as being within or beyond the MC, as were recurrences. Results: After a median follow-up of 47 months, 183 patients developed recurrence, giving a 5-year cumulative incidence of recurrence of 62.5%. Patients with preoperative disease within the MC had better survival outcomes than those with preoperative disease beyond the MC (median survival: 102 months versus 45 months; P < 0.001). Overall, 31% of patients had preoperative disease within the MC and 69% had preoperative disease beyond the MC. Estimated rates of recurrence-free survival at 5 years were 61.8% for all patients and 53.8% for patients with initial beyond-MC status. Independent factors for recurrence beyond-MC status included preoperative disease beyond the MC, the presence of microsatellite or multiple tumours and lymphovascular invasion (all: P < 0.001). A clinical risk score was used to predict survival and the likelihood of recurrence beyond the MC; patients with scores of 0, 1, 2 and 3 had 5-year incidence of recurring beyond-MC of 9.0%, 29.5%, 48.8% and 75.4%, respectively (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Regardless of initial MC status, at 5 years the majority of patients remained disease-free or experienced recurrence within the MC after LR, and thus were potentially eligible for salvage transplantation (ST). Incorporating clinicopathological parameters into the MC allows for better risk stratification, which improves the selection of patients for ST and identifies patients in need of closer surveillance. © 2014 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association.

Kelly K.J.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | Yoon S.S.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | Yoon S.S.,Massachusetts General Hospital | Kuk D.,Memorial SloanKettering Cancer Center | And 7 more authors.
Annals of Surgery | Year: 2015

Objective: To compare outcomes of patients with retroperitoneal or pelvic sarcoma treated with perioperative radiation therapy (RT) versus those treated without perioperative RT. Background: RT for retroperitoneal or pelvic sarcoma is controversial, and few studies have compared outcomes with and without RT. Methods: Prospectively maintained databases were reviewed to retrospectively compare patients with primary retroperitoneal or pelvic sarcoma treated during 2003-2011. Multivariate Cox regression modelswere used to assess associations with the primary endpoints: local recurrence-free survival (LRFS) and disease-specific survival. Results: At 1 institution, 172 patients were treated with surgery alone, whereas at another institution 32 patients were treated with surgery and perioperative proton beam RT or intensity-modulated RT with or without intraoperative RT. The groups were similar in age, tumor size, grade, and margin status (all P > 0.08). The RT group had a higher percentage of pelvic tumors (P = 0.03) and a different distribution of histologies (P = 0.04). Perioperative morbidity was higher in the RT group (44% vs 16% of patients; P = 0.004). After a median follow-up of 39 months, 5-year LRFS was 91% (95% confidence interval, 79%-100%) in the RT group and 65% (57%-74%) in the surgery-only group (P = 0.02). On multivariate analysis, RT was associated with better LRFS (hazard ratio, 0.26; P = 0.03). Five-year disease-specific survival was 93% (95% confidence interval, 82%-100%) in the RT group and 85% (78%-92%) in the surgery-only group (P = 0.3). Conclusions: The addition of advanced-modality RT to surgery for primary retroperitoneal or pelvic sarcoma was associated with improved LRFS, although this did not translate into significantly better disease-specific survival. This treatment strategy warrants further investigation in a randomized trial. Copyright © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

Shono Y.,Memorial SloanKettering Cancer Center | Tuckett A.Z.,Memorial SloanKettering Cancer Center | Liou H.-C.,ImmuneTarget Inc. | Doubrovina E.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | And 16 more authors.
Cancer Research | Year: 2016

NF-κB plays a variety of roles in oncogenesis and immunity that may be beneficial for therapeutic targeting, but strategies to selectively inhibit NF-κB to exert antitumor activity have been elusive. Here, we describe IT-901, a bioactive naphthalenethiobarbiturate derivative that potently inhibits the NF-κB subunit c-Rel. IT-901 suppressed graft-versus-host disease while preserving graft-versus-lymphoma activity during allogeneic transplantation. Further preclinical assessment of IT-901 for the treatment of human B-cell lymphoma revealed antitumor properties in vitro and in vivo without restriction to NF-κB-dependent lymphoma. This nondiscriminatory, antilymphoma effect was attributed to modulation of the redox homeostasis in lymphoma cells resulting in oxidative stress. Moreover, NF-κB inhibition by IT-901 resulted in reduced stimulation of the oxidative stress response gene heme oxygenase-1, and we demonstrated that NF-κB inhibition exacerbated oxidative stress induction to inhibit growth of lymphoma cells. Notably, IT-901 did not elicit increased levels of reactive oxygen species in normal leukocytes, illustrating its cancer selective properties. Taken together, our results provide mechanistic insight and preclinical proof of concept for IT-901 as a novel therapeutic agent to treat human lymphoid tumors and ameliorate graft-versus-host disease. © 2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

Adaptive Biotechnologies Corporation and Memorial Sloankettering Cancer Center | Date: 2013-10-01

Disclosed are methods for determining the immunological status of the adaptive immune system of a subject by identifying and quantifying rearranged DNA (and/or subsequently transcribed RNA) sequences encoding T cell receptor (TCR) and/or immunoglobulin (IG) polypeptides, in a lymphoid DNA-containing sample from the subject. TCR and/or IG sequence diversity and sequence distribution permit immunocompetence and immune repertoire assessment and reflect the degree of T cell or B cell clonality and clonal expansion in the sample. Methods for stratifying patient populations on the basis of immunocompetence including likelihood of responding to immunotherapy are also described.

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