Membre du Reseau International des Institute Pasteur

Yaoundé, Cameroon

Membre du Reseau International des Institute Pasteur

Yaoundé, Cameroon
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Sidze L.K.,Membre du Reseau International des Institute Pasteur | Sidze L.K.,University of Bordeaux Segalen | Faye A.,Assistance Publique des Hopitaux de Paris | Faye A.,University of Paris Pantheon Sorbonne | And 17 more authors.
BMC Public Health | Year: 2015

Background: Loss to follow-up (LTFU) is a cause of potential bias in clinical studies. Differing LTFU between study groups may affect internal validity and generalizability of the results. Understanding reasons for LTFU could help improve follow-up in clinical studies and thereby contribute to goals for prevention, treatment, or research being achieved. We explored factors associated with LTFU of mother-child pairs after inclusion in the ANRS 12140-Pediacam study. Methods: From November 2007 to October 2010, 4104 infants including 2053 born to HIV-infected mothers and 2051 born to HIV-uninfected mothers matched individually on gender and study site were enrolled during the first week of life in three referral hospitals in Cameroon and scheduled for visits at 6, 10 and 14 weeks of age. Visits were designated 1, 2 and 3, in chronological order, irrespective of the child's age at the time of the visit. Mother-child pairs were considered lost to follow-up if they never returned for a clinical visit within the first six months after inclusion. Uni- and multivariable logistic regression were adjusted on matching variables to identify factors associated with LTFU according to maternal HIV status. Results: LTFU among HIV-unexposed infants was four times higher than among HIV-exposed infants (36.7% vs 9.8%, p∈<∈0.001). Emergency caesarean section (adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR)∈=∈2.46 95% Confidence Interval (CI) [1.47-4.13]), young maternal age (aOR∈=∈2.29, 95% CI [1.18-4.46]), and absence of antiretroviral treatment for prophylaxis (aOR∈=∈3.45, 95% CI [2.30-5.19]) were independently associated with LTFU among HIV-exposed infants. Factors associated with LTFU among HIV-unexposed infants included young maternal age (aOR∈=∈1.96, 95% CI [1.36-2.81]), low maternal education level (aOR∈=∈2.77, 95% CI [1.95-3.95]) and housewife/unemployed mothers (aOR∈=∈1.56, 95% CI [1.16-2.11]). Conclusion: Failure to return for at least one scheduled clinical visit is a problem especially among HIV-unexposed infants included in studies involving HIV-exposed infants. Factors associated with this type of LTFU included maternal characteristics, socio-economic status, quality of antenatal care and obstetrical context of delivery. Enhanced counselling in antenatal and intrapartum services is required for mothers at high risk of failure to return for follow-up visits. © 2015 Sidze et al.; licensee BioMed Central.


Tejiokem M.C.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Warszawski J.,Membre du Reseau International des Institute Pasteur | Warszawski J.,University Paris - Sud | Ndongo F.A.,Center Mere Et Enfant Of La Fondation Chantal Biya | And 10 more authors.
Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal | Year: 2015

Background: Early diagnosis of HIV is increasingly available for infants in resource-limited settings. We assessed the timing of events until combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) initiation in infants diagnosed before 7 months of age in Cameroon. Methods: The ANRS-PediaCAM cohort included HIV-infected infants followed from birth associated with prevention of mother-to-child transmission activities (group 1) or diagnosed for any other reason before 7 months of age (group 2). All infants were offered free cART early after diagnosis. Frequency and factors associated with no or delayed cART initiation, were studied using univariable and multivariable logistic regressions. Results: Between 2007 and 2011, 210 HIV-infected infants (group 1: 69; group 2: 141) were included. Fewer group 1 (14.3%) than group 2 (59.1%) infants were symptomatic (World Health Organization stage 3 or 4). Overall, 5.7% (n = 12) died before receiving any cART. Of the remaining 198 infants, 3.0% (n = 6) were not treated. The median age at initiating cART was 4.1 months [interquartile range (IQR): 3.2-5.6]. The median time until cART initiation after HIV testing was 6.2 weeks (IQR: 4.4-9.4) in group 1 and 5.1 weeks (IQR: 2.9-9.4) in group 2. No or delayed cART, observed for 37.9% (75 of 198) of the infants, was associated with clinical site [adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 4.8; 95% confidence interval: (2.1-11.2)], late diagnosis [aOR: 2.0 (0.9-4.1)], and delayed pretherapeutic biological assessment [aOR: 3.7 (1.4-10.0)]. Conclusions: Although most children included were treated before age 7 months, the initiation of therapy was delayed for more than 1 in 3. The period around HIV diagnosis is critical and should be better managed to reduce delays before cART initiation. © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.


Tejiokem M.C.,Membre du Reseau International des Institute Pasteur | Tejiokem M.C.,University Paris - Sud | Faye A.,Assistance Publique des Hopitaux de Paris | Faye A.,University Paris Diderot | And 12 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

Background: Early infant diagnosis (EID) of HIV is a key-point for the implementation of early HAART, associated with lower mortality in HIV-infected infants. We evaluated the EID process of HIV according to national recommendations, in urban areas of Cameroon. Methods/Findings: The ANRS12140-Pediacam study is a multisite cohort in which infants born to HIV-infected mothers were included before the 8 th day of life and followed. Collection of samples for HIV DNA/RNA-PCR was planned at 6 weeks together with routine vaccination. The HIV test result was expected to be available at 10 weeks. A positive or indeterminate test result was confirmed by a second test on a different sample. Systematic HAART was offered to HIV-infected infants identified. The EID process was considered complete if infants were tested and HIV results provided to mothers/family before 7 months of age. During 2007-2009, 1587 mother-infant pairs were included in three referral hospitals; most infants (n = 1423, 89.7%) were tested for HIV, at a median age of 1.5 months (IQR, 1.4-1.6). Among them, 51 (3.6%) were HIV-infected. Overall, 1331 (83.9%) completed the process by returning for the result before 7 months (median age: 2.5 months (IQR, 2.4-3.0)). Incomplete process, that is test not performed, or result of test not provided or provided late to the family, was independently associated with late HIV diagnosis during pregnancy (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.8, 95%CI: 1.1 to 2.9, p = 0.01), absence of PMTCT prophylaxis (aOR = 2.4, 95%CI: 1.4 to 4.3, p = 0.002), and emergency caesarean section (aOR = 2.5, 95%CI: 1.5 to 4.3, p = 0.001). Conclusions: In urban areas of Cameroon, HIV-infected women diagnosed sufficiently early during pregnancy opt to benefit from EID whatever their socio-economic, marital or disclosure status. Reduction of non optimal diagnosis process should focus on women with late HIV diagnosis during pregnancy especially if they did not receive any PMTCT, or if complications occurred at delivery. © 2011 Tejiokem et al.


Sidze L.K.,University of Bordeaux Segalen | Faye A.,University of Paris Pantheon Sorbonne | Tetang S.N.,Center Hospitalier dEssos | Penda I.,University of Douala | And 9 more authors.
BMC public health | Year: 2015

BACKGROUND: Loss to follow-up (LTFU) is a cause of potential bias in clinical studies. Differing LTFU between study groups may affect internal validity and generalizability of the results. Understanding reasons for LTFU could help improve follow-up in clinical studies and thereby contribute to goals for prevention, treatment, or research being achieved. We explored factors associated with LTFU of mother-child pairs after inclusion in the ANRS 12140-Pediacam study.METHODS: From November 2007 to October 2010, 4104 infants including 2053 born to HIV-infected mothers and 2051 born to HIV-uninfected mothers matched individually on gender and study site were enrolled during the first week of life in three referral hospitals in Cameroon and scheduled for visits at 6, 10 and 14 weeks of age. Visits were designated 1, 2 and 3, in chronological order, irrespective of the child's age at the time of the visit. Mother-child pairs were considered lost to follow-up if they never returned for a clinical visit within the first six months after inclusion. Uni- and multivariable logistic regression were adjusted on matching variables to identify factors associated with LTFU according to maternal HIV status.RESULTS: LTFU among HIV-unexposed infants was four times higher than among HIV-exposed infants (36.7% vs 9.8%, p < 0.001). Emergency caesarean section (adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR) = 2.46 95% Confidence Interval (CI) [1.47-4.13]), young maternal age (aOR = 2.29, 95% CI [1.18-4.46]), and absence of antiretroviral treatment for prophylaxis (aOR = 3.45, 95% CI [2.30-5.19]) were independently associated with LTFU among HIV-exposed infants. Factors associated with LTFU among HIV-unexposed infants included young maternal age (aOR = 1.96, 95% CI [1.36-2.81]), low maternal education level (aOR = 2.77, 95% CI [1.95-3.95]) and housewife/unemployed mothers (aOR = 1.56, 95% CI [1.16-2.11]).CONCLUSION: Failure to return for at least one scheduled clinical visit is a problem especially among HIV-unexposed infants included in studies involving HIV-exposed infants. Factors associated with this type of LTFU included maternal characteristics, socio-economic status, quality of antenatal care and obstetrical context of delivery. Enhanced counselling in antenatal and intrapartum services is required for mothers at high risk of failure to return for follow-up visits.


PubMed | Hopital de Jour, Center Hospitalier dEssos, Assistance Publique des Hopitaux de Paris, Membre du Reseau International des Institute Pasteur and 2 more.
Type: | Journal: BMC public health | Year: 2015

Loss to follow-up (LTFU) is a cause of potential bias in clinical studies. Differing LTFU between study groups may affect internal validity and generalizability of the results. Understanding reasons for LTFU could help improve follow-up in clinical studies and thereby contribute to goals for prevention, treatment, or research being achieved. We explored factors associated with LTFU of mother-child pairs after inclusion in the ANRS 12140-Pediacam study.From November 2007 to October 2010, 4104 infants including 2053 born to HIV-infected mothers and 2051 born to HIV-uninfected mothers matched individually on gender and study site were enrolled during the first week of life in three referral hospitals in Cameroon and scheduled for visits at 6, 10 and 14weeks of age. Visits were designated 1, 2 and 3, in chronological order, irrespective of the childs age at the time of the visit. Mother-child pairs were considered lost to follow-up if they never returned for a clinical visit within the first six months after inclusion. Uni- and multivariable logistic regression were adjusted on matching variables to identify factors associated with LTFU according to maternal HIV status.LTFU among HIV-unexposed infants was four times higher than among HIV-exposed infants (36.7% vs 9.8%, p<0.001). Emergency caesarean section (adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR)=2.46 95% Confidence Interval (CI) [1.47-4.13]), young maternal age (aOR=2.29, 95% CI [1.18-4.46]), and absence of antiretroviral treatment for prophylaxis (aOR=3.45, 95% CI [2.30-5.19]) were independently associated with LTFU among HIV-exposed infants. Factors associated with LTFU among HIV-unexposed infants included young maternal age (aOR=1.96, 95% CI [1.36-2.81]), low maternal education level (aOR=2.77, 95% CI [1.95-3.95]) and housewife/unemployed mothers (aOR=1.56, 95% CI [1.16-2.11]).Failure to return for at least one scheduled clinical visit is a problem especially among HIV-unexposed infants included in studies involving HIV-exposed infants. Factors associated with this type of LTFU included maternal characteristics, socio-economic status, quality of antenatal care and obstetrical context of delivery. Enhanced counselling in antenatal and intrapartum services is required for mothers at high risk of failure to return for follow-up visits.


Ngoupo P.A.,Service de Virologie | Ngoupo P.A.,University of Yaounde I | Ngoupo P.A.,University of Rouen | Sadeuh-Mba S.A.,Service de Virologie | And 9 more authors.
AIDS | Year: 2016

Objective: Despite the genetic divergence between HIV-1 groups M and O, HIV-1 M/O intergroup recombinants were reported. Actually, there is no data on the transmissibility of such recombinant forms. During a surveillance of HIV genetic diversity in Cameroon, we investigated the possible direct transmission of an HIV-1 M/O recombinant virus in an HIV-infected couple. Methods: Consecutive samples obtained from the couple were analysed for detection of dual HIV-1 groups M and O infections, and HIV-1 M/O recombinant forms. Analyses were performed using a serological and molecular algorithm based on HIV serotyping and group-specific PCRs targeting the polymerase and envelope genes. Pattern characterization of the strains found in both patients was based on complete genome sequencing. Phylogenetic and similarity profile analyses were performed to investigate the genetic relationship between viruses from both spouses and the previously described recombinant forms. Results: The sero-molecular algorithm data showed a group O serotype confirmed by molecular analysis in the envelope regions, whereas molecular tests identified HIV-1 group M in the polymerase. Phylogenetic analyses and similarity profiles of the full-length genome sequences showed that both spouses were infected with a unique recombinant virus having two recombination breakpoints in the vpr gene and LTR region. No phylogenetic link was found with the previous M/O recombinants. Conclusion: We provide, for the first time, molecular evidence of direct transmission of an HIV-1 M/O recombinant, highlighting the potential spread of these divergent viruses. The importance of HIV-1 recombination on genetic evolution and public health when implying divergent strains as group O has to be carefully considered. © Copyright 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.


Kfutwah A.K.W.,Membre du Reseau International des Institute Pasteur | Tejiokem M.C.,Membre du Reseau International des Institute Pasteur | Njouom R.,Membre du Reseau International des Institute Pasteur
Virology Journal | Year: 2012

Background: Transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) from HBV-positive mothers to their infants is common and usually occurs when the mother is hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) positive and/or has a high HBV DNA load. In this study, we determined the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and HBeAg among pregnant women with known HIV status. Findings. A total of 650 pregnant women with a mean age of 26.2 years including 301 HIV-positives and 349 HIV-negatives were screened for HBsAg (Monolisa AgHBs Plus Biorad, France). Among the HBsAg-positives, HBeAg and anti-HBe were tested (Monolisa Ag HBe Plus Biorad, France). Overall, 51 (7.85%) were positive for HBsAg. The prevalence of HBsAg was not statistically different between HIV-positive and HIV-negative pregnant women [28/301 (9.3%) vs 23/349 (6.59%); p = 0.2]. None of the 45 HBsAg-positive samples was reactive for HBeAg. Conclusions: Our study indicates a high prevalence of HBsAg with very low proportion of HBeAg in Cameroonian pregnant women. Since perinatal transmission of HBV is mostly effective when the mother is also HBeAg-positive, our data could suggest that perinatal transmissions play a minor role in HBV prevalence in Cameroon. In line with previous African studies, these findings further suggests that horizontal transmission could be the most common mechanism of HBV infections in Cameroon. © 2012 Kfutwah et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


PubMed | Membre du Reseau International des Institute Pasteur
Type: | Journal: Virology journal | Year: 2012

Transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) from HBV-positive mothers to their infants is common and usually occurs when the mother is hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) positive and/or has a high HBV DNA load. In this study, we determined the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and HBeAg among pregnant women with known HIV status.A total of 650 pregnant women with a mean age of 26.2 years including 301 HIV-positives and 349 HIV-negatives were screened for HBsAg (Monolisa AgHBs Plus Biorad, France). Among the HBsAg-positives, HBeAg and anti-HBe were tested (Monolisa Ag HBe Plus Biorad, France). Overall, 51 (7.85%) were positive for HBsAg. The prevalence of HBsAg was not statistically different between HIV-positive and HIV-negative pregnant women [28/301 (9.3%) vs 23/349 (6.59%); p = 0.2]. None of the 45 HBsAg-positive samples was reactive for HBeAg.Our study indicates a high prevalence of HBsAg with very low proportion of HBeAg in Cameroonian pregnant women. Since perinatal transmission of HBV is mostly effective when the mother is also HBeAg-positive, our data could suggest that perinatal transmissions play a minor role in HBV prevalence in Cameroon. In line with previous African studies, these findings further suggests that horizontal transmission could be the most common mechanism of HBV infections in Cameroon.


PubMed | Membre du Reseau International des Institute Pasteur and Laboratoire Associe Au Center National Of Reference Du Vih
Type: | Journal: Journal of clinical virology : the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology | Year: 2013

Fourth generation assays for HIV diagnosis are progressively being introduced into routine services, due to their improvement of diagnosis. In spite of this, HIV diagnosis remains a challenge in sub-Saharan Africa, due to false positive reactivity. There is a continuous need for field evaluations and routine validations of fourth generation HIV tests in African populations.Evaluate the performances of the ARCHITECT HIV Ag/Ab kit (Abbott) in a population living in an African setting-Cameroon compared to a population living in a European setting-France.645 HIV samples from both France and Cameroon were evaluated. The positive panel (378 samples) included a diverse series of HIV-1 variants (groups M, N, O, and P) as well as HIV-2 samples. Results were compared to original diagnosis done with other 4th generation assays (AxSYM HIV Ag/Ab (Abbott) and Vidas HIV DUO QUICK) (bioMrieux).Sensitivity of the ARCHITECT was 100% in both sites. It diagnosed all variants of the panel with different reactivity profiles following strain diversity. A wider range of reactivity was observed for group O. Specificity was slightly lower (97.6%) in Cameroon than in France (98.6%), probably due to a higher rate of false positive reactivity. ARCHITECT HIV Ag/Ab assay had high performances in clinical sensitivity and specificity and is adapted to the wide genetic diversity of viruses circulating in West Central Africa.Our results further highlight the need to evaluate HIV diagnostic tests before introduction into routine diagnostic services both in the North and in the South.


PubMed | Membre du Reseau International des Institute Pasteur
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2011

Early infant diagnosis (EID) of HIV is a key-point for the implementation of early HAART, associated with lower mortality in HIV-infected infants. We evaluated the EID process of HIV according to national recommendations, in urban areas of Cameroon.The ANRS12140-PEDIACAM study is a multisite cohort in which infants born to HIV-infected mothers were included before the 8(th) day of life and followed. Collection of samples for HIV DNA/RNA-PCR was planned at 6 weeks together with routine vaccination. The HIV test result was expected to be available at 10 weeks. A positive or indeterminate test result was confirmed by a second test on a different sample. Systematic HAART was offered to HIV-infected infants identified. The EID process was considered complete if infants were tested and HIV results provided to mothers/family before 7 months of age. During 2007-2009, 1587 mother-infant pairs were included in three referral hospitals; most infants (n=1423, 89.7%) were tested for HIV, at a median age of 1.5 months (IQR, 1.4-1.6). Among them, 51 (3.6%) were HIV-infected. Overall, 1331 (83.9%) completed the process by returning for the result before 7 months (median age: 2.5 months (IQR, 2.4-3.0)). Incomplete process, that is test not performed, or result of test not provided or provided late to the family, was independently associated with late HIV diagnosis during pregnancy (adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=1.8, 95%CI: 1.1 to 2.9, p=0.01), absence of PMTCT prophylaxis (aOR=2.4, 95%CI: 1.4 to 4.3, p=0.002), and emergency caesarean section (aOR=2.5, 95%CI: 1.5 to 4.3, p=0.001).In urban areas of Cameroon, HIV-infected women diagnosed sufficiently early during pregnancy opt to benefit from EID whatever their socio-economic, marital or disclosure status. Reduction of non optimal diagnosis process should focus on women with late HIV diagnosis during pregnancy especially if they did not receive any PMTCT, or if complications occurred at delivery.

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