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Sidze L.K.,Membre du Reseau International des Institute Pasteur | Sidze L.K.,University of Bordeaux Segalen | Faye A.,Assistance Publique des Hopitaux de Paris | Faye A.,University of Paris Pantheon Sorbonne | And 17 more authors.
BMC Public Health | Year: 2015

Background: Loss to follow-up (LTFU) is a cause of potential bias in clinical studies. Differing LTFU between study groups may affect internal validity and generalizability of the results. Understanding reasons for LTFU could help improve follow-up in clinical studies and thereby contribute to goals for prevention, treatment, or research being achieved. We explored factors associated with LTFU of mother-child pairs after inclusion in the ANRS 12140-Pediacam study. Methods: From November 2007 to October 2010, 4104 infants including 2053 born to HIV-infected mothers and 2051 born to HIV-uninfected mothers matched individually on gender and study site were enrolled during the first week of life in three referral hospitals in Cameroon and scheduled for visits at 6, 10 and 14 weeks of age. Visits were designated 1, 2 and 3, in chronological order, irrespective of the child's age at the time of the visit. Mother-child pairs were considered lost to follow-up if they never returned for a clinical visit within the first six months after inclusion. Uni- and multivariable logistic regression were adjusted on matching variables to identify factors associated with LTFU according to maternal HIV status. Results: LTFU among HIV-unexposed infants was four times higher than among HIV-exposed infants (36.7% vs 9.8%, p∈<∈0.001). Emergency caesarean section (adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR)∈=∈2.46 95% Confidence Interval (CI) [1.47-4.13]), young maternal age (aOR∈=∈2.29, 95% CI [1.18-4.46]), and absence of antiretroviral treatment for prophylaxis (aOR∈=∈3.45, 95% CI [2.30-5.19]) were independently associated with LTFU among HIV-exposed infants. Factors associated with LTFU among HIV-unexposed infants included young maternal age (aOR∈=∈1.96, 95% CI [1.36-2.81]), low maternal education level (aOR∈=∈2.77, 95% CI [1.95-3.95]) and housewife/unemployed mothers (aOR∈=∈1.56, 95% CI [1.16-2.11]). Conclusion: Failure to return for at least one scheduled clinical visit is a problem especially among HIV-unexposed infants included in studies involving HIV-exposed infants. Factors associated with this type of LTFU included maternal characteristics, socio-economic status, quality of antenatal care and obstetrical context of delivery. Enhanced counselling in antenatal and intrapartum services is required for mothers at high risk of failure to return for follow-up visits. © 2015 Sidze et al.; licensee BioMed Central.


Sidze L.K.,University of Bordeaux Segalen | Faye A.,University of Paris Pantheon Sorbonne | Tetang S.N.,Center Hospitalier dEssos | Penda I.,University of Douala | And 9 more authors.
BMC public health | Year: 2015

BACKGROUND: Loss to follow-up (LTFU) is a cause of potential bias in clinical studies. Differing LTFU between study groups may affect internal validity and generalizability of the results. Understanding reasons for LTFU could help improve follow-up in clinical studies and thereby contribute to goals for prevention, treatment, or research being achieved. We explored factors associated with LTFU of mother-child pairs after inclusion in the ANRS 12140-Pediacam study.METHODS: From November 2007 to October 2010, 4104 infants including 2053 born to HIV-infected mothers and 2051 born to HIV-uninfected mothers matched individually on gender and study site were enrolled during the first week of life in three referral hospitals in Cameroon and scheduled for visits at 6, 10 and 14 weeks of age. Visits were designated 1, 2 and 3, in chronological order, irrespective of the child's age at the time of the visit. Mother-child pairs were considered lost to follow-up if they never returned for a clinical visit within the first six months after inclusion. Uni- and multivariable logistic regression were adjusted on matching variables to identify factors associated with LTFU according to maternal HIV status.RESULTS: LTFU among HIV-unexposed infants was four times higher than among HIV-exposed infants (36.7% vs 9.8%, p < 0.001). Emergency caesarean section (adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR) = 2.46 95% Confidence Interval (CI) [1.47-4.13]), young maternal age (aOR = 2.29, 95% CI [1.18-4.46]), and absence of antiretroviral treatment for prophylaxis (aOR = 3.45, 95% CI [2.30-5.19]) were independently associated with LTFU among HIV-exposed infants. Factors associated with LTFU among HIV-unexposed infants included young maternal age (aOR = 1.96, 95% CI [1.36-2.81]), low maternal education level (aOR = 2.77, 95% CI [1.95-3.95]) and housewife/unemployed mothers (aOR = 1.56, 95% CI [1.16-2.11]).CONCLUSION: Failure to return for at least one scheduled clinical visit is a problem especially among HIV-unexposed infants included in studies involving HIV-exposed infants. Factors associated with this type of LTFU included maternal characteristics, socio-economic status, quality of antenatal care and obstetrical context of delivery. Enhanced counselling in antenatal and intrapartum services is required for mothers at high risk of failure to return for follow-up visits.


Ngoupo P.A.,University of Yaounde I | Ngoupo P.A.,University of Rouen | De Oliveira F.,University of Rouen | Tchendjou P.,Membre du Reseau International des Institute Pasteur | And 3 more authors.
AIDS | Year: 2016

Objective: Despite the genetic divergence between HIV-1 groups M and O, HIV-1 M/O intergroup recombinants were reported. Actually, there is no data on the transmissibility of such recombinant forms. During a surveillance of HIV genetic diversity in Cameroon, we investigated the possible direct transmission of an HIV-1 M/O recombinant virus in an HIV-infected couple. Methods: Consecutive samples obtained from the couple were analysed for detection of dual HIV-1 groups M and O infections, and HIV-1 M/O recombinant forms. Analyses were performed using a serological and molecular algorithm based on HIV serotyping and group-specific PCRs targeting the polymerase and envelope genes. Pattern characterization of the strains found in both patients was based on complete genome sequencing. Phylogenetic and similarity profile analyses were performed to investigate the genetic relationship between viruses from both spouses and the previously described recombinant forms. Results: The sero-molecular algorithm data showed a group O serotype confirmed by molecular analysis in the envelope regions, whereas molecular tests identified HIV-1 group M in the polymerase. Phylogenetic analyses and similarity profiles of the full-length genome sequences showed that both spouses were infected with a unique recombinant virus having two recombination breakpoints in the vpr gene and LTR region. No phylogenetic link was found with the previous M/O recombinants. Conclusion: We provide, for the first time, molecular evidence of direct transmission of an HIV-1 M/O recombinant, highlighting the potential spread of these divergent viruses. The importance of HIV-1 recombination on genetic evolution and public health when implying divergent strains as group O has to be carefully considered. © Copyright 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.


Nguefack F.,Center Mere Et Enfant Cme Of La Fondation Chantal Biya Of Yaounde | Nguefack F.,Biomedicales Of Luniversite Of Yaounde 1 | Chelo D.,Center Mere Et Enfant Cme Of La Fondation Chantal Biya Of Yaounde | Chelo D.,Biomedicales Of Luniversite Of Yaounde 1 | And 11 more authors.
Pan African Medical Journal | Year: 2012

Les anémies sévères constituent une cause importante de décès d'enfants. Une analyse épidémiologique et clinique permettrait d'estimer la morbidité et mortalité y relatives afin lutter efficacement contre les causes. Méthodes: Notre étude rétrospective et descriptive porte sur les anémies sévères chez les enfants de 2 mois à 15 ans de juillet 2005 à juillet 2011. Les drépanocytaires et les enfants souffrant de néoplasie étaient exclus. Toutes les admissions de janvier 2008 à juillet 2011 et les décès totaux, qui répondaient aux critères ci-dessus ont été également répertoriés. Résultats: Ont été analysés 4735 cas d'anémie sévère dont 215 décès (4,5%). Entre janvier 2008 et juillet 2011, sur 12879 enfants hospitalisés 2456 souffraient d'anémie sévère dont 96 sont décédés, soit une mortalité spécifique de 0,7% et une létalité de 4,0%. Au total, 22,4% d'anémies sévères survenaient dans la tranche d'âge de moins de 12 mois. Celles de 12 à 59 mois et de plus de 5 ans représentaient respectivement 64,4% et 13,2% des cas. Le paludisme était l'étiologie évoquée chez 89,0% des cas, suivi du sepsis (9,4%). Les décès concernaient les enfants sévèrement anémiés âgés de 12 à 59 mois dans 67,2% de cas. La plupart de patients (84,8%) résidaient à Yaoundé (P = 0,004). Conclusion: Les anémies sévères restent fréquentes à Yaoundé. La mise en œuvre de da politique de gratuité des antipaludiques et l'utilisation des moustiquaires doivent être effectives. Le renforcement de ces mesures dès le début des saisons pluvieuses préviendrait les flambées d'anémies. © Fèlicitèe Nguefack et al.


Tejiokem M.C.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Warszawski J.,Membre du Reseau International des Institute Pasteur | Warszawski J.,University Paris - Sud | Ndongo F.A.,Center Mere Et Enfant Of La Fondation Chantal Biya | And 10 more authors.
Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal | Year: 2015

Background: Early diagnosis of HIV is increasingly available for infants in resource-limited settings. We assessed the timing of events until combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) initiation in infants diagnosed before 7 months of age in Cameroon. Methods: The ANRS-PediaCAM cohort included HIV-infected infants followed from birth associated with prevention of mother-to-child transmission activities (group 1) or diagnosed for any other reason before 7 months of age (group 2). All infants were offered free cART early after diagnosis. Frequency and factors associated with no or delayed cART initiation, were studied using univariable and multivariable logistic regressions. Results: Between 2007 and 2011, 210 HIV-infected infants (group 1: 69; group 2: 141) were included. Fewer group 1 (14.3%) than group 2 (59.1%) infants were symptomatic (World Health Organization stage 3 or 4). Overall, 5.7% (n = 12) died before receiving any cART. Of the remaining 198 infants, 3.0% (n = 6) were not treated. The median age at initiating cART was 4.1 months [interquartile range (IQR): 3.2-5.6]. The median time until cART initiation after HIV testing was 6.2 weeks (IQR: 4.4-9.4) in group 1 and 5.1 weeks (IQR: 2.9-9.4) in group 2. No or delayed cART, observed for 37.9% (75 of 198) of the infants, was associated with clinical site [adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 4.8; 95% confidence interval: (2.1-11.2)], late diagnosis [aOR: 2.0 (0.9-4.1)], and delayed pretherapeutic biological assessment [aOR: 3.7 (1.4-10.0)]. Conclusions: Although most children included were treated before age 7 months, the initiation of therapy was delayed for more than 1 in 3. The period around HIV diagnosis is critical and should be better managed to reduce delays before cART initiation. © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

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