Perez-Rivas L.G.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich |
Rhayem Y.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich |
Sabrautzki S.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research |
Hantel C.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich |
And 9 more authors.
Journal of Molecular Endocrinology | Year: 2017
In an attempt to define novel genetic loci involved in the pathophysiology of primary aldosteronism, a mutagenesis screen after treatment with the alkylating agent N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea was established for the parameter aldosterone. One of the generated mouse lines with hyperaldosteronism was phenotypically and genetically characterized. This mouse line had high aldosterone levels but normal creatinine and urea values. The steroidogenic enzyme expression levels in the adrenal gland did not differ significantly among phenotypically affected and unaffected mice. Upon exome sequencing, point mutations were identified in seven candidate genes (Sspo, Dguok, Hoxaas2, Clstn3, Atm, Tipin and Mapk6). Subsequently, animals were stratified into wild-type and mutated groups according to their genotype for each of these candidate genes. A correlation of their genotypes with the respective aldosterone, aldosterone-to-renin ratio (ARR), urea and creatinine values as well as steroidogenic enzyme expression levels was performed. Aldosterone values were significantly higher in animals carrying mutations in four different genes (Sspo, Dguok, Hoxaas2 and Clstn3) and associated statistically significant adrenal Cyp11b2 overexpression as well as increased ARR was present only in mice with Sspo mutation. In contrast, mutations of the remaining candidate genes (Atm, Tipin and Mapk6) were associated with lower aldosterone values and lower Hsd3b6 expression levels. In summary, these data demonstrate association between the genes Sspo, Dguok, Hoxaas2 and Clstn3 and hyperaldosteronism. Final proofs for the causative nature of the mutations have to come from knock-out and knock-in experiments. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology Printed in Great Britain.
Sabrautzki S.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research |
Sabrautzki S.,Member of German Center for Diabetes Research |
de Angelis M.H.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research |
de Angelis M.H.,Member of German Center for Diabetes Research |
de Angelis M.H.,TU Munich
BMC Genomics | Year: 2015
Background: Exome sequencing has become a popular method to evaluate undirected mutagenesis experiments in mice. However, the most suitable mouse strain for the biological model may be relatively distant from the standard mouse reference genome. For pinpointing causative variants, a matching reference with gene annotations is essential, but not always readily available. Results: We present an approach that allows to use murine Ensembl annotations on alternative mouse strain assemblies. We resolved ENU-induced mutation screening for 8 phenotypic mutant lines generated on C3HeB/FeJ background aligning the sequences against the closely related, but not annotated reference of C3H/HeJ. Variants occurring in all strains were filtered out as specific for the C3HeB/FeJ strain but unrelated to mutagenesis. Variants occurring exclusively in all individuals of one mutant line and matching the inheritance model were selected as mutagenesis-related. These variants were annotated with gene and exon names lifted over from the standard murine reference mm9 to C3H/HeJ using megablast. For each mutant line, we could restrict the results to exonic variants in between 1 and 23 genes. Conclusions: The presented method of exonic annotation lift-over proved to be a valuable tool in the search for mutagenesis-derived coding genomic variants and the assessment of genotype-phenotype relationships. © 2015. Derdak et al.
Albrecht E.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research |
Waldenberger M.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research |
Krumsiek J.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research |
Evans A.M.,Metabolon |
And 25 more authors.
Metabolomics | Year: 2014
Serum urate, the final breakdown product of purine metabolism, is causally involved in the pathogenesis of gout, and implicated in cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Serum urate levels highly differ between men and women; however the underlying biological processes in its regulation are still not completely understood and are assumed to result from a complex interplay between genetic, environmental and lifestyle factors. In order to describe the metabolic vicinity of serum urate, we analyzed 355 metabolites in 1,764 individuals of the population-based KORA F4 study and constructed a metabolite network around serum urate using Gaussian Graphical Modeling in a hypothesis-free approach. We subsequently investigated the effect of sex and urate lowering medication on all 38 metabolites assigned to the network. Within the resulting network three main clusters could be detected around urate, including the well-known pathway of purine metabolism, as well as several dipeptides, a group of essential amino acids, and a group of steroids. Of the 38 assigned metabolites, 25 showed strong differences between sexes. Association with uricostatic medication intake was not only confined to purine metabolism but seen for seven metabolites within the network. Our findings highlight pathways that are important in the regulation of serum urate and suggest that dipeptides, amino acids, and steroid hormones are playing a role in its regulation. The findings might have an impact on the development of specific targets in the treatment and prevention of hyperuricemia. © 2013 The Author(s).
Neff F.,Institute of Pathology |
Neff F.,Institute of Experimental Genetics |
Flores-Dominguez D.,German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases |
Ryan D.P.,German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases |
And 53 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Investigation | Year: 2013
Aging is a major risk factor for a large number of disorders and functional impairments. Therapeutic targeting of the aging process may therefore represent an innovative strategy in the quest for novel and broadly effective treatments against age-related diseases. The recent report of lifespan extension in mice treated with the FDA-approved mTOR inhibitor rapamycin represented the first demonstration of pharmacological extension of maximal lifespan in mammals. Longevity effects of rapamycin may, however, be due to rapamycin's effects on specific life-limiting pathologies, such as cancers, and it remains unclear if this compound actually slows the rate of aging in mammals. Here, we present results from a comprehensive, large-scale assessment of a wide range of structural and functional aging phenotypes, which we performed to determine whether rapamycin slows the rate of aging in male C57BL/6J mice. While rapamycin did extend lifespan, it ameliorated few studied aging phenotypes. A subset of aging traits appeared to be rescued by rapamycin. Rapamycin, however, had similar effects on many of these traits in young animals, indicating that these effects were not due to a modulation of aging, but rather related to aging-independent drug effects. Therefore, our data largely dissociate rapamycin's longevity effects from effects on aging itself.
Venit T.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic |
Venit T.,Charles University |
Dzijak R.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic |
Kalendova A.,Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic |
And 18 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013
Background:Nuclear myosin I (NM1) is a nuclear isoform of the well-known "cytoplasmic" Myosin 1c protein (Myo1c). Located on the 11th chromosome in mice, NM1 results from an alternative start of transcription of the Myo1c gene adding an extra 16 amino acids at the N-terminus. Previous studies revealed its roles in RNA Polymerase I and RNA Polymerase II transcription, chromatin remodeling, and chromosomal movements. Its nuclear localization signal is localized in the middle of the molecule and therefore directs both Myosin 1c isoforms to the nucleus.Methodology/Principal Findings:In order to trace specific functions of the NM1 isoform, we generated mice lacking the NM1 start codon without affecting the cytoplasmic Myo1c protein. Mutant mice were analyzed in a comprehensive phenotypic screen in cooperation with the German Mouse Clinic. Strikingly, no obvious phenotype related to previously described functions has been observed. However, we found minor changes in bone mineral density and the number and size of red blood cells in knock-out mice, which are most probably not related to previously described functions of NM1 in the nucleus. In Myo1c/NM1 depleted U2OS cells, the level of Pol I transcription was restored by overexpression of shRNA-resistant mouse Myo1c. Moreover, we found Myo1c interacting with Pol II. The ratio between Myo1c and NM1 proteins were similar in the nucleus and deletion of NM1 did not cause any compensatory overexpression of Myo1c protein.Conclusion/Significance:We observed that Myo1c can replace NM1 in its nuclear functions. Amount of both proteins is nearly equal and NM1 knock-out does not cause any compensatory overexpression of Myo1c. We therefore suggest that both isoforms can substitute each other in nuclear processes. © 2013 Venit et al.
Hochrath K.,Saarland University |
Ehnert S.,University of Tübingen |
Ackert-Bicknell C.L.,The Jackson Laboratory |
Lau Y.,Charité - Medical University of Berlin |
And 24 more authors.
Bone | Year: 2013
Hepatic osteodystrophy (HOD) denotes the alterations in bone morphology and metabolism frequently observed in patients with chronic liver diseases, in particular in case of cholestatic conditions. The molecular mechanisms underlying HOD are only partially understood. In the present study, we characterized the bone phenotypes of the ATP-binding cassette transporter B4 knockout mouse (Abcb4-/-), a well-established mouse model of chronic cholestatic liver disease, with the aim of identifying and characterizing a mouse model for HOD. Furthermore, we investigated the influence of vitamin D on bone quality in this model. The bone morphology analyses revealed reduced bone mineral contents as well as changes in trabecular bone architecture and decreased cortical bone densities in Abcb4-/- mice with severe liver fibrosis. We observed dysregulation of genes involved in bone remodeling (osteoprotegerin, osteocalcin, osteopontin) and vitamin D metabolism (7-dehydrocholesterol reductase, Gc-globulin, Cyp2r1, Cyp27a1) as well as alterations in calcium and vitamin D homeostasis. In addition, serum RANKL and TGF-β levels were increased in Abcb4-/- mice. Vitamin D dietary intervention did not restore the bone phenotypes of Abcb4-/- animals. We conclude that the Abcb4-/- mouse provides an experimental framework and a preclinical model to gain further insights into the molecular pathobiology of HOD and to study the systemic effects of therapeutic interventions. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.
Dahlhoff M.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich |
Pfister S.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich |
Blutke A.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich |
Rozman J.,Helmholtz Center Munich |
And 13 more authors.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular Basis of Disease | Year: 2014
Vulnerability of the fetus upon maternal obesity can potentially occur during all developmental phases. We aimed at elaborating longer-term health outcomes of fetal overnutrition during the earliest stages of development. We utilized Naval Medical Research Institute (NMRI) mice to induce pre-conceptional and gestational obesity and followed offspring outcomes in the absence of any postnatal obesogenic influences. Male adult offspring developed overweight, insulin resistance, hyperleptinemia, hyperuricemia and hepatic steatosis; all these features were not observed in females. Instead, they showed impaired fasting glucose and a reduced fat mass and adipocyte size. Influences of the interaction of maternal diet. *. sex concerned offspring genes involved in fatty liver disease, lipid droplet size regulation and fat mass expansion. These data suggest that a peri-conceptional obesogenic exposure is sufficient to shape offspring gene expression patterns and health outcomes in a sex- and organ-specific manner, indicating varying developmental vulnerabilities between sexes towards metabolic disease in response to maternal overnutrition. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
Diener S.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research |
Bayer S.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research |
Bayer S.,TU Munich |
Sabrautzki S.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research |
And 23 more authors.
Mammalian Genome | Year: 2016
We performed exome sequencing for mutation discovery of an ENU (N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea)-derived mouse model characterized by significant elevated plasma alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities in female and male mutant mice, originally named BAP014 (bone screen alkaline phosphatase #14). We identified a novel loss-of-function mutation within the Fam46a (family with sequence similarity 46, member A) gene (NM_001160378.1:c.469G>T, NP_001153850.1:p.Glu157*). Heterozygous mice of this mouse line (renamed Fam46aE157*Mhda) had significantly high ALP activities and apparently no other differences in morphology compared to wild-type mice. In contrast, homozygous Fam46aE157*Mhda mice showed severe morphological and skeletal abnormalities including short stature along with limb, rib, pelvis, and skull deformities with minimal trabecular bone and reduced cortical bone thickness in long bones. ALP activities of homozygous mutants were almost two-fold higher than in heterozygous mice. Fam46a is weakly expressed in most adult and embryonic tissues with a strong expression in mineralized tissues as calvaria and femur. The FAM46A protein is computationally predicted as a new member of the superfamily of nucleotidyltransferase fold proteins, but little is known about its function. Fam46aE157*Mhda mice are the first mouse model for a mutation within the Fam46a gene. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York
Tokarz J.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research |
Moller G.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research |
Hrabe de Angelis M.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research |
Hrabe de Angelis M.,TU Munich |
And 4 more authors.
Steroids | Year: 2015
Steroid hormones are involved in the regulation of a variety of processes like embryonic development, sex differentiation, metabolism, immune responses, circadian rhythms, stress response, and reproduction in vertebrates. Teleost fishes and humans show a remarkable conservation in many developmental and physiological aspects, including the endocrine system in general and the steroid hormone related processes in particular. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge about steroid hormone biosynthesis and the steroid hormone receptors in teleost fishes and compares the findings to the human system. The impact of the duplicated genome in teleost fishes on steroid hormone biosynthesis and perception is addressed. Additionally, important processes in fish physiology regulated by steroid hormones, which are most dissimilar to humans, are described. We also give a short overview on the influence of anthropogenic endocrine disrupting compounds on steroid hormone signaling and the resulting adverse physiological effects for teleost fishes. By this approach, we show that the steroidogenesis, hormone receptors, and function of the steroid hormones are reasonably well understood when summarizing the available data of all teleost species analyzed to date. However, on the level of a single species or a certain fish-specific aspect of physiology, further research is needed. © 2015.
Kahle M.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research |
Kahle M.,Member of German Center for Diabetes Research |
Schafer A.,Helmholtz Center for Environmental Research |
Schafer A.,Member of German Center for Diabetes Research |
And 24 more authors.
Molecular Metabolism | Year: 2015
Objective: Excess lipid intake has been implicated in the pathophysiology of hepatosteatosis and hepatic insulin resistance. Lipids constitute approximately 50% of the cell membrane mass, define membrane properties, and create microenvironments for membrane-proteins. In this study we aimed to resolve temporal alterations in membrane metabolite and protein signatures during high-fat diet (HF)-mediated development of hepatic insulin resistance. Methods: We induced hepatosteatosis by feeding C3HeB/FeJ male mice an HF enriched with long-chain polyunsaturated C18:2n6 fatty acids for 7, 14, or 21 days. Longitudinal changes in hepatic insulin sensitivity were assessed via the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp, in membrane lipids via t-metabolomics- and membrane proteins via quantitative proteomics-analyses, and in hepatocyte morphology via electron microscopy. Data were compared to those of age- and litter-matched controls maintained on a low-fat diet. Results: Excess long-chain polyunsaturated C18:2n6 intake for 7 days did not compromise hepatic insulin sensitivity, however, induced hepatosteatosis and modified major membrane lipid constituent signatures in liver, e.g. increased total unsaturated, long-chain fatty acid-containing acyl-carnitine or membrane-associated diacylglycerol moieties and decreased total short-chain acyl-carnitines, glycerophosphocholines, lysophosphatidylcholines, or sphingolipids. Hepatic insulin sensitivity tended to decrease within 14 days HF-exposure. Overt hepatic insulin resistance developed until day 21 of HF-intervention and was accompanied by morphological mitochondrial abnormalities and indications for oxidative stress in liver. HF-feeding progressively decreased the abundance of protein-components of all mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes, inner and outer mitochondrial membrane substrate transporters independent from the hepatocellular mitochondrial volume in liver. Conclusions: We assume HF-induced modifications in membrane lipid- and protein-signatures prior to and during changes in hepatic insulin action in liver alter membrane properties - in particular those of mitochondria which are highly abundant in hepatocytes. In turn, a progressive decrease in the abundance of mitochondrial membrane proteins throughout HF-exposure likely impacts on mitochondrial energy metabolism, substrate exchange across mitochondrial membranes, contributes to oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage, and the development of insulin resistance in liver. © 2014 The Authors.