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Blumenschein G.R.,University of Houston | Smit E.F.,VU University Amsterdam | Planchard D.,Gustave Roussy GR | Kim D.-W.,Seoul National University | And 15 more authors.
Annals of Oncology | Year: 2015

Background: KRAS mutations are detected in 25% of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and no targeted therapies are approved for this subset population. Trametinib, a selective allosteric inhibitor of MEK1/MEK2, demonstrated preclinical and clinical activity in KRAS-mutant NSCLC. We report a phase II trial comparing trametinib with docetaxel in patients with advanced KRAS-mutant NSCLC. Patients and methods: Eligible patients with histologically confirmed KRAS-mutant NSCLC previously treated with one prior platinum-based chemotherapy were randomly assigned in a ratio of 2: 1 to trametinib (2 mg orally once daily) or docetaxel (75 mg/m2 i.v. every 3 weeks). Crossover to the other arm after disease progression was allowed. Primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS). The study was prematurely terminated after the interim analysis of 92 PFS events, which showed the comparison of trametinib versus docetaxel for PFS crossed the futility boundary. Results: One hundred and twenty-nine patients with KRAS-mutant NSCLC were randomized; of which, 86 patients received trametinib and 43 received docetaxel. Median PFS was 12 weeks in the trametinib arm and 11 weeks in the docetaxel arm (hazard ratio [HR] 1.14; 95% CI 0.75-1.75; P = 0.5197). Median overall survival, while the data are immature, was 8 months in the trametinib arm and was not reached in the docetaxel arm (HR 0.97; 95% CI 0.52-1.83; P = 0.934). There were 10 (12%) partial responses (PRs) in the trametinib arm and 5 (12%) PRs in the docetaxel arm (P=1.0000). The most frequent adverse events (AEs) in ≥20% of trametinib patients were rash, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and fatigue. The most frequent grade 3 treatment-related AEs in the trametinib arm were hypertension, rash, diarrhea, and asthenia. Conclusion: Trametinib showed similar PFS and a response rate as docetaxel in patients with previously treated KRASmutant- positive NSCLC. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. Source


Condello S.,Indiana University | Matei D.,Melvin and Bren Simon Cancer Center | Matei D.,Indiana University
FASEB Journal | Year: 2013

Tissue transglutaminase (TG2) is a multifunctional enzyme involved in protein cross-linking and cell adhesion to fibronectin (FN). In cancer, TG2 induces an epithelial to mesenchymal transition, contributing to metastasis. Because cadherins bind β-catenin at cell-cell junctions, disruption of adherens junctions destabilizes cadherin-catenin complexes. The goal of the present study was to analyze whether and how TG2 interacts with and regulates β-catenin signaling in ovarian cancer (OC) cells. We observed a significant correlation between TG2 and β-catenin expression levels in OC cells and tumors. TG2 augmented Wnt/β-catenin signaling, as evidenced by enhanced β-catenin transcriptional activity, inducing transcription of target genes cyclin D1 and c-Myc. By promoting integrin-mediated cell adhesion to FN, TG2 physically associates with and recruits c-Src, which in turn phosphorylates β-catenin at Tyr654, releasing it from E-cadherin and rendering it available for transcriptional regulation. By interacting with FN and enhancing β-catenin signaling, complexed TG2 stimulates OC cell proliferation. In summary, our data demonstrate that TG2 regulates β-catenin expression and function in OC cells and define the c-Src-dependent mechanism through which this occurs. © FASEB. Source


News Article
Site: http://www.biosciencetechnology.com/rss-feeds/all/rss.xml/all

A simple, ultrasensitive microRNA sensor developed and tested by researchers from the schools of science and medicine at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis and the Indiana University Melvin and Bren Simon Cancer Center holds promise for the design of new diagnostic strategies and, potentially, for the prognosis and treatment of pancreatic and other cancers. In a study published in the Nov. issue of ACS Nano, a peer-reviewed journal of the American Chemical Society focusing on nanoscience and nanotechnology research, the IUPUI researchers describe their design of the novel, low-cost, nanotechnology-enabled reusable sensor. They also report on the promising results of tests of the sensor's ability to identify pancreatic cancer or indicate the existence of a benign condition by quantifying changes in levels of microRNA signatures linked to pancreatic cancer. MicroRNAs are small molecules of RNA that regulate how larger RNA molecules lead to protein expression. As such, microRNAs are very important in biology and disease states. "We used the fundamental concepts of nanotechnology to design the sensor to detect and quantify biomolecules at very low concentrations," said Rajesh Sardar, Ph.D., who developed the sensor. "We have designed an ultrasensitive technique so that we can see minute changes in microRNA concentrations in a patient's blood and confirm the presence of pancreatic cancer." Sardar is an assistant professor of chemistry and chemical biology in the School of Science at IUPUI and leads an interdisciplinary research program focusing on the intersection of analytical chemistry and the nanoscience of metallic nanoparticles. "If we can establish that there is cancer in the pancreas because the sensor detects high levels of microRNA-10b or one of the other microRNAs associated with that specific cancer, we may be able to treat it sooner," said Murray Korc, M.D., the Myles Brand Professor of Cancer Research at the IU School of Medicine and a researcher at the IU Simon Cancer Center. Korc, worked with Sardar to improve the sensor's capabilities and led the testing of the sensor and its clinical uses as well as advancing the understanding of pancreatic cancer biology. "That's especially significant for pancreatic cancer, because for many patients it is symptom-free for years or even a decade or more, by which time it has spread to other organs, when surgical removal is no longer possible and therapeutic options are limited," said Korc. "For example, diagnosis of pancreatic cancer at an early stage of the disease followed by surgical removal is associated with a 40 percent five-year survival. Diagnosis of metastatic pancreatic cancer, by contrast, is associated with life expectancy that is often only a year or less. "The beauty of the sensor designed by Dr. Sardar is its ability to accurately detect mild increases in microRNA levels, which could allow for early cancer diagnosis," Korc added. Over the past decade, studies have shown that microRNAs play important roles in cancer and other diseases, such as diabetes and cardiovascular disorders. The new IUPUI nanotechnology-based sensor can detect changes in any of these microRNAs. The sensor is a small glass chip that contains triangular-shaped gold nanoparticles called 'nanoprisms.' After dipping it in a sample of blood or another body fluid, the scientist measures the change in the nanoprism's optical property to determine the levels of specific microRNAs. "Using gold nanoprisms may sound expensive, but it isn't because these particles are so very tiny," Sardar said. "It's a rather cheap technique because it uses nanotechnology and needs very little gold. $250 worth of gold makes 4,000 sensors. Four thousand sensors allow you to do at least 4,000 tests. The low cost makes this technique ideal for use anywhere, including in low-resource environments in this country and around the world."


Abstract: A simple, ultrasensitive microRNA sensor developed and tested by researchers from the schools of science and medicine at Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis and the Indiana University Melvin and Bren Simon Cancer Center holds promise for the design of new diagnostic strategies and, potentially, for the prognosis and treatment of pancreatic and other cancers. In a study published in the Nov. issue of ACS Nano, a peer-reviewed journal of the American Chemical Society focusing on nanoscience and nanotechnology research, the IUPUI researchers describe their design of the novel, low-cost, nanotechnology-enabled reusable sensor. They also report on the promising results of tests of the sensor's ability to identify pancreatic cancer or indicate the existence of a benign condition by quantifying changes in levels of microRNA signatures linked to pancreatic cancer. MicroRNAs are small molecules of RNA that regulate how larger RNA molecules lead to protein expression. As such, microRNAs are very important in biology and disease states. "We used the fundamental concepts of nanotechnology to design the sensor to detect and quantify biomolecules at very low concentrations," said Rajesh Sardar, Ph.D., who developed the sensor. "We have designed an ultrasensitive technique so that we can see minute changes in microRNA concentrations in a patient's blood and confirm the presence of pancreatic cancer." Sardar is an assistant professor of chemistry and chemical biology in the School of Science at IUPUI and leads an interdisciplinary research program focusing on the intersection of analytical chemistry and the nanoscience of metallic nanoparticles. "If we can establish that there is cancer in the pancreas because the sensor detects high levels of microRNA-10b or one of the other microRNAs associated with that specific cancer, we may be able to treat it sooner," said Murray Korc, M.D., the Myles Brand Professor of Cancer Research at the IU School of Medicine and a researcher at the IU Simon Cancer Center. Korc, worked with Sardar to improve the sensor's capabilities and led the testing of the sensor and its clinical uses as well as advancing the understanding of pancreatic cancer biology. "That's especially significant for pancreatic cancer, because for many patients it is symptom-free for years or even a decade or more, by which time it has spread to other organs, when surgical removal is no longer possible and therapeutic options are limited," said Korc. "For example, diagnosis of pancreatic cancer at an early stage of the disease followed by surgical removal is associated with a 40 percent five-year survival. Diagnosis of metastatic pancreatic cancer, by contrast, is associated with life expectancy that is often only a year or less. "The beauty of the sensor designed by Dr. Sardar is its ability to accurately detect mild increases in microRNA levels, which could allow for early cancer diagnosis," Korc added. Over the past decade, studies have shown that microRNAs play important roles in cancer and other diseases, such as diabetes and cardiovascular disorders. The new IUPUI nanotechnology-based sensor can detect changes in any of these microRNAs. The sensor is a small glass chip that contains triangular-shaped gold nanoparticles called 'nanoprisms.' After dipping it in a sample of blood or another body fluid, the scientist measures the change in the nanoprism's optical property to determine the levels of specific microRNAs. "Using gold nanoprisms may sound expensive, but it isn't because these particles are so very tiny," Sardar said. "It's a rather cheap technique because it uses nanotechnology and needs very little gold. $250 worth of gold makes 4,000 sensors. Four thousand sensors allow you to do at least 4,000 tests. The low cost makes this technique ideal for use anywhere, including in low-resource environments in this country and around the world." ### Indiana University Research and Technology Corporation has filed a patent application on Sardar's and Korc's groundbreaking nanotechnology-enabled sensor. The researchers' ultimate goal is to design ultrasensitive and extremely selective low-cost point-of-care diagnostics enabling individual therapeutic approaches to diseases. Currently, polymerase chain reaction technology is used to determine microRNA signatures, which requires extraction of the microRNA from blood or other biological fluid and reverse transcription or amplification of the microRNA. PCR provides relative values. By contrast, the process developed at IUPUI is simpler, quantitative, more sensitive and highly specific even when two different microRNAs vary in a single position. The study demonstrated that the IUPUI nanotechnology-enabled sensor is as good as if not better than the most advanced PCR in detection and quantification of microRNA. In addition to Sardar and Korc, authors of 'Label-Free Nanoplasmonic-Based Short Noncoding RNA Sensing at Attomolar Concentrations Allows for Quantitative and Highly Specific Assay of MicroRNA-10b in Biological Fluids and Circulating Exosomes' are School of Science at IUPUI graduate students Gayatri K. Joshi, Thakshila Liyanage, and Katie Lawrence; School of Medicine research analyst Samantha Deitz-McElyea (an alumna of the School of Science); and IU undergraduate Sonali Mali. Sardar and Korc are co-principal investigators on the IUPUI Funding Opportunities for Research Commercialization and Economic Success and IU Collaborative Research Grant funding that supported the study, which was also supported by a U.S. Public Health Service grant (CA-75059) awarded to Korc by the National Cancer Institute. For more information, please click If you have a comment, please us. Issuers of news releases, not 7th Wave, Inc. or Nanotechnology Now, are solely responsible for the accuracy of the content.


Wu S.,Harvard University | Wu S.,Brown University | Cho E.,Brown University | Cho E.,Harvard University | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Rheumatology | Year: 2015

Objective.Alcohol intake has been associated with an increased risk of psoriasis. However, the association between alcohol intake and risk of psoriatic arthritis (PsA) has been unclear. We evaluated the association between alcohol intake and risk of incident PsA in a large cohort of US women. Methods. Our present study included a total of 82,672 US women who provided repeated data on alcohol intake over the followup period (1991-2005). Self-reported PsA was validated using the Psoriatic Arthritis Screening and Evaluation (PASE) questionnaire. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the age-adjusted and multivariate-adjusted HR and 95% CI for the PsA in association with alcohol intake. Results.We documented 141 incident PsA cases during 14 years (1,137,763 person-yrs) of followup. Compared to non-drinkers, the multivariate HR for PsA were 0.70 (95% CI 0.48-1.01) for 0.1-14.9 g/day, 1.43 (95% CI 0.67-3.08) for 15.0-29.9 g/day, and 4.45 (95% CI 2.07-9.59) for ≥ 30.0 g/day of cumulative average alcohol intake. Risk estimates were generally consistent when using updated alcohol intake and baseline alcohol intake in 1991 as the exposures, and when the analysis was restricted to those who developed psoriasis during the followup. Conclusion. Excessive alcohol intake was associated with an increased risk of incident PsA in a cohort of US women. © 2015. All rights reserved. Source

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