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Van Wijk R.,International Institute of Biophysics | Van Wijk R.,Meluna Research | Wiegant F.A.C.,University Utrecht
Frontiers in Bioscience - Elite | Year: 2011

Postexposure conditioning, as a part of hormesis, involves the application of a low dose of stress following exposure to a severe stress condition. The beneficial effect of a low level of stress in postconditioning hormesis is illustrated by a number of examples found in experimental and clinical research. Depending on whether the low-dose stress is of the same type of stress or is different from the initial high-dose stress causing the diseased state, postconditioning is classified as homologous or heterologous, respectively. In clinical homeopathy, where substances are applied according to the Similia principle, the same distinction is found between the isopathic and the 'heteropathic' or homeopathic use of low dose substances. The Similia principle implies that substances causing symptoms in healthy biological systems can be used to treat similar symptoms in diseased biological systems. Only when heterologous substances are tested for therapeutic effects, the Similia principle can be studied. It is then possible to compare the effect of treatment with the degree of similarity between the diseased state and the effects caused by different substances. The latter research was mainly performed with cells in culture using heat shocked cells post exposed to a variety of stress conditions in low dose. Source


Van Wijk R.,Meluna Research | Wiegant F.A.C.,University Utrecht
Homeopathy | Year: 2015

Background: Phials containing high dilutions of homeopathic remedies are commonly utilized in diagnostic tools in combination with electro acupuncture measuring electrical conductivity of the skin. The present research aimed to elucidate the interaction of the homeopathic remedy and the human organism. Method: The study protocol included the transition of a healthy subject to a diseased state utilizing a sub-harmful dose of a toxin. Subsequently, the subject was exposed to a homeopathic or placebo remedy in a closed glass phial and electrical conductivity was measured in open as well as in blind trials. A total of 229 data were collected from open trials and 750 data from blind trials. Result: The experimental data showed that homoeopathic remedies in closed glass phials may influence the electrical skin conductivity. The results of the blind trials differed considerably from those of the open trials. The percentage of correctly identified (verum and placebo) phials in the open trials (85%) was statistically different from those in the blind trials (65%). In both types of trials, however, the difference between the sealed phials containing the homeopathic medicine and the placebo was statistically significant. The results of measurements are directly linked to the way in which the tester holds the electrode in one hand and the subject's finger in the other, while putting pressure on the electrode. Conclusion: It was concluded that the tester's muscle tone is the intermediary in unconsciously selecting which phial influenced him in his specific contact with the subject. © 2015 The Faculty of Homeopathy. Source


Clausen J.,Veronica | van Wijk R.,Meluna Research | Albrecht H.,Veronica
Homeopathy | Year: 2014

The database HomBRex (Homeopathy Basic Research experiments) was established in 2002 to provide an overview of the basic research already done on homeopathy (http://www.carstens-stiftung.de/hombrex). By this means, it facilitates the exploration of the Similia Principle and the working mechanism of homeopathy. Since 2002, the total number of experiments listed has almost doubled. The current review reports the history of basic research in homeopathy as evidenced by publication dates and origin of publications.In July 2013, the database held 1868 entries. Most publications were reported from France (n=267), followed by Germany (n=246) and India (n=237). In the last ten years, the number of publications from Brazil dramatically increased from n=13 (before 2004) to n=164 (compared to n=251 published in France before 2004, and n=16 between 2004 and 2013). The oldest database entry was from Germany (1832). © 2014 The Faculty of Homeopathy. Source


Van Wijk E.P.A.,Leiden University | Van Wijk E.P.A.,Meluna Research | Van Wijk E.P.A.,International Institute of Biophysics | Wijk R.V.,Meluna Research | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology | Year: 2010

Photon signals emitted spontaneously from dorsal and palm sides of both hands were recorded using 6000 time windows of size T=50. ms in 50 healthy human subjects. These photon signals demonstrated universal behaviour by variance and mean. The data sets for larger time windows up to T=50. s were obtained by merging the data recorded with T=50. ms. The behaviour of Fano factor regarding different window sizes was investigated. The Fano factor hovered around one in signals up to T=3. s and increased slowly with the increase in window size. This indicated super-Poissonian distribution of photo counts. The Fano factor curve F(T) obtained by averaging all subjects and locations had a characteristic shape. Data suggest that the shape is essentially a combination of a smaller sub-population of individuals with sub-Poissonian and a larger sub-population with predominantly super-Poissonian photo count distribution. Averaging the data obtained by randomly shuffling observed data sets was flat and did not show any structure with T. The same applied both to the observed background data sets and the data sets obtained by randomly shuffling background in 50 measurements. The Fano factor was also flat in 50 measurements documented both by a standard LED as well as its shuffled data sets. The structure in the shape F(T) is characteristic of human signals. It may contain valuable information about metabolic processes and may have diagnostic relevance. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source


Bajpai R.P.,Leiden University | Van Wijk E.P.A.,Leiden University | Van Wijk E.P.A.,Meluna Research | Van Wijk R.,Leiden University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology | Year: 2013

Sixty visible range photon signals spontaneously emitted from the dorsal side of both hands of fifteen human subjects are analyzed with the aim of finding their attributes. The signals are of 30 min duration and detected in bins of 50 ms by two synchronized photo multipliers sensitive in the range (290-630 nm). Each signal is a time series of 36,000 elements. The attributes of its signal are determined from the statistical properties of time series. The mean and variance of time series determine the attributes signal strength and intercept (p0) and slope (p1) of the Fano Factor curve. The photon count distribution of the time series determines squeezed state parameters |α|, r, θ and, squeezed state index (SSI), and sum of the squares of residue (SSR). The correlation between simultaneously detected signals determines intercept (c0) and slope (c1) of their correlation curve. The variability of attributes is studied by calculating them in smaller intervals covering the entire signal. The profile of attribute at 12 sites in a subject is more informative and biologically relevant. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

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