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Garcovich S.,Policlinico melli University Hospital | Carbone T.,Laboratory of Experimental Immunology | Avitabile S.,Laboratory of Experimental Immunology | Nasorri F.,Laboratory of Experimental Immunology | And 2 more authors.
European Journal of Dermatology | Year: 2012

As tattooing practices increase, delayed-type inflammatory reactions represent an uncommon adverse event to tattoo pigments. Different reaction patterns, such as eczematous, lichenoid, granulomatous and pseudolymphomatous reactions, have been previously reported, especially in association with metals contained in red tattoo pigments. We report a lichenoid papular reaction to an organic red tattoo ink, characterized by an intense mononuclear infiltrate dominated by CD8 + T cells and CD56 + lymphocytes and distributed in the superficial dermis around the red pigment and in the epidermis. Cytofluorimetric analysis of the lesional skin infiltrate confirmed the high frequency of cytotoxic CD8 + T cells and CD56 +CD16 - lymphocytes, most of which release type 1 cytokines. Chemical analysis of the red tattoo pigment confirmed its organic nature and the presence of intermediate reactive compounds. The lichenoid tissue reaction to red organic tattoo pigment showed the prototypical features of a cytotoxic inflammatory response to foreign substances (xenobiotics). The chemically unstable and reactive nature of modern tattoo pigments has to be taken into account by the clinician as well by the tattoo recipients.


Palazzi M.,Niguarda Ca Granda Hospital | Alterio D.,Oncology and Radiotherapy Institute | Tonoli S.,University of Brescia | Caspiani O.,Isola Tiberina Fatebenefratelli Hospital | And 22 more authors.
Tumori | Year: 2011

Aims and background. Our previous survey showed that the patterns of postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) for head and neck cancer (HNC) in Italy might be suboptimal. A prospective observational study was therefore designed to evaluate this issue in greater detail. Methods. All radiotherapy centers involved in the HNC Working Group of the Italian Radiation Oncology Association were asked to enter into the study all patients treated with PORT during a 6-month period. Results. A total of 200 patients were accrued by 24 centers from December 2008 to May 2009. Larynx (38%) and oral cavity (34%) were the most common primary sites. The median time between surgery and the start of radiotherapy was 69 days (range, 25-215 days). Seventy-nine percent of cases with no evidence of risk factors for local recurrence were treated with high-dose radiotherapy to the primary site. In about 75% of cases the pN0 neck was included in the target volume. Concomitant chemotherapy was delivered to about 60% of patients with major risk factors and 21% of patients with no risk factors. Conclusions. Three issues emerged from our study as potential targets for future investigations: the impact on clinical outcome of the interval between surgery and the start of PORT; factors driving radiation oncologists to overtreat volumes at low risk of recurrence; and problems associated with the delivery of concomitant chemotherapy.


PubMed | Policlinico melli University Hospital
Type: Case Reports | Journal: European journal of dermatology : EJD | Year: 2012

As tattooing practices increase, delayed-type inflammatory reactions represent an uncommon adverse event to tattoo pigments. Different reaction patterns, such as eczematous, lichenoid, granulomatous and pseudolymphomatous reactions, have been previously reported, especially in association with metals contained in red tattoo pigments. We report a lichenoid papular reaction to an organic red tattoo ink, characterized by an intense mononuclear infiltrate dominated by CD8(+) T cells and CD56(+) lymphocytes and distributed in the superficial dermis around the red pigment and in the epidermis. Cytofluorimetric analysis of the lesional skin infiltrate confirmed the high frequency of cytotoxic CD8(+ )T cells and CD56(+)CD16(-) lymphocytes, most of which release type 1 cytokines. Chemical analysis of the red tattoo pigment confirmed its organic nature and the presence of intermediate reactive compounds. The lichenoid tissue reaction to red organic tattoo pigment showed the prototypical features of a cytotoxic inflammatory response to foreign substances (xenobiotics). The chemically unstable and reactive nature of modern tattoo pigments has to be taken into account by the clinician as well by the tattoo recipients.

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