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Parkville, Australia

Morton R.L.,University of Sydney | Snelling P.,Royal Prince Alfred Hospital | Webster A.C.,University of Sydney | Rose J.,University of Sydney | And 3 more authors.
CMAJ | Year: 2012

Background: For every patient with chronic kidney disease who undergoes renal-replacement therapy, there is one patient who undergoes conservative management of their disease. We aimed to determine the most important characteristics of dialysis and the trade-offs patients were willing to make in choosing dialysis instead of conservative care. Methods: We conducted a discrete choice experiment involving adults with stage 3-5 chronic kidney disease from eight renal clinics in Australia. We assessed the influence of treatment characteristics (life expectancy, number of visits to the hospital per week, ability to travel, time spent undergoing dialysis [i.e., time spent attached to a dialysis machine per treatment, measured in hours], time of day at which treatment occurred, availability of subsidized transport and flexibility of the treatment schedule) on patients' preferences for dialysis versus conservative care. Results: Of 151 patients invited to participate, 105 completed our survey. Patients were more likely to choose dialysis than conservative care if dialysis involved an increased average life expectancy (odds ratio [OR] 1.84, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.57-2.15), if they were able to dialyse during the day or evening rather than during the day only (OR 8.95, 95% CI 4.46-17.97), and if subsidized transport was available (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.24-1.95). Patients were less likely to choose dialysis over conservative care if an increase in the number of visits to hospital was required (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.56-0.88) and if there were more restrictions on their ability to travel (OR = 0.47, 95%CI 0.36-0.61). Patients were willing to forgo 7 months of life expectancy to reduce the number of required visits to hospital and 15 months of life expectancy to increase their ability to travel. Interpretation: Patients approaching endstage kidney disease are willing to trade considerable life expectancy to reduce the burden and restrictions imposed by dialysis. © 2012 Canadian Medical Association or its licensors. Source

Parry S.M.,University of Melbourne | Denehy L.,University of Melbourne | Denehy L.,Institute for Breathing and Sleep | Beach L.J.,Melbourne Health | And 4 more authors.
Critical Care | Year: 2015

Introduction: With growing awareness of the importance of rehabilitation, new measures are being developed specifically for use in the intensive care unit (ICU). There are currently 26 measures reported to assess function in ICU survivors. The Physical Function in Intensive care Test scored (PFIT-s) has established clinimetric properties. It is unknown how other functional measures perform in comparison to the PFIT-s or which functional measure may be the most clinically applicable for use within the ICU. The aims of this study were to determine (1) the criterion validity of the Functional Status Score for the ICU (FSS-ICU), ICU Mobility Scale (IMS) and Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) against the PFIT-s; (2) the construct validity of these tests against muscle strength; (3) predictive utility of these tests to predict discharge to home; and (4) the clinical applicability. This was a nested study within an ongoing controlled study and an observational study. Methods: Sixty-six individuals were assessed at awakening and ICU discharge. Measures included: PFIT-s, FSS-ICU, IMS and SPPB. Bivariate relationships (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient) and predictive validity (logistic regression) were determined. Responsiveness (effect sizes); floor and ceiling effects; and minimal important differences were calculated. Results: Mean ± SD PFIT-s at awakening was 4.7 ± 2.3 out of 10. On awakening a large positive relationship existed between PFIT-s and the other functional measures: FSS-ICU (rho = 0.87, p < 0.005), IMS (rho = 0.81, p < 0.005) and SPPB (rho = 0.70, p < 0.005). The PFIT-s had excellent construct validity (rho = 0.8, p < 0.005) and FSS-ICU (rho = 0.69, p < 0.005) and IMS (rho = 0.57, p < 0.005) had moderate construct validity with muscle strength. The PFIT-s and FSS-ICU had small floor/ceiling effects <11% at awakening and ICU discharge. The SPPB had a large floor effect at awakening (78%) and ICU discharge (56%). All tests demonstrated responsiveness; however highest effect size was seen in the PFIT-s (Cohen's d =0.71). Conclusions: There is high criterion validity for other functional measures against the PFIT-s. The PFIT-s and FSS-ICU are promising functional measures and are recommended to measure function within the ICU. Trial registration: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02214823. Registered 7 August 2014). © Parry et al.; licensee BioMed Central. Source

Chan E.W.,Monash University | Taylor D.M.,Austin Health | Knott J.C.,Melbourne Health | Kong D.C.M.,Monash University
EMA - Emergency Medicine Australasia | Year: 2011

Objective: To describe the prescribing practice of emergency medicine clinicians in the management of highly agitated patients and to identify perceived barriers to management and the gaps in training. Method: We undertook an anonymous cross-sectional mail survey of the Australasian College for Emergency Medicine (ACEM) members (fellows and advanced trainees) between June and September 2009. A questionnaire including a case vignette of a hypothetical patient and three clinical scenarios was employed to ascertain prescribing practice and assess perceived barriers to management, confidence and the perceived usefulness of existing and future Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs). Results: All 2052 ACEM members were surveyed. However, seven had incorrect postal addresses and could not be reached. Of the remaining 2045, 786/2052 (38.3%, 95% CI 36.2-40.5) responses were received. Of the 786 respondents, 783 were practicing clinicians. If monotherapy was chosen, 622/783 (79.4%, 95% CI 76.4-82.2) of respondents preferred midazolam to manage the common scenario where no history was available, followed by haloperidol 45/783 (5.8%, 95% CI 4.3-7.7) and olanzapine 38/783 (4.9%, 95% CI 3.5-6.7). Most respondents 500/783 (63.9%, 95% CI 60.4-67.2) would also administer another sedative (combination therapy). Important perceived barriers to agitation management included lack of both training (352/783 [45.0%, 95% CI 41.4-48.5]) and a national CPG (313/783 [40.0%, 95% CI 36.5-43.5]). Respondents were generally confident in all aspects of management, although relatively fewer trainees were confident in determining dosing. Institutional CPGs were considered most useful for 415/783 (53.0%, 95% CI 49.4-56.5) respondents. If an ACEM-endorsed CPG were to be developed in the future, 634/783 (81.0%, 95% CI 78.0-83.6) respondents would consider this useful. Conclusion: There is considerable variation in the management of hypothetical cases of acute agitation in Australasian EDs. Benzodiazepines and antipsychotics, either alone or in combination, are commonly used. An ACEM-endorsed, Australasian CPG was perceived as useful. © 2010 The Authors. EMA © 2010 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine. Source

Morton R.L.,University of Sydney | Snelling P.,Royal Prince Alfred Hospital | Webster A.C.,University of Sydney | Rose J.,University of Sydney | And 3 more authors.
American Journal of Kidney Diseases | Year: 2012

Background: Dialysis modality preferences of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and family caregivers are important, yet rarely quantified. Study Design: Prospective, unlabeled, discrete-choice experiment with random-parameter logit analysis. Setting & Participants: Adults with stages 3-5 CKD and caregivers educated about dialysis treatment options from 8 Australian renal clinics. Predictors: Preferences for and trade-offs between the dialysis treatment attributes of life expectancy, number of hospital visits per week, ability to travel, hours per treatment, treatment time of day, subsidized transport service, and flexibility of treatment schedule. Outcomes & Measurements: Results presented as ORs for preferring home-based or in-center dialysis to conservative care. Results: 105 predialysis patients and 73 family caregivers completed the study. Median patient age was 63 years, and mean estimated glomerular filtration rate was 18.1 (range, 6-34) mL/min/1.73 m 2. Median caregiver age was 61 years. Home-based dialysis (either peritoneal or home hemodialysis) was chosen by patients in 65% of choice sets; in-center dialysis, in 35%; and conservative care, in 10%. For caregivers, this was 72%, 25%, and 3%, respectively. Both patients and caregivers preferred longer rather than shorter hours of dialysis (ORs of 2.02 [95% CI, 1.51-2.70] and 2.67 [95% CI, 1.85-3.85] for patients and caregivers, respectively), but were less likely to choose nocturnal than daytime dialysis (ORs of 0.07 [95% CI, 0.01-0.75] and 0.03 [95% CI, 0.01-0.20]). Patients were willing to forgo 23 (95% CI, 19-27) months of life expectancy with home-based dialysis to decrease their travel restrictions. For caregivers, this was 17 (95% CI, 16-18) patient-months. Limitations: Data were limited to stated preferences rather than actual choice of dialysis modality. Conclusions: Our study suggests that it is rare for caregivers to prefer conservative nondialytic care for family members with CKD. Home-based dialysis modalities that enable patients and their family members to travel with minimal restriction would be strongly aligned with the preferences of both parties. © 2012 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Melbourne Health | Date: 2012-07-12

The present invention relates generally to viral variants exhibiting reduced interactivity with immunological reagents. More particularly, the present invention is directed to hepatitis B variants exhibiting complete or partial resistance to nucleoside analogs and/or reduced interactivity with antibodies to viral surface components. The present invention further contemplates assays for detecting such viral variants which assays are useful in monitoring anti-viral therapeutic agents.

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