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Carlton, Australia

Ingley C.,Auckland University of Technology | Rennie M.,University of Regina | Mueller J.,The New School | Cocks G.,Melbourne Business School | And 2 more authors.
World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development | Year: 2011

This study considers the legitimacy of shareholder activism as a means of exercising influence in the corporate decision-making process and identifies self-reformed boards as a superior solution to the issues that activists attempt to address. We conceptualise the board of directors' role as representing the interests of multiple principals. When any one principal is able to serve its own interests by influencing corporate decision-making through shareholder activism, other principals' interests may be compromised. We argue that a better long-term solution lies not with activist shareholders, but with culturally reformed boards. We suggest a set of self-reform initiatives that would help them to achieve their potential. We develop a conceptual framework for the arguments in favour of boards taking a leadership role in corporate engagement with shareholders and stakeholders. To the extent that boards are unable to implement self-reform, governments may need to develop public policy initiatives for corporate governance reform. © 2011 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

Loughnan S.,University of Melbourne | Bratanova B.,Melbourne Business School | Kuppens P.,Catholic University of Leuven
Behavioral and Brain Sciences | Year: 2013

Van de Vliert puts forward a model of how climate and economics interact to shape human needs, stresses, and freedoms. Although we applaud the construction of this model, we suggest that more needs to be done. Specifically, by adopting a multi-level and experimental approach, we can develop an integrated, causal, and psychological model of climato-economics. Copyright © 2013 Cambridge University Press.

Van Der Haar S.,Maastricht University | Van Der Haar S.,Leiden University | Segers M.,Maastricht University | Jehn K.A.,Melbourne Business School
International Journal of Emergency Management | Year: 2013

This paper is about the development and validity testing of a context-sensitive measure of the effectiveness of multidisciplinary emergency management teams that coordinate the multidisciplinary assistance on an incident scene. The scale can assist in future research, and serve as an instrument to evaluate team effectiveness during not only actual incidents but also emergency management exercises and training programmes. After developing the scale, we validated it in a study with a field sample of 50 teams executing realistic emergency management exercises. Results indicate that the scale is internally consistent. We showed construct validity by an assessment of both convergent and discriminant validity. The scale indicates participant-external rater invariance and can be aggregated to a team score. Suggestions are offered for improving the scale, future validity testing, and practical use of the measure. Copyright © 2013 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

Subramanian A.M.,National University of Singapore | Lim K.,Melbourne Business School | Soh P.-H.,Simon Fraser University
Research Policy | Year: 2013

A firm's ability to produce high-impact innovations depends upon the nature of its R&D alliances as well as its composition of scientific human capital. The firm's scientific human capital is made up of its scientists, who produce valuable research outputs and who engage with the broader scientific community, thus helping the firm to integrate new knowledge from universities and other firms. In this paper, we examine heterogeneity within the firm's scientific human capital, emphasizing the distinct role of 'bridging scientists' who engage in two related but dissimilar scientific activities: patenting and publishing. Using a panel dataset of 222 firms in biotechnology between 1990 and 2000, we show that bridging scientists have a positive and significant impact on patent performance relative to other scientists within the firm. Looking closer at bridging scientists, we draw a distinction between Pasteur bridging scientists and Edison bridging scientists, with the latter having less of an orientation towards fundamental research. We show that both types of bridging scientists complement the focal firm's R&D alliances with other firms. However, Pasteur bridging scientists are substitutive with university R&D alliances while Edison bridging scientists are complementary. Our findings suggest that the composition of a firm's scientific human capital and its R&D alliances interact in subtle ways to impact patent performance. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Lim K.,Melbourne Business School | Chesbrough H.,University of California at Berkeley | Ruan Y.,National University of Singapore
International Journal of Technology Management | Year: 2010

We explore the technological evolution of three microprocessor firms between 1976 and 2004. We trace how two initially small entrants (Intel and AMD) competed against a larger and more established incumbent (IBM). We show that changes in interfirm relationships (as reflected by competitive and cooperative events) affect patenting strategies. Periods of increased competition correspond to greater patenting within patent classes in which the firms compete head-on. Periods of cooperation are surprisingly not always accompanied by increased patenting in complementary upstream and downstream areas. Despite changes in competitive regime, Intel and AMD exhibit a persistent dependence upon IBM for technology. Our study shows that small firms can compete against a large incumbent in the product market while being dependent upon external sources for knowledge. We also suggest ways in which incumbent firms operating in such environments (e.g., IBM) might engage with these entrants through co-opetition and open innovation. Copyright © 2010 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

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