Lim K.,Melbourne Business School |
Chesbrough H.,University of California at Berkeley |
Ruan Y.,National University of Singapore
International Journal of Technology Management | Year: 2010
We explore the technological evolution of three microprocessor firms between 1976 and 2004. We trace how two initially small entrants (Intel and AMD) competed against a larger and more established incumbent (IBM). We show that changes in interfirm relationships (as reflected by competitive and cooperative events) affect patenting strategies. Periods of increased competition correspond to greater patenting within patent classes in which the firms compete head-on. Periods of cooperation are surprisingly not always accompanied by increased patenting in complementary upstream and downstream areas. Despite changes in competitive regime, Intel and AMD exhibit a persistent dependence upon IBM for technology. Our study shows that small firms can compete against a large incumbent in the product market while being dependent upon external sources for knowledge. We also suggest ways in which incumbent firms operating in such environments (e.g., IBM) might engage with these entrants through co-opetition and open innovation. Copyright © 2010 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.
Subramanian A.M.,National University of Singapore |
Lim K.,Melbourne Business School |
Soh P.-H.,Simon Fraser University
Research Policy | Year: 2013
A firm's ability to produce high-impact innovations depends upon the nature of its R&D alliances as well as its composition of scientific human capital. The firm's scientific human capital is made up of its scientists, who produce valuable research outputs and who engage with the broader scientific community, thus helping the firm to integrate new knowledge from universities and other firms. In this paper, we examine heterogeneity within the firm's scientific human capital, emphasizing the distinct role of 'bridging scientists' who engage in two related but dissimilar scientific activities: patenting and publishing. Using a panel dataset of 222 firms in biotechnology between 1990 and 2000, we show that bridging scientists have a positive and significant impact on patent performance relative to other scientists within the firm. Looking closer at bridging scientists, we draw a distinction between Pasteur bridging scientists and Edison bridging scientists, with the latter having less of an orientation towards fundamental research. We show that both types of bridging scientists complement the focal firm's R&D alliances with other firms. However, Pasteur bridging scientists are substitutive with university R&D alliances while Edison bridging scientists are complementary. Our findings suggest that the composition of a firm's scientific human capital and its R&D alliances interact in subtle ways to impact patent performance. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
Danaher P.J.,Monash University |
Smith M.S.,Melbourne Business School |
Ranasinghe K.,Melbourne Business School |
Danaher T.S.,Monash University
Journal of Marketing Research | Year: 2015
The use of coupons delivered by mobile phone, so-called "m-coupons," is growing rapidly. In this study, the authors analyze consumer response to m-coupons for a two-year trial at a large shopping mall. Approximately 8,500 people were recruited to a panel and received three text-message m-coupons whenever they "swiped" their mobile phone at the mall entrances, with downstream redemption recorded. Almost 144,000 m-coupons were delivered during the trial, representing 38 stores that supplied 134 different coupons. The authors find that an important feature of m-coupons is where and when they are delivered, with location and time of delivery significantly influencing redemption. How long the m-coupons are valid (expiry length) is also important because redemption times for m-coupons are much shorter than for traditional coupons. This finding suggests that their expiration length should be shortened to help signal time urgency. Nevertheless, traditional coupon features, such as face value, still dominate m-coupon effectiveness, as does the product type, with snack food coupons being particularly effective. © 2015, American Marketing Association.
Ingley C.,Auckland University of Technology |
Rennie M.,University of Regina |
Mueller J.,Waikato Management School |
Cocks G.,Melbourne Business School |
And 2 more authors.
World Review of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development | Year: 2011
This study considers the legitimacy of shareholder activism as a means of exercising influence in the corporate decision-making process and identifies self-reformed boards as a superior solution to the issues that activists attempt to address. We conceptualise the board of directors' role as representing the interests of multiple principals. When any one principal is able to serve its own interests by influencing corporate decision-making through shareholder activism, other principals' interests may be compromised. We argue that a better long-term solution lies not with activist shareholders, but with culturally reformed boards. We suggest a set of self-reform initiatives that would help them to achieve their potential. We develop a conceptual framework for the arguments in favour of boards taking a leadership role in corporate engagement with shareholders and stakeholders. To the extent that boards are unable to implement self-reform, governments may need to develop public policy initiatives for corporate governance reform. © 2011 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.
Van Der Haar S.,Maastricht University |
Van Der Haar S.,Leiden University |
Segers M.,Maastricht University |
Jehn K.A.,Melbourne Business School
International Journal of Emergency Management | Year: 2013
This paper is about the development and validity testing of a context-sensitive measure of the effectiveness of multidisciplinary emergency management teams that coordinate the multidisciplinary assistance on an incident scene. The scale can assist in future research, and serve as an instrument to evaluate team effectiveness during not only actual incidents but also emergency management exercises and training programmes. After developing the scale, we validated it in a study with a field sample of 50 teams executing realistic emergency management exercises. Results indicate that the scale is internally consistent. We showed construct validity by an assessment of both convergent and discriminant validity. The scale indicates participant-external rater invariance and can be aggregated to a team score. Suggestions are offered for improving the scale, future validity testing, and practical use of the measure. Copyright © 2013 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.
PubMed | Leiden University, University Utrecht, Melbourne Business School and Leibniz Institute For Wissensmedien
Type: | Journal: The British journal of social psychology | Year: 2016
Social power implies responsibility. Yet, power-holders often follow only their own interests and overlook this responsibility. The present research illuminates how a previously adopted cognitive focus guides perceived responsibility when a person receives high (vs. low) power. In three experiments, adopting a cognitive focus on another person (vs. on the self or taking over another persons perspective) promoted perceived responsibility among individuals receiving high (but not low) power in a subsequent context. This effect was specific for perceived responsibility - a cognitive focus on another person did not change the perceived opportunity to pursue goals or the perceived relationship to an interaction partner (e.g., interpersonal closeness). While prior research examined how social values (i.e., chronically caring about others) guide responsibility among those holding power, the current findings highlight that mere cognitive processes (i.e., situationally focusing attention on others) alter perceived responsibility among those just about to receive power.
Loughnan S.,University of Melbourne |
Bratanova B.,Melbourne Business School |
Kuppens P.,Catholic University of Leuven
Behavioral and Brain Sciences | Year: 2013
Van de Vliert puts forward a model of how climate and economics interact to shape human needs, stresses, and freedoms. Although we applaud the construction of this model, we suggest that more needs to be done. Specifically, by adopting a multi-level and experimental approach, we can develop an integrated, causal, and psychological model of climato-economics. Copyright © 2013 Cambridge University Press.
Abrahams A.S.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University |
Coupey E.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University |
Zhong E.X.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University |
Barkhi R.,Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University |
Manasantivongs P.S.,Melbourne Business School
Expert Systems with Applications | Year: 2013
As marketing communications proliferate, the ability to target the right audience for a message is of ever-increasing importance. Audience targeting practices for mass media, both in research and in industry, have tended to emphasize demographics, behavior, and other characteristics of customer groups as the bases for matching communications to audiences. These approaches overlook the opportunity to leverage the nature of advertising content, by automatically matching advertisement content to appropriate media channels and target audience. We model the semantic and sentiment content of advertisements with 103 variables. Based on these variables, a neural network classifier is used to assign advertisements to groups that represent different media channels. In its ability to classify unseen advertisements, the model outperforms the classification result generated by a random model, by 100-300%. This method also enables us to identify and describe divergent advertisement characteristics, by industry. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Van Hentenryck P.,University of Michigan |
Abeliuk A.,University of Melbourne |
Berbeglia F.,Carnegie Mellon University |
Maldonado F.,Australian National University |
Berbeglia G.,Melbourne Business School
Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Web and Social Media, ICWSM 2016 | Year: 2016
Social influence is ubiquitous in cultural markets and plays an important role in recommendations for books, songs, and news articles to name only a few. Yet social influence is often presented in a bad light, often because it supposedly increases market unpredictability. Here we study a model of trial-offer markets, in which participants try products and later decide whether to purchase. We consider a simple policy which recovers product quality and ranks the products by quality when presenting them to market participants. We show that, in this setting, market efficiency always benefits from social influence. Moreover, we prove that the market converges almost surely to a monopoly for the product of highest quality, making the market both predictable and asymptotically optimal. Computational experiments confirm that the quality ranking policy quickly identifies "blockbusters", outperforms other policies, and is highly predictable. © Copyright 2016, Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence (www.aaai.org). All rights reserved.