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Tel Aviv, Israel

Mekorot is the national water company of Israel and the country's top agency for water management. Founded in 1937, it supplies Israel with 90% of its drinking water and operates a cross-country water supply network known as the National Water Carrier. Mekorot and its subsidiaries have partnered with numerous countries around the world in areas including desalination and water management. Wikipedia.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENV.2013.WATER INNO&DEMO-1 | Award Amount: 8.04M | Year: 2013

Southern Europe and the Mediterranean region are facing the challenge of managing its water resources under conditions of increasing scarcity and concerns about water quality. Already, the availability of fresh water in sufficient quality and quantity is one of the major factors limiting socio economic development. Innovative water management strategies such as the storage of reclaimed water or excess water from different sources in Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) schemes can greatly increase water availability and therefore improve water security. Main objective of the proposed project MARSOL is to demonstrate that MAR is a sound, safe and sustainable strategy that can be applied with great confidence and therefore offering a key approach for tackling water scarcity in Southern Europe. For this, eight field sites were selected that will demonstrate the applicability of MAR using various water sources, ranging from treated wastewater to desalinated seawater, and a variety of technical solutions. Targets are the alleviation of the effect of climate change on water resources, the mitigation of droughts, to countermeasure temporal and spatial misfit of water availability, to sustain agricultural water supply and rural socio-economic development, to combat agricultural related pollutants, to sustain future urban and industrial water supply and to limit seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers. Results of the demontration sites will be used to develop guidelines for MAR site selection, technical realization, monitoring strategies, and modeling approaches, to offer stakeholders a comprehensive, state of the art and proven toolbox for MAR implementation. Further, the economic and legal aspects of MAR will be analyzed to enable and accelerate market penetration. The MARSOL consortium combines the expertise of consultancies, water suppliers, research institutions, and public authorities, ensuring high practical relevance and market intimacy.


Penn R.,Technion - Israel Institute of Technology | Hadari M.,Mekorot | Friedler E.,Technion - Israel Institute of Technology
Urban Water Journal | Year: 2012

This simulation study, based on experimental and literature data, evaluates the influence of onsite greywater reuse on domestic wastewater quality and quantity. For this, three scenarios were studied: no reuse; reuse for toilet flushing; reuse for toilet flushing and garden irrigation. Light greywater reuse reduced the daily household wastewater flows by 25-40%. These reductions mainly occurred during the morning and evening peak wastewater generation. Although daily loads of all pollutants decreased, their concentrations in the discharged wastewater increased owing to exclusion of potable water from the wastewater and replacing it by treated light greywater. The proportional concentration increase of most pollutants was lower than the decrease in wastewater discharge, due to degradation during treatment. The highest concentration increase occurred during the morning peak, coinciding with the highest flow reduction. This study is a first step towards quantification of the effects of onsite greywater reuse on sewers and wastewater treatment plants. © 2012 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source


Avni N.,Mekorot | Eben-Chaime M.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev | Oron G.,Ben - Gurion University of the Negev
Water Research | Year: 2013

Sea water desalination provides fresh water that typically lacks minerals essential to human health and to agricultural productivity. Thus the rising proportion of desalinated sea water consumed by both the domestic and agricultural sectors constitutes a public health risk. Research on low-magnesium water irrigation showed that crops developed magnesium deficiency symptoms that could lead to plant death, and tomato yields were reduced by 10-15%. The World Health Organization (WHO) reported on a relationship between sudden cardiac death rates and magnesium intake deficits. An optimization model, developed and tested to provide recommendations for Water Distribution System (WDS) quality control in terms of meeting optimal water quality requirements, was run in computational experiments based on an actual regional WDS. The expected magnesium deficit due to the operation of a large Sea Water Desalination Plant (SWDP) was simulated, and an optimal operation policy, in which remineralization at the SWDP was combined with blending desalinated and natural water to achieve the required quality, was generated. The effects of remineralization costs and WDS physical layout on the optimal policy were examined by sensitivity analysis. As part of the sensitivity blending natural and desalinated water near the treatment plants will be feasible up to 16.2 US cents/m3, considering all expenses. Additional chemical injection was used to meet quality criteria when blending was not feasible. © 2013. Source


Schmidt S.,University of Gottingen | Geyer T.,University of Gottingen | Marei A.,Al-Quds University | Guttman J.,Mekorot | Sauter M.,University of Gottingen
Journal of Hydrology | Year: 2013

Karst groundwater resources in semi-arid environments are highly vulnerable with respect to anthropogenic impacts, such as wastewater infiltration, because of focussed recharge and the rapid transport of dissolved substances in highly permeable conduit systems. In this study, groundwater resources of the western margin of the Lower Jordan Valley and their respective water qualities were investigated. The region is characterised by a carbonate aquifer system, which predominantly discharges via karst springs. The area experiences a large population growth and consequently a rising chloride concentration due to effluent infiltration is observed in many springs. Long-term records of chloride concentration in spring water were assembled in an extensive literature study. For some springs, larger parts of the period of 1938-2012 were covered. Chloride was used as an all-in-one environmental tracer for the objectives of (1) groundwater recharge estimation and (2) anthropogenic impact quantification. The investigations required the determination of the natural background concentration of chloride in groundwater. It was estimated by a combined use of historical data and a trend analysis for larger springs in the area and a range between 20 and 40mgl-1 was found. Together with chloride concentration data for local precipitation, the long-term mean natural groundwater recharge was calculated with the chloride mass balance method. Recharge ranged between 25% and 50% of the precipitation. The proportion of wastewater-borne spring flow was quantified by a chloride end member mixing model. The springs exhibited a wastewater-borne flow fraction between 0% and 20% calculated from recent samples. The successful application of these methods underlines the value of long-term monitoring, even at a comparatively low time resolution. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.. Source


Starosvetsky J.,Technion - Israel Institute of Technology | Zukerman U.,Mekorot | Armon R.H.,Technion - Israel Institute of Technology
Journal of Microbiological Methods | Year: 2013

High concentrations of H2S in groundwater are commonly removed using Biological Trickling Filter (BTF) that contains high numbers of biofilm immobilized sulfur oxidizing bacteria (mainly Thiobacillus thiooxidans). BTF performance requires continuous monitoring of these bacteria at several sampling points. The Most Probable Number (MPN) technique is at the moment the method of choice to enumerate viable T. thiooxidan cells under the above conditions. However, this method is extremely time-consuming (7-10days) and not always suitable for environmental monitoring. In the present study, Thiobacillus agar recommended for isolation and cultivation of Thiobacillus species by Spread plate method was modified by addition of bromocresol green (BCG) in order obtain a clear-cut resolution of the growing colonies resulting in similar or higher numbers compared to other methods. Visual emergence of bacterial colonies on the 3rd and 4th days, from the initial plating, was associated with sulfuric acid production, resulting in an unambiguous color change from blue to yellow, around each colony. This study revealed that BCG modified Thiobacillus agar is substantially time saving and much easier to infer compared to MPN technique. © 2012. Source

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