Mekhanobr Engineering JSC

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Vladimirovich Z.V.,Mekhanobr Engineering JSC
Obogashchenie Rud | Year: 2013

Two formulas have been derived by the author for assessment of kernel-electron interaction energy in minerals: the first one represents summing of ionization potentials developed in atomic kernels formation and atomization energy, while the second one (based on Fersman's approach) defines this energy as a sum of atomic kernels and binding electrons energy coefficients. The author of this paper suggests and demonstrates a method for assessment of mineral atomization energy with calculation error not exceeding 2 % by the use of both above mentioned formulas. This method appears to be especially advantageous for calculation of atomization energy in metal bonds possessing minerals (such as pyrite, galena, troilite, molibdenite, chalcocite etc.) which are principal minerals of the corresponding metallic ores. The practical application of this method consists in that by the use of atomization energy parameters found after calculation there arises possibility to explain and foretell a wide specter of physical and chemical properties (including ore processing amenability) of various minerals. The corresponding formulas for assessment of mineral properties are given in the reference (Zuyev, 2005) cited in the paper. It is to be emphasized that the calculation methods suggested provide only tentative theoretical estimations of substances atomization energy which is to be specified more precisely after the experimental data have been available. © Malyarova PV, Kaplauhov KN.


Fersman's idea of energy coefficients (shares) of cation and anion constituents of minerals is modified by the author within the framework of minerals atom kernels and binding electrons crystal chemistry, in accordance to which the energy of atom kernels and binding electron cohesion energy that determines minerals properties is calculated by summarizing corresponding energy coefficients. The work presents a modified and extended periodic system of chemical elements atom kernels energy coefficients. Physical essence of atom kernels energy coefficients is disclosed for the first time as cumulative ionization potential of their formation from free neutral atoms. Values of inter-atom-ker-nels binding electrons' constant energy coefficients are substantiated. A pronounced predominating constituent of atom kernels in the energy of atom kernels and binding electron interaction is validated. It is ascertained that atom kernels energy in minerals exceeds binding electron energy approximately by an order of magnitude greater.


Main production equipment and design-and-spatial-layout solutions of the newest copper and copper-gold operating, as well as being at design stage, concentrating plants' ore-preparation circuits, applying two competitive methods of ore-preparation: ore semiautogenous grinding (SAG) and grinding by high-pressure grinding rolls (HPGR), are considered. An important specialty of foreign concentrating plants' spatial-layout solutions with SAG being applied to mono ores-designing ore-preparation circuit as a mono section for capacities up to 36 million tons of ore per year, is shown up. In design of spatial-layout solutions for concentrating plants with HPGR, foreign engineering companies seek to reduce costs of ore-preparation circuits through minimization of transport facilities length, as well as capacities of ore storages and bins, and also by means of applying blocking solutions and concepts. A detailed comparison of the two methods of ore preparation by power consumption was carried out. Simultaneously, the start-up problems of ore-dressing facilities and ways of their solution are elucidated. Recommendations are given with regard to most rational spatial-layout solutions application in design practice, as well as to working out actions with a view to achieve designed throughput capacity of ore-preparation circuits during start-up period, in the cases when supplied feed material is stronger, than planned.


Vasilyev A.M.,Mekhanobr Engineering JSC | Frolov V.V.,Mekhanobr Engineering JSC
Obogashchenie Rud | Year: 2016

The paper is devoted to the study of specialties of granular ores and materials size distribution characteristics determination methods on testing sieves (analyzers) of different design: VP-30T of «Vibrotechnic» Co., ASV-200 of Research-and-Production Group «Mekhanobr-Tekhnika» and Ro-Tap of Tyler Co. Sieving duration and mass of starting weighed sample were chosen as the factors affecting screening process efficiency. The method of second-order rotatable design planning was used in the experiments. It was established that VP-30T testing sieve may be used with the analyzed material mass not exceeding 80 g with necessary duration of sizing at least 90 min. With that, screening efficiency in fine size fractions (-0.074 mm) will be about 65 % (previously stated 95 %). Analyzer is recommended for application only to determine size distribution characteristics of various concentrates and middlings with low content of -0.074 mm size fraction. Analyzer ASV-200 may be used with mass of starting weighed sample not exceeding 200 g, which permits to size to -1 mm a representative sample with a considerable content of -0.074 mm size fraction. The best efficiency indicators in -0.1 and -0.074 mm size fractions - over 97 % - were shown by Ro-Tap analyzer. This analyzer may be used not only for determination of standard size distribution characteristics under different conditions, but also as an apparatus for working with narrow size fractions of large starting mass - up to 600 g. So, as a result of the experimental studies, a general-purpose method has been developed for performance of sieve analyses by means of analyzers of different design. The proposed sequence of actions permits to obtain on different analyzers the same data for the same ore sample regardless of apparatus type and ore physical properties. The method was tried and tested on two types of gold ores.


Mezenin A.O.,Mekhanobr Engineering JSC | Tasina T.I.,Mekhanobr Engineering JSC | Ierusalimtsev V.A.,Mekhanobr Engineering JSC
Obogashchenie Rud | Year: 2016

The Russian Federation possesses vast reserves of high-silica aluminium ores, however, commercially tested competitive technologies needed to produce alumina from these ores are not available yet. High-silica raw materials include nepheline-feldspathic ores, that are practically not utilized commercially for alumina production. On the basis of the analysis of the earlier conducted studies, it was established that for nepheline raw materials processing it is possible to apply the following flow sheets: magnetic-flotation, wet or dry magnetic separation. A method for their comparative assessment was developed on the basis of the approach, used in SWOT-analysis. The assessment of the main technica-land- economic indexes of nepheline ores processing alternatives showed, that tentative economic effectiveness of dry magnetic separation significantly exceeds the wet processes efficiency. Economic effectiveness of wet magnetic and magnetic-flotation processing is characterized by similar values, but taking into consideration a higher grade of concentrates, a combination process may expected to be more efficient. It is expedient to consider magnetic-flotation and dry magnetic separation for further studies with a view to develop effective technological solutions for beneficiation of nepheline raw materials.


Additional arguments are presented in support of the Earth's inner core main phase composition (Fe0,9Ni0,1), structure (body-centered cubic lattice with elementary cell parameter a0 = 2.49 ) and anticipated properties. New hypothesis on possible cobalt and nickel entry into the Earth's inner core central part as separate phases - homoatomic covalent crystals with CN = 9 and CN = 10 of 9-valent (Co) and 10-valent (Ni) elements, is formulated and substantiated. The formation conditions (? = 265 GPa and A = 320 GPa), as well as unique energy and physical parameters of these phases, significantly exceeding those of Fe(VIII)0,9Ni(VIII)0,1 main phase, whose content in the inner core reaches 90 %, are discussed. Contents of phases Co(IX) and Ni(X), according to preliminary estimates, amount to 9 % and 1 %, respectively. Though the presence of three phases from Fe-Co-Ni elements in hypervalent states in the Earth's inner core seems quite real and natural, yet this hypoth- esis requires further substantiation and support. Applied relevance of this article consists in justification of probability of existence (and, in prospect, development) of new mineral substances that may significantly exceed diamond and advanced ultra-hard materials in hardness.


Zuyev V.V.,Mekhanobr Engineering JSC
Obogashchenie Rud | Year: 2015

A methodology for cations ionic radiuses (atom kernels) estimation has been developed in the context of atom kernels and binding electrons crystal chemistry, using atom kernels energy coefficients; necessary formulas are presented, by means of which a large amount of corresponding estimates was performed, demonstrating reasonable convergence with the known experimental information. Thus, an alternative approach is proposed for determination of cations ionic radiuses, solving an important problem in crystal chemistry. An attempt to estimate anions ionic radiuses by means of the proposed formulas in general did not yield successful results. The analysis of the obtained data permits to draw a conclusion, that ionic crystal lattice concept is justified from physical standpoint with respect to a limited scope of crystalline halogenides, that is, compounds of alkali and alkaline-earth metals, as well as other metals, with anions F1-, Cl1-, Br1-, I1-. Physically, existence of ionic crystals with double-and higher-charged anions is significantly problematical. This conclusion provides additional arguments in favor of the earlier expressed judgments on inadequacy and boundedness of the ionic crystal lattice concept.


Zuev V.V.,Mekhanobr Engineering JSC
Obogashchenie Rud | Year: 2015

The publication continues the author's series of papers on the problem of studying nature and properties of mineral substances, corresponding to the extreme P-T conditions of their formation in the central zones of Earth and also other planets. Metallic hydrogen is one of such substances, and scant information is available about it in the literature, this paper challenging this lack of knowledge. A probable structure, properties and conditions of formation of hydrogen metallic phase are considered in the paper. On the basis of the atom kernels and binding electrons crystal chemistry, developed by the author, a body-centered cubic lattice structure with elementary cell parameter a0 = 1.016 A°, density = = 3.17 g/cm3, hardness, close to that of diamond, conditions of formation ? = 3000 GPa and thermodynamic stability Tmelting =~ 6500 K are assumed in the paper. This melting temperature seems to be a relatively low value, if extremely high pressure of metallic hydrogen formation is taken into consideration. Hydrogen kernel ionic radius is calculated to be ri(H1+) =~ 0.15 A° , and its variation is determined with respect to coordination. The Earth's inner core hydride hypothesis is subjected to criticism in favor of the hypothesis of the Earth's inner core composition from Fe-Co-Ni elements in hypervalent states.


Zuyev V.V.,Mekhanobr Engineering JSC
Obogashchenie Rud | Year: 2016

The paper is dedicated to a theoretical explanation of properties of minerals, used in mineral processing. In particular, an attempt is made to understand special constitution of sulfide and other minerals, and their crucial distinction from gangue minerals. For this purpose, corresponding approaches, notions and parameters of solid-state physics are applied. The most important parameter of rigid bodies' band models is forbidden bandwidth Eg (eV). By the value of this parameter, rigid bodies are subdivided into dielectrics (Eg ≥ 4 eV), semiconductors (0 < Eg ≤ 4 eV) and metals (Eg ≤ 0). In numerous publications, Eg values of most important homoatomic and heteroatomic compounds (including minerals) have been reviewed with theoretical interpretation and attempts of Eg quantitative estimation in representatives of different classes of inorganic compounds. Special attention is paid to understudied nature of metallic bonding dopants in ore minerals, as evidenced by practically all modern textbooks and manuals on mineralogy. It is shown, that two main types and corresponding notions of metallic bonding dopants should be distinguished in heteroatomic crystals (sulfides and their analogues, oxides, etc.): 1) as part of M-M interaction energy in total interatomic interaction power in lattices of metal (M) and nonmetal (X) compounds, put it differently, this is metallic chemical bonding dopant itself in heteroatomic crystals, with dominating ionic-covalent interaction M-X; 2) as degree of delocalization in crystal lattice of valence bonds clouds M-X, as a result of which elements appear (as electron bridges) of M-M interaction. Formulas for forbidden bandwidth value estimation are proposed for the both groups of minerals with demonstration of numerous calculations. textbooks and manuals on mineralogy. It is shown, that two main types and corresponding notions of metallic bonding dopants should be distinguished in heteroatomic crystals (sulfides and their analogues, oxides, etc.): 1) as part of M-M interaction energy in total interatomic interaction power in lattices of metal (M) and nonmetal (X) compounds, put it differently, this is metallic chemical bonding dopant itself in heteroatomic crystals, with dominating ionic-covalent interaction M-X; 2) as degree of delocalization in crystal lattice of valence bonds clouds M-X, as a result of which elements appear (as electron bridges) of M-M interaction. Formulas for forbidden bandwidth value estimation are proposed for the both groups of minerals with demonstration of numerous calculations.


Zuev V.V.,Mekhanobr Engineering JSC
Gornyi Zhurnal | Year: 2015

The article is devoted to the 130th anniversary of Academician Alexander E. Fersman. Emphasizing a huge contribution made by Academician Fersman to the development of geological knowledge in the area of mineralogy, crystal chemistry and geochemistry, the author states that the importance of Fersman's geoenergy ideas is undervalued in the modern sciences concerned with the composition and properties of mineral, that these ideas are underdeveloped and scantily used. In view of these, the article offers a review and analysis of many-years research based on which the periodic system of energy coefficients of atomic cores has for the first time been developed and validated for all elements of Mendeleev's table. The practical value of the modernized system of energy coefficients as the evolvement of geoenergy ideas by Fersman consists in the feasibility of quantitative estimation of wide spectrum physicochemical properties of minerals and their energy parameters based on the core electron crystal chemistry-energy of bond between atomic cores and coupling electrons. The described research and findings are the important contribution to the crystal energetics of minerals; they demonstrate improvement and further development of geoenergy ideas put forward by Academician Alexander E. Fersman.

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