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Additional arguments are presented in support of the Earth's inner core main phase composition (Fe0,9Ni0,1), structure (body-centered cubic lattice with elementary cell parameter a0 = 2.49 ) and anticipated properties. New hypothesis on possible cobalt and nickel entry into the Earth's inner core central part as separate phases - homoatomic covalent crystals with CN = 9 and CN = 10 of 9-valent (Co) and 10-valent (Ni) elements, is formulated and substantiated. The formation conditions (? = 265 GPa and A = 320 GPa), as well as unique energy and physical parameters of these phases, significantly exceeding those of Fe(VIII)0,9Ni(VIII)0,1 main phase, whose content in the inner core reaches 90 %, are discussed. Contents of phases Co(IX) and Ni(X), according to preliminary estimates, amount to 9 % and 1 %, respectively. Though the presence of three phases from Fe-Co-Ni elements in hypervalent states in the Earth's inner core seems quite real and natural, yet this hypoth- esis requires further substantiation and support. Applied relevance of this article consists in justification of probability of existence (and, in prospect, development) of new mineral substances that may significantly exceed diamond and advanced ultra-hard materials in hardness. Source

Fersman's idea of energy coefficients (shares) of cation and anion constituents of minerals is modified by the author within the framework of minerals atom kernels and binding electrons crystal chemistry, in accordance to which the energy of atom kernels and binding electron cohesion energy that determines minerals properties is calculated by summarizing corresponding energy coefficients. The work presents a modified and extended periodic system of chemical elements atom kernels energy coefficients. Physical essence of atom kernels energy coefficients is disclosed for the first time as cumulative ionization potential of their formation from free neutral atoms. Values of inter-atom-ker-nels binding electrons' constant energy coefficients are substantiated. A pronounced predominating constituent of atom kernels in the energy of atom kernels and binding electron interaction is validated. It is ascertained that atom kernels energy in minerals exceeds binding electron energy approximately by an order of magnitude greater. Source

Main production equipment and design-and-spatial-layout solutions of the newest copper and copper-gold operating, as well as being at design stage, concentrating plants' ore-preparation circuits, applying two competitive methods of ore-preparation: ore semiautogenous grinding (SAG) and grinding by high-pressure grinding rolls (HPGR), are considered. An important specialty of foreign concentrating plants' spatial-layout solutions with SAG being applied to mono ores-designing ore-preparation circuit as a mono section for capacities up to 36 million tons of ore per year, is shown up. In design of spatial-layout solutions for concentrating plants with HPGR, foreign engineering companies seek to reduce costs of ore-preparation circuits through minimization of transport facilities length, as well as capacities of ore storages and bins, and also by means of applying blocking solutions and concepts. A detailed comparison of the two methods of ore preparation by power consumption was carried out. Simultaneously, the start-up problems of ore-dressing facilities and ways of their solution are elucidated. Recommendations are given with regard to most rational spatial-layout solutions application in design practice, as well as to working out actions with a view to achieve designed throughput capacity of ore-preparation circuits during start-up period, in the cases when supplied feed material is stronger, than planned. Source

Vladimirovich Z.V.,Mekhanobr Engineering JSC
Obogashchenie Rud

Two formulas have been derived by the author for assessment of kernel-electron interaction energy in minerals: the first one represents summing of ionization potentials developed in atomic kernels formation and atomization energy, while the second one (based on Fersman's approach) defines this energy as a sum of atomic kernels and binding electrons energy coefficients. The author of this paper suggests and demonstrates a method for assessment of mineral atomization energy with calculation error not exceeding 2 % by the use of both above mentioned formulas. This method appears to be especially advantageous for calculation of atomization energy in metal bonds possessing minerals (such as pyrite, galena, troilite, molibdenite, chalcocite etc.) which are principal minerals of the corresponding metallic ores. The practical application of this method consists in that by the use of atomization energy parameters found after calculation there arises possibility to explain and foretell a wide specter of physical and chemical properties (including ore processing amenability) of various minerals. The corresponding formulas for assessment of mineral properties are given in the reference (Zuyev, 2005) cited in the paper. It is to be emphasized that the calculation methods suggested provide only tentative theoretical estimations of substances atomization energy which is to be specified more precisely after the experimental data have been available. © Malyarova PV, Kaplauhov KN. Source

A methodology for cations ionic radiuses (atom kernels) estimation has been developed in the context of atom kernels and binding electrons crystal chemistry, using atom kernels energy coefficients; necessary formulas are presented, by means of which a large amount of corresponding estimates was performed, demonstrating reasonable convergence with the known experimental information. Thus, an alternative approach is proposed for determination of cations ionic radiuses, solving an important problem in crystal chemistry. An attempt to estimate anions ionic radiuses by means of the proposed formulas in general did not yield successful results. The analysis of the obtained data permits to draw a conclusion, that ionic crystal lattice concept is justified from physical standpoint with respect to a limited scope of crystalline halogenides, that is, compounds of alkali and alkaline-earth metals, as well as other metals, with anions F1-, Cl1-, Br1-, I1-. Physically, existence of ionic crystals with double-and higher-charged anions is significantly problematical. This conclusion provides additional arguments in favor of the earlier expressed judgments on inadequacy and boundedness of the ionic crystal lattice concept. Source

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