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Mekelle, Ethiopia

Mekelle University is a higher education and training public institution located in the city of Mekelle, situated in the northern Tigray Regional State of Ethiopia. It is 783 kilometers away from Addis Ababa, the capital, to the north. Wikipedia.


Araya A.,Mekelle University | Stroosnijder L.,Wageningen University
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology | Year: 2011

Long-term climate data of four stations in the northern Ethiopia were analyzed in combination with information from local farmers and documented materials. From this analysis, a suitable drought-assessing technique was developed and site-specific needs for supplementary irrigation were explored. Results showed that our technique for assessing drought and crop failure corresponded well with farmer observations. The three major causes of crop failure (dry spells, short growing period and "total lack of rain") which were explicitly listed and ranked by the local farmers were found to match the analyzed data well. The agro-meteorological variables with the most severe consequences were "short growing period" and "total lack of rain" To prolong the growing period, supplementary irrigation is recommended in the month of September for three of the stations (Maychew, Mekelle and Adigudom) because: (1) rain frequently stops in early September or late August and crops have no other source of water for the rest of the growing period; (2) sufficient surface runoff can be harvested in July and August to be stored in farm ponds and used in September; (3) more cultivable land can be irrigated if supplementary irrigation is scheduled only for the month of September; and (4) giving supplementary irrigation in September can cut yield reduction by over 80% and crop failure by over 50%, except at Alamata. At Alamata, supplementary irrigation must be scheduled for July. The conditions experienced during the famine years of the early 1980s were primarily caused by the continued total rain failure over multiple years. Giving supplementary irrigation in July or September would probably not have mitigated the effects of these droughts, especially at Alamata and Maychew stations. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source


Haile F.,Mekelle University | Brhan Y.,Addis Continental Institute of Public Health
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth | Year: 2014

Background: Male partner participation is a crucial component to optimize antenatal care/prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV(ANC/PMTCT) service. It creates an opportunity to capture pregnant mothers and their male partners to reverse the transmission of HIV during pregnancy, labour and breast feeding. Thus involving male partners during HIV screening of pregnant mothers at ANC is key in the fight against mother to child transmission of HIV(MTCT). So, the aim of this study is to determine the level of male partner involvement in PMTCT and factors that affecting it.Methods: A Cross-sectional study was conducted among 473 pregnant mothers attending ANC/PMTCT in Mekelle town health facilities in January 2011. Systematic sampling was used to select pregnant mothers attending ANC/PMTCT service after determination of the client load at each health facility. Clinic exit structured interviews were used to collect the data. Finally multiple logistic regression was used to identify factors that affect male involvement in ANC/PMTCT.Results: Twenty percent of pregnant mothers have been accompanied by their male partner to the ANC/PMTCT service. Knowledge of HIV sero status [Adj.OR (95% CI) = 0.43 (0.18- 0.66)], maternal willingness to inform their husband about the availability of voluntary counselling and testing services in ANC/PMTCT [Adj.OR (95% CI) =3.74(1.38-10.17)] and previous history of couple counselling [Adj.OR (95% CI) =4.68 (2.32-9.44)] were found to be the independent predictors of male involvement in ANC/PMTCT service.Conclusion: Male partner involvement in ANC/PMTCT is low. Thus, comprehensive strategy should be put in place to sensitize and advocate the importance of male partner involvement in ANC/PMTCT in order to reach out male partners. © 2014 Haile and Brhan; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Yohannes M.,Mekelle University | Boelee E.,SRI International
Medical and Veterinary Entomology | Year: 2012

The biting cycle of the malaria vector Anopheles arabiensis Patton (Diptera: Culicidae) was assessed by hourly light trap collections in three villages in Tigray, northern Ethiopia. Hourly catches were conducted in two houses in each village, for four consecutive nights. Light traps were set from 18.00 hours to 07.00 hours in houses in which people slept under untreated bednets. Anopheles arabiensis showed early biting activities, which peaked between 19.00 hours and 20.00 hours in the three villages; over 70% of biting activity occurred before 22.00 hours, when people typically retire to bed. This early biting activity may have a negative impact on the efficiency of bednets to control malaria. © 2011 The Authors. Medical and Veterinary Entomology © 2011 The Royal Entomological Society. Source


Etana B.,Mekelle University | Deressa W.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology
BMC Public Health | Year: 2012

Abstract. Background: Vaccination is a proven tool in preventing and eradicating communicable diseases, but a considerable proportion of childhood morbidity and mortality in Ethiopia is due to vaccine preventable diseases. Immunization coverage in many parts of the country remains low despite the efforts to improve the services. In 2005, only 20% of the children were fully vaccinated and about 1 million children were unvaccinated in 2007. The objective of this study was to assess complete immunization coverage and its associated factors among children aged 12-23months in Ambo woreda. Methods. A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted in 8 rural and 2 urban kebeles during January- February, 2011. A modified WHO EPI cluster sampling method was used for sample selection. Data on 536 children aged 12-23months from 536 representative households were collected using trained nurses. The data collectors assessed the vaccination status of the children based on vaccination cards or mothers verbal reports using a pre-tested structured questionnaire through house-to-house visits. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess factors associated with immunization coverage. Results: About 96% of the mothers heard about vaccination and vaccine preventable diseases and 79.5% knew the benefit of immunization. About 36% of children aged 12-23months were fully vaccinated by card plus recall, but only 27.7% were fully vaccinated by card alone and 23.7% children were unvaccinated. Using multivariate logistic regression models, factors significantly associated with complete immunization were antenatal care follow-up (adjusted odds ratio(AOR=2.4, 95% CI: 1.2- 4.9), being born in the health facility (AOR=2.1, 95% CI: 1.3-3.4), mothers knowledge about the age at which vaccination begins (AOR=2.9, 95% CI: 1.9-4.6) and knowledge about the age at which vaccination completes (AOR=4.3, 95% CI: 2.3-8), whereas area of residence and mothers socio-demographic characteristics were not significantly associated with full immunization among children. Conclusion: Complete immunization coverage among children aged 12-23months remains low. Maternal health care utilization and knowledge of mothers about the age at which child begins and finishes vaccination are the main factors associated with complete immunization coverage. It is necessary that, local interventions should be strengthened to raising awareness of the community on the importance of immunization, antenatal care and institutional delivery. © 2012 Etana and Deressa; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source


Adsorption of heavy metals (Cr, Cd, Pb, Ni, and Cu) onto Activated Teff Straw (ATS) has been studied using batch-adsorption techniques. This study was carried out to examine the adsorption capacity of the low-cost adsorbent ATS for the removal of heavy metals from textile effluents. The influence of contact time, pH, Temperature, and adsorbent dose on the adsorption process was also studied. Results revealed that adsorption rate initially increased rapidly, and the optimal removal efficiency was reached within about 1 hour. Further increase in contact time did not show significant change in equilibrium concentration; that is, the adsorption phase reached equilibrium. The adsorption isotherms could be fitted well by the Langmuir model. The RL value in the present investigation was less than one, indicating that the adsorption of the metal ion onto ATS is favorable. After treatment with ATS the levels of heavy metals were observed to decrease by 88% (Ni), 82.9% (Cd), 81.5% (Cu), 74.5% (Cr), and 68.9% (Pb). Results indicate that the freely abundant, locally available, low-cost adsorbent, Teff straw can be treated as economically viable for the removal of metal ions from textile effluents. © 2013 Mulu Berhe Desta. Source

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