Tigray, Ethiopia

Mekelle Institute of Technology is located at Ainalem, five kilometers outside of Mek'ele, the capital of the northwestern Tigray Region of Ethiopia. Wikipedia.


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Fitsum D.,Mekelle Institute of Technology | Mali D.,Mekelle Institute of Technology | Ismail M.,Mekelle Institute of Technology
Indonesian Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science | Year: 2016

This paper presents Dual-Band proximity coupled feed rectangular Microstrip patch antenna with slots on the radiating patch and Defected Ground Structure. Initially a simple proximity coupled feed rectangular Microstrip patch antenna resonating at 2.4 GHz is designed. Etching out a ‘Dumbbell’ shaped defect from the ground plane and ‘T’ shaped slot from the radiating patch of the proximity coupled feed rectangular Microstrip patch antenna, results in a Dual-Band operation, i.e., resonating at 2.4 GHz and 4.5 GHz; with 30.3 % and 18.8% reduction in the overall area of the patch and the ground plane of the reference antenna respectively. The proposed antenna resonates in S-band at frequency of 2.4 GHz with bandwidth of 123.6 MHz and C-band at frequency of 4.5 GHz with bandwidth of 200 MHz, and a very good return loss of -22.1818 dB and -19.0839 dB at resonant frequency of 2.4 GHz and 4.5 GHz respectively is obtained. The proposed antenna is useful for different wireless applications in the S-band and C-band. © 2016 Institute of Advanced Engineering and Science. All rights reserved.


Fistum D.,Mekelle Institute of Technology | Mali D.,Mekelle Institute of Technology | Ismail M.,Mekelle Institute of Technology
Indonesian Journal of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science | Year: 2016

This paper presents the bandwidth enhancement of a Proximity Coupled Feed Rectangular Microstrip Patch Antenna using a new Defected Ground Structure - an ‘inverted SHA’ shaped slot on the ground plane of the proximity coupled feed rectangular Microstrip patch antenna. The parameters such as Bandwidth, Return loss, VSWR and Radiation efficiency are improved in the proposed antenna than simple proximity coupled feed rectangular Microstrip patch antenna without Defected Ground Structure. A comparison is also shown for the proposed Microstrip patch antenna with the antenna structure without Defected Ground Structure. The proposed antenna resonates in S-band at frequency of 2.4 GHz with bandwidth of 180 MHz. A very good return loss of -47.9223 dB is obtained for the Microstrip patch antenna with an ’inverted SHA’ shaped Defected Ground Structure. Implementing an ‘inverted SHA’ shaped defect in the ground plane of the proximity coupled feed rectangular Microstrip patch antenna results in 5.3% improvement in bandwidth with 16.01% reduction in the overall area of the ground plane as compared to the Microstrip patch antenna without Defected Ground Structure. © 2016 Institute of Advanced Engineering and Science. All rights reserved.


Sahoo C.K.,Osmania University | Rao S.R.M.,Mekelle Institute of Technology
Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology | Year: 2015

The objective of present review was to determine the various evaluation tests for controlled porosity osmotic pump tablets. Controlled porosity osmotic pump (CPOP) tablet contains drug, osmogens, excipients in core and a coating of semi permeable membrane with water soluble additives. In CPOP water soluble additives dissolve after coming in contact with water, resulting in an in situ formation of micro porous membrane. CPOP tablets were evaluated for compatibility study, precompression parameters and post compression parameters. The present study gives an idea about various evaluation tests for CPOP tablets. © RJPT All right reserved.


Tesfay A.H.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Tesfay A.H.,Mekelle Institute of Technology | Kahsay M.B.,Mekelle Institute of Technology | Nydal O.J.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology
Energy Procedia | Year: 2014

Ethiopia with a population of about 85 million meets 96% of its energy needs with bio-mass, charcoal, wood, animal dung and plant residues. More than 50% of this energy goes entirely on baking Injera. Injera the national food of the country demands 180-220 oC to be well cooked. In this article; Injera baking with solar energy on off-focus system, status of electric powered stove and the potential for solar powered stoves is discussed. The research and development of solar thermal for household energy consumption has not been well developed and adopted. One reason for this is that the system can only be used outdoor and at time of sun shine. In addition to the off-focus solar thermal application this paper discussed the integration of solar thermal with heat storage for a sustainable future use. The prototype for direct steam based baking was developed and tested in Mekelle University (Ethiopia) and Phase change material based heat storage prototype was developed and tested at NTNU. Both experiments showed the possibility of solar energy for Injera baking and its sustainability by including latent heat storage. This research gave hope to break the bottleneck related with on- focus solar cookers. © 2014 The Authors Published by Elsevier Ltd.


Tesfay A.H.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Tesfay A.H.,Mekelle Institute of Technology | Kahsay M.B.,Mekelle Institute of Technology | Nydal O.J.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology
Energy Procedia | Year: 2014

Ethiopia, the second most populated country in Africa, meets 96% of its energy need from bio-mass and majority of this energy goes entirely to Injera baking. Injera, a pan-cake like bread that is consumed by most of the population, demands a temperature of 180-220 °C to be well baked. Both traditional and newly developed biomass Injera stoves are energy inefficient; besides the kitchen environment is highly polluted with soot and smoke that affect the health of household inhabitants. This article introduces new technology that enables Injera baking using indirect solar stove. A parabolic dish with an aperture area of 2.54 m2, a well-insulated stainless steel pipe of 10mm, a coiled stainless steel heat exchanger, a pressure relief valve and three gate valves were equipped in the system and K-type thermocouples were used to record the temperature. The heat transfer process has been governed by the principle of natural circulation boiling-condensation between receiver and stove. A preset pressure relief valve is used to control the self-circulating working heat transfer fluid (steam at a temperature of 250 °C). The system was developed and tested for steam based direct baking in the same fashion as the traditional Injera stove. In this experiment, heat transport without significant loss from the receiver for baking at some distance is demonstrated. The challenge with manual tracking and direct steam based baking model indicates the performance of the technology can be improved. It can also win more acceptances if it is equipped with auto trackers and heat storage mechanism. In conclusion, unlike previous efforts, the experiment demonstrated that a high temperature indirect baking of Injera is possible. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.


Tesfay A.H.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Nydal O.J.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Kahsay M.B.,Mekelle Institute of Technology
Proceedings of the 4th IEEE Global Humanitarian Technology Conference, GHTC 2014 | Year: 2014

Many of today's solar cookers lack energy storage and their applications have been limited to day time use while the sun is shining. In addition these cookers need longer cooking time and are less versatile to users compared with the traditional wood stoves. This article presents tests of a solar stove with and integrated heat storage designed to satisfy a particular need of some east African countries to bake their daily food (Injera). The prototype was tested in the solar laboratories at NTNU and Mekelle University, and presented for community demonstrations in Mekelle. Steam is used as heat carrier between a receiver in the focal point of a concentrating dish and a solar salt based latent heat storage. The stored heat enables users to bake at any time. The storage has a capacity to retain usable thermal energy for about one to two days depending on the amount of insulation. This system can supplement the existing electric and biomass Injera stoves and provide inexpensive and clean energy solution for food preparation. Solar baking provides benefits in terms of human health, environmental strain and high costs associated with biomass fuel. © 2014 IEEE.


Tesfay A.H.,Mekelle Institute of Technology | Tesfay A.H.,Norwegian University of Science and Technology | Goel V.K.,Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee
IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering | Year: 2015

With the new advancements in vibration control strategies and controllable actuator manufacturing, semi-active actuators and dampers are finding their way as an essential part of vibration isolators, particularly in vehicle suspension systems. This is attributed to the fact that in a semi-active system, the damping coefficients can be adjusted to improve ride comfort and road handling performances. The currently available semi-active damper technology uses MR fluid to control the damping characteristics of the suspension system. In addition to MR dampers, combining air springs in a semi-active suspension system leads to better handling and ride performance in vehicles. Furthermore, the use of air spring in semi-active suspension system helps to ease design of variable spring stiffness. This easy design opportunity leads to independent control of stiffness and ride height of the vehicle. This paper deals with the design and modelling of variable stiffness air spring for semi-active suspension system, modelling of semi-active suspension systems with variable stiffness and MR damper, and study their.


Zegeye L.,VTT Technical Research Center of Finland | Zegeye L.,Mekelle Institute of Technology | Sailio M.,VTT Technical Research Center of Finland
IEEE AFRICON Conference | Year: 2015

Checking the vulnerability and vulnerability history of green economy friendly critical infrastructures such as hydroelectric, wind, or solar power control systems is essential part of keeping the security intact. Vulnerability reports are one of the most important security tools for security experts to check vulnerabilities. In this paper over 40,000 vulnerability reports from SecurityFocus's vulnerability database BugTraq are studied and the reports are analyzed accordingly to understand the type of vulnerability contributors, the motivation of the contributors, the trend of most common vulnerability types, and the amount of vulnerability reports over the years. It is shown that most of the vulnerabilities are reported by open source vendors and security organizations. Vulnerability reports are also shown to be decreasing since 2006 and more than 70% of the reported vulnerabilities are contributed by less than 10% of the members. It is also observed that remote code, cross-site, and denial of service vulnerabilities have become dominant vulnerability types reported recently. This research can be used by security system designers and planners to better understand the historical perspective of vulnerabilities. It enables better understanding of vulnerabilities ensuring improved robustness against vulnerabilities. Future work is suggested to extend the analysis to other equally popular vulnerability reporting databases and also add more security measurement parameters. © 2015 IEEE.


Lema G.G.,Mekelle Institute of Technology | Tesfamariam G.T.,Mekelle Institute of Technology | Mohammed M.I.,Mekelle Institute of Technology
IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation | Year: 2016

With the advancement of radar technology, detecting objects, determining the structure of the target, and estimating the direction and the speed is prominently increasing. There is no doubt that small cross section targets are hardly identified and determined. This problem demands the need for antenna pattern synthesizing with a high gain and highly reduced sidelobe level (SLL). In this paper, an optimization technique called self-adaptive differential evolution (SaDE) that can be able to learn and behave intelligently is integrated to determine an optimal set of excitation weights in the design of elliptical-cylindrical antenna array (ECAA). In this work, the SaDE-optimized hyper beam is proposed to achieve qualified radar performances. Nonuniform excitation amplitudes of the individual array elements of ECAA are performed to obtain reduced SLL, high directivity, and flexible radiation pattern which are crucial in radar applications. With increased antenna gain, small cross section objects can be accurately identified and determined even in volatile environment where there are different natures of interferences. Besides, the proposed work enables steering electronically and it allows scanning very rapidly across a wide range of elevation and azimuth planes. To evaluate the improved performance of the proposed optimization scheme, comparison is done with genetic algorithm (GA), particle swarm optimization (PSO), biogeography-based optimization (BBO), and invasive weed optimization (IWO) against different parameters. In general, the proposed work of pattern synthesis has resulted in much better reduction in SLL and first null beamwidth (FNBW) than both the uniformly excited and thinned ECAA. The results of this study clearly revealed that the SLL is highly reduced at a very directive beamwidth. The proposed antenna array offers high system availability over wide range of radar applications. © 1963-2012 IEEE.


Sbhatu D.B.,Mekelle Institute of Technology
Journal of Commercial Biotechnology | Year: 2010

This article was written to provide compelling rationales for initiating biotechnology education, and a research and development programme in one technology institute in Ethiopia. As the author wishes to share these with a wider audience, the article is presented in the following way: it begins with a brief history of the traditional and conventional biotechnologies in Ethiopia; and reviews the national status of modern biotechnology. The potential of modern biotechnology to promote national development through its support of endeavours in agriculture, environmental management and rehabilitation, health care and industry/manufacturing is then discussed. Finally, the article lists and discusses the key topics that have to be taken into account while introducing and developing modern biotechnology in Ethiopia. Until a good national policy is produced, the topics could serve as guidelines for institutions engaged in biotechnology and life science research. © 2010 Palgrave Macmillan 1462-8732.

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