Nishi-Tokyo-shi, Japan
Nishi-Tokyo-shi, Japan

Meiji Pharmaceutical University is a private university in Kiyose, Tokyo, Japan. The predecessor of the school was founded 1902. Wikipedia.

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Nakayama H.,Meiji Pharmaceutical University
Therapeutic Drug Monitoring | Year: 2017

BACKGROUND.: Phenobarbital is well tolerated and effective for controlling agitation or preventing convulsion at the end of life. No information is available concerning parenteral bioavailability of phenobarbital when induration develops at injection or infusion site. We investigated whether induration at injection or infusion site is related to phenobarbital bioavailability via parenteral routes of continuous subcutaneous infusion and intermittent subcutaneous or intramuscular injection. METHODS.: A retrospective analysis was conducted on the medical data obtained from 18 patients who received chronic subcutaneous or intramuscular injections of phenobarbital for the prevention of convulsions and underwent plasma concentration monitoring of the drug. Patients whose concomitant medications were altered during the observation periods were excluded from the analysis. Comparisons were performed for concentration/dose ratios (C/D ratios) obtained from patients with induration at injection or infusion sites (induration group, n = 6) and those without induration (non-induration group, n = 12). P value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS.: The induration group showed significantly reduced C/D ratio compared with the non-induration group [median (range): 0.131 (0.114–0.334) day/L versus 0.219 (0.180–0.322), p < 0.05). Assuming that systemic clearance was constant in our patients, changes in C/D ratio would have contributed to 40% (median) reduction in bioavailability of the drug from the injection or infusion site. CONCLUSION.: Our data suggest that absolute bioavailability of phenobarbital may be reduced when induration develops at injection or infusion site in patients treated parenterally by continuous subcutaneous infusion or intramuscular injection. Copyright © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

Tokushima University, Meiji Pharmaceutical University and Lsip Llc | Date: 2015-08-26

Provided is a modified -subunit of human -hexosaminidase which has the activity derived from the -subunit of wild-type human -hexosaminidase and has the resistance to protease. A protein comprising an amino acid sequence having substitutions of the 312th to the 318th amino acids with glycine, serine, glutamic acid, proline, serine, glycine and threonine in order, respectively, in an amino acid sequence of a -subunit of wild-type human -hexosaminidase.

Provided is a modified -subunit of human -hexosaminidase which has the activity derived from the -subunit of wild-type human -hexosaminidase and has the resistance to protease. A protein comprising an amino acid sequence having substitutions of the 312th to the 318th amino acids with glycine, serine, glutamic acid, proline, serine, glycine and threonine in order, respectively, in an amino acid sequence of a -subunit of wild-type human -hexosaminidase.

Ogasawara Y.,Meiji Pharmaceutical University
Nihon eiseigaku zasshi. Japanese journal of hygiene | Year: 2012

Nanomaterials are currently used in electronics, industrial materials, cosmetics, and medicine because they have useful physicochemical properties, such as strength, conductivity, durability, and chemical stability. As these materials have become widespread, many questions have arisen regarding their effects on health and the environment. In particular, recent studies have demonstrated that carbon nanotubes (CNTs) cause significant inflammation and mesothelioma in vivo. In this study, we investigated the potential risk posed by singlewalled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) and multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) exposure in human pleural mesothelial cells. CNT cytotoxicity was determined by a trypan blue exclusion assay, and DNA damage was detected by an alkaline comet assay. The concentration of 8-oxodeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) in DNA was measured by high perhormance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. The expression of base excision repair enzymes in the cell was estimated by immunoblot analysis. We observed inhibitory effects on cell proliferation and the induction of DNA damage following exposure of cells to purified CNTs that were suspended in dispersion medium. However, accumulation of 8-OHdG in DNA was not found. In addition, the expression levels of base excision enzymes that are involved in hOGG1, hMTH1, and MYH in MeT-5A cells remained unchanged for 24 h after carbon nanotube exposure. CNTs significantly inhibit cell proliferation and decrease DNA damage in human pleural mesothelial cells. Our results indicate that the mechanism of CNT-induced genotoxicity is different from that following exposure to reactive oxygen species, which causes oxidative DNA modifications and 8-OHdG production. Further investigation is required to characterize the specific DNA mutations that occur following CNT exposure.

Satoh J.-I.,Meiji Pharmaceutical University
Journal of Pharmacological Sciences | Year: 2010

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of small noncoding RNAs that regulate translational repression of multiple target mRNAs. The miRNAs in a whole cell regulate greater than 30% of all protein-coding genes. The vast majority of presently identified miRNAs are expressed in the brain in a spatially and temporally controlled manner. They play a key role in neuronal development, differentiation, and synaptic plasticity. However, at present, the pathological implications of deregulated miRNA expression in neurodegenerative diseases remain largely unknown. This review will briefly summarize recent studies that focus attention on aberrant miRNA expression in Alzheimer's disease brains. © 2010 The Japanese Pharmacological Society.

Ogawa R.,Meiji Pharmaceutical University | Echizen H.,Meiji Pharmaceutical University
Clinical Pharmacokinetics | Year: 2010

Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are widely prescribed for the treatment of gastric acid-related disorders and the eradication of Helicobacter pylori. In addition, they are routinely prescribed for the prevention of gastrointestinal bleeding in patients receiving a dual antiplatelet therapy consisting of clopidogrel and aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) after myocardial infarction or percutaneous coronary intervention and stenting. Because PPIs are given to these patients for long periods, there is a concern about the potential for clinically significant drug-drug interactions (DDIs) with concomitantly administered medications. Because PPIs give rise to profound and long-lasting elevation of intragastric pH, it is not surprising that they interfere with the absorption of concurrent medications. Drug solubility may be substantially reduced at neutral pH compared with acidic conditions. In this context, PPIs have been shown to reduce the bioavailability of many clinically relevant drugs (e.g. ketoconazole, atazanavir) by 50 or more compared with the control values.Soon after the introduction of omeprazole (a prototype PPI) into the market, it was reported that omeprazole was associated with 30 and 10 reductions in systemic clearance of diazepam and phenytoin, respectively. In vitro studies demonstrating the inhibitory effects of omeprazole on the metabolism of these drugs with human liver microsomes gave a mechanistic explanation for the DDIs. Numerous subsequent studies have been performed to investigate the DDI potential of PPIs associated with the metabolic inhibition of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme activities; however, most such attempts have failed to find clinically relevant results.Nevertheless, recent large-scale clinical trials have raised concerns about possible DDIs between PPIs and an antiplatelet drug, clopidogrel. It has been suggested that coadministration of PPIs with a dual antiplatelet therapy consisting of clopidogrel and aspirin may attenuate the anti-aggregation effects of those medications and augment the risk of cardiovascular ischaemic events. There is a possibility that PPIs may elicit detrimental effects by inhibiting CYP2C19-dominated metabolism of clopidogrel to its active metabolite. Further studies are urgently required to clarify the mechanism of this DDI and to explore new aspects of the DDI potential of PPIs. © 2010 Adis Data Information BV. All rights reserved.

Satoh J.-I.,Meiji Pharmaceutical University | Tabunoki H.,Meiji Pharmaceutical University
Multiple Sclerosis Journal | Year: 2013

Background: Vitamin D is a liposoluble vitamin essential for calcium metabolism. The ligand-bound vitamin D receptor (VDR), heterodimerized with retinoid X receptor, interacts with vitamin D response elements (VDREs) to regulate gene expression. Vitamin D deficiency due to insufficient sunlight exposure confers an increased risk for multiple sclerosis (MS). Objective: To study a protective role of vitamin D in multiple sclerosis (MS), it is important to characterize the global molecular network of VDR target genes (VDRTGs) in immune cells. Methods: We identified genome-wide VDRTGs collectively from two distinct chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by deep sequencing (ChIP-Seq) datasets of VDR-binding sites derived from calcitriol-treated human cells of B cell and monocyte origins. We mapped short reads of next generation sequencing (NGS) data on hg19 with Bowtie, detected the peaks with Model-based Analysis of ChIP-Seq (MACS), and identified genomic locations by GenomeJack, a novel genome viewer for NGS platforms. Results: We found 2997 stringent peaks distributed on protein-coding genes, chiefly located in the promoter and the intron on VDRE DR3 sequences. However, the corresponding transcriptome data verified calcitriol-induced upregulation of only a small set of VDRTGs. The molecular network of 1541 calcitriol-responsive VDRTGs showed a significant relationship with leukocyte transendothelial migration, Fcγ receptor-mediated phagocytosis, and transcriptional regulation by VDR, suggesting a pivotal role of genome-wide VDRTGs in immune regulation. Conclusion: These results suggest the working hypothesis that persistent deficiency of vitamin D might perturb the complex network of VDRTGs in immune cells, being responsible for induction of an autoimmune response causative for MS. © The Author(s) 2012.

Satoh J.-I.,Meiji Pharmaceutical University
BioData Mining | Year: 2012

MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of endogenous small noncoding RNAs, mediate posttranscriptional regulation of protein-coding genes by binding chiefly to the 3 untranslated region of target mRNAs, leading to translational inhibition, mRNA destabilization or degradation. A single miRNA concurrently downregulates hundreds of target mRNAs designated targetome, and thereby fine-tunes gene expression involved in diverse cellular functions, such as development, differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis and metabolism. Recently, we characterized the molecular network of the whole human miRNA targetome by using bioinformatics tools for analyzing molecular interactions on the comprehensive knowledgebase. We found that the miRNA targetome regulated by an individual miRNA generally constitutes the biological network of functionally-associated molecules in human cells, closely linked to pathological events involved in cancers and neurodegenerative diseases. We also identified a collaborative regulation of gene expression by transcription factors and miRNAs in cancer-associated miRNA targetome networks. This review focuses on the workflow of molecular network analysis of miRNA targetome in silico. We applied the workflow to two representative datasets, composed of miRNA expression profiling of adult T cell leukemia (ATL) and Alzheimers disease (AD), retrieved from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) repository. The results supported the view that miRNAs act as a central regulator of both oncogenesis and neurodegeneration. © 2012 Satoh; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Satoh J.-I.,Meiji Pharmaceutical University
Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders | Year: 2014

Background The transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) acts as a central regulator of immune response, stress response, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. Aberrant regulation of NF-κB function triggers development of cancers, metabolic diseases, and autoimmune diseases. We attempted to characterize a global picture of the NF-κB target gene network relevant to the immunopathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods We identified the comprehensive set of 918 NF-κB p65 binding sites on protein-coding genes from chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by deep sequencing (ChIP-Seq) dataset of TNFα-stimulated human B lymphoblastoid cells. The molecular network was studied by a battery of pathway analysis tools of bioinformatics. Results The GenomeJack genome viewer showed that NF-κB p65 binding sites were accumulated in promoter (35.5%) and intronic (54.9%) regions with an existence of the NF-κB consensus sequence motif. A set of 52 genes (5.7%) corresponded to known NF-κB targets by database search. KEGG, PANTHER, and Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) revealed that the NF-κB p65 target gene network is linked to regulation of immune functions and oncogenesis, including B cell receptor signaling, T cell activation pathway, Toll-like receptor signaling, and apoptosis signaling, and molecular mechanisms of cancers. KeyMolnet indicated an involvement of the complex crosstalk among core transcription factors in the NF-κB p65 target gene network. Furthermore, the set of NF-κB p65 target genes included 10 genes among 98 MS risk alleles and 49 molecules among 709 MS brain lesion-specific proteins. Conclusions These results suggest that aberrant regulation of NF-κB-mediated gene expression, by inducing dysfunction of diverse immune functions, is closely associated with development and progression of MS. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Yoshino T.,Meiji Pharmaceutical University
Cellular and molecular neurobiology | Year: 2011

A synthetic analog of sphingosine named FTY720 (Fingolimod), phosphorylated by sphingosine kinase-2, interacts with sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptors expressed on various cells. FTY720 suppresses the disease activity of multiple sclerosis (MS) chiefly by inhibiting S1P-dependent egress of autoreactive T lymphocytes from secondary lymphoid organs, and possibly by exerting anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects directly on brain cells. However, at present, biological effects of FTY720 on human microglia are largely unknown. We studied FTY720-mediated apoptosis of a human microglia cell line HMO6. The exposure of HMO6 cells to non-phosphorylated FTY720 (FTY720-non-P) induced apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner with IC50 of 10.6 ± 2.0 μM, accompanied by the cleavage of caspase-7 and caspase-3 but not of caspase-9. The apoptosis was inhibited by Z-DQMD-FMK, a caspase-3 inhibitor, but not by Pertussis toxin, a Gi protein inhibitor, suramin, a S1P3/S1P5 inhibitor, or W123, a S1P1 competitive antagonist, although HMO6 expressed S1P1, S1P2, and S1P3. Furthermore, both phosphorylated FTY720 (FTY720-P) and SEW2871, S1P1 selective agonists, did not induce apoptosis of HMO6. Genome-wide gene expression profiling and molecular network analysis indicated activation of transcriptional regulation by sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) in FTY720-non-P-treated HMO6 cells. Western blot verified activation of SREBP2 in these cells, and apoptosis was enhanced by pretreatment with simvastatin, an activator of SREBP2, and by overexpression of the N-terminal fragment of SREBP2. These observations suggest that FTY720-non-P-induced apoptosis of HMO6 human microglia is independent of S1P receptor binding, and positively regulated by the SREBP2-dependent proapoptotic signaling pathway.

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