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Ibaraki, Japan

Ohtani Y.,Tohoku University | Takahashi T.,Tohoku University | Sato K.,Tohoku University | Ardiyanti A.,Tohoku University | And 9 more authors.
Animal Science Journal

Although our previous report demonstrated that adiponectin and AdipoR1 gene expressions changed among different lactation stages in the bovine mammary gland, its in vivo kinetics remain unclear in ruminant animals. In this study, we investigated the changes in circulating concentrations of adiponectin, as well as other metabolic hormones and metabolites, (i) during the periparturient period and (ii) among different lactation stages, in Holstein dairy cows. In experiment 1, serum adiponectin concentrations increased after parturition. Serum insulin concentrations were lower in the postpartum than prepartum period, whereas serum growth hormone (GH) concentrations increased in the postpartum period. Serum nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) levels were increased during the postpartum period and were dependent on the parity. In experiment 2, there was no significant difference in plasma adiponectin concentrations among lactational stages. Plasma insulin concentrations tended to be lower in early lactation while plasma GH levels tended to be higher. Plasma NEFA concentrations were significantly lower in mid- and late-lactation stages than non-lactation stages. These findings indicate that elevation of serum adiponectin might be involved in energy metabolism just around parturition, and might exert its action through regulation of receptor expression levels in target tissues in each lactational stage in Holstein dairy cows. © 2012 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2012 Japanese Society of Animal Science. Source

Bai H.,University of Tokyo | Bai H.,Meiji Feed Co. | Sakurai T.,University of Tokyo | Sakurai T.,Yokohama College of Pharmacy | And 2 more authors.
Animal Science Journal

In vertebrates, six GATA transcription factors, GATA1 through GATA6, have been identified and GATA1-3 is known to be involved in hematopoietic developments, while GATA4-6 play roles in cardiac and endoderm developments. Recently, we and others have found that GATA2 and GATA3 found in the trophectoderm plays a role in gene expression specific to this cell type, but GATA4-6 have not been well characterized in early embryonic developments. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and in situ hybridization, we examined the expression of GATA4, 5 and 6 messenger RNAs (mRNAs) in ovine conceptuses and uteri during the peri-implantation period. In ovine conceptuses, GATA4, 5 and 6 transcripts were present on days 15, 17 and 21 (day 0=day of mating), and high GATA5 and 6mRNAs were found on day 21, most of which were localized in the trophectoderm and endoderm. Moreover, minute and substantial GATA4 and 5mRNAs were found in days 15 and 21 uterine endometria, respectively. Increase in GATA4-6 transcripts in day 21 uteri indicates that in addition to GATA1-3, GATA4-6 may also play a potentially novel role in the development of ovine trophectoderm, endoderm and/or uterine endometria following conceptus attachment to the uterine epithelium. © 2013 Japanese Society of Animal Science. Source

Lactobacillus gasseri OLL 2716 promotes the elimination of Helicobacter pylori and is utilized in yogurts that are specifically labeled as health foods. On the other hand, milk whey fermented by Propionibacterium freudenreichii ET-3, which increases the numbers of Bifidobacterium, is effective for intestinal disorders. We previously demonstrated that oral administration of L. gasseri and P. freudenreichii fermentation metabolites (LP-FM) improved calf intestinal microflora and reduced the incidence of diarrhea. However, the detailed immunological mechanisms responsible for these effects remain to be fully understood. In this study, we investigated whether LP-FM stimulates the innate immune response and promotes the elimination of Listeria monocytogenes in mice. The C57BL/6 female mice that were treated with LP-FM or L. gasseri fermentation metabolites alone for 4 weeks had more peripheral white blood cells than the untreated control mice. In particular, LP-FM-treated mice had higher CD4- and CD8-positive T-cell counts. The levels of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species produced by peritoneal macrophages were also higher in LP-FM-treated mice. Furthermore, LP-FM-treated mice that were infected with L. monocytogenes exhibited significant enhancement of the elimination of Listeria from the spleen and the liver in comparison with untreated control mice infected with Listeria. The activation of innate immunity by LP-FM was increased by the combination of fermentation metabolites from P. freudenreichii. These results suggest that LP-FM, which contains metabolites from L. gasseri and P. freudenreichii, stimulates the function of the innate immune system, thereby significantly promoting the elimination of L. monocytogenes in mice. Source

Bai R.,University of Tokyo | Bai H.,University of Tokyo | Bai H.,Meiji Feed Co. | Kuse M.,Okayama University | And 7 more authors.

Following bidirectional communication, the conceptus and the uterine epithelium must establish a proper cell-cell interaction, resulting in the progression of implantation processes. To clarify the mechanism of conceptus attachment to the uterine endometrium, we studied whether vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM1) was expressed in bovine conceptuses or endometrium during the peri-attachment period. Uterine VCAM1 expression was minimal in day 17 (day 0Zday of estrus) cyclic and pregnant animals, but increased between days 20 and 22 of pregnancy. In the intercaruncular regions, VCAM1 protein was localized to the luminal and glandular epithelia, whereas in the caruncular regions, VCAM1 protein was detected in the stroma and endothelia of the uterine endometrium. In cultured endometrial epithelial cells (EECs), VCAM1 expression was up-regulated when treated with uterine flushings or growth factor and further increased when EECs were cocultured with bovine trophoblast CT1 cells. VCAM1 expression in CT1 cells was also up-regulated with the use of uterine flushings, and further increased when these cells were cocultured with EECs. Expression of VCAM1 receptor, integrin a 4 (ITGA4) mRNA, increased significantly in day 22 conceptuses. In day 22 pregnant uteri, VCAM1 protein was found in both EECs and conceptuses, but ITGA4 was localized only to trophoblasts. These observations indicate that cell-cell interactions between conceptuses and uterine epithelial cells are required for sufficient VCAM1 and ITGA4 expression in the bovine species and suggest that uterine VCAM1 and conceptus ITGA4 play a role in the establishment of conceptus adhesion to the uterine endometrium. Source

Bai R.,University of Tokyo | Kusama K.,University of Tokyo | Sakurai T.,University of Tokyo | Sakurai T.,Tokyo University of Science | And 9 more authors.
Biology of Reproduction

A successful pregnancy depends on the blastocyst's implantation to the maternal endometrium; however, the initial interaction between blastocyst and uterine epithelium has not been well characterized. The objectives of this study were to determine if selectins and their ligands were expressed in the bovine conceptus and/or uterus during the periattachment period and to study whether selectins were associated with conceptus attachment to the uterine epithelium. Through the RNA-sequence analysis of bovine conceptuses on Days 17, 20, and 22 (Day 0=day of estrus), only the SELL ligand, podocalyxin (PODXL), and P-selectin (SELP) ligand, SELPLG, were found. Quantitative PCR analysis confirmed the presence of PODXL and SELPLG in these conceptuses and revealed that SELL, mRNA and protein, detected in the uterine epithelium but not in conceptuses increased during the periattachment period. In the cultured endometrial epithelial cells (EECs), SELL transcript was up-regulated when uterine flushings from Day 20 pregnant animals were placed onto these cells. SELL was also up-regulated when cultured EECs were treated with progesterone, EGF, or bFGF, but not with IFNT. In the coculture system with EECs and bovine trophoblast CT-1 cells, SELL expression in EECs was effectively reduced by its small interfering RNA; however, IFNT, a marker for CT-1 cell attachment to EECs, was not reduced, nor was a transcription factor of IFNT, CDX2. These observations suggest that the conceptus could attach to the uterine epithelium through the use of endometrial SELL and embryonic selectin ligands, possibly initiating the conceptus attachment process in the bovine species. © 2015 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc. Source

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