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Palma A.S.,Imperial College London | Palma A.S.,New University of Lisbon | Liu Y.,Imperial College London | Zhang H.,Imperial College London | And 16 more authors.
Molecular and Cellular Proteomics | Year: 2015

Glucans are polymers of D-glucose with differing linkages in linear or branched sequences. They are constituents of microbial and plant cell-walls and involved in important bio-recognition processes, including immunomodulation, anticancer activities, pathogen virulence, and plant cellwall biodegradation. Translational possibilities for these activities in medicine and biotechnology are considerable. High-throughput micro-methods are needed to screen proteins for recognition of specific glucan sequences as a lead to structure-function studies and their exploitation. We describe construction of a "glucome" microarray, the first sequence-defined glycome-scale microarray, using a "designer" approach from targeted ligand-bearing glucans in conjunction with a novel high-sensitivity mass spectrometric sequencing method, as a screening tool to assign glucan recognition motifs. The glucome microarray comprises 153 oligosaccharide probes with high purity, representing major sequences in glucans. Negative-ion electrospray tandem mass spectrometry with collision-induced dissociation was used for complete linkage analysis of gluco-oligosaccharides in linear "homo" and "hetero" and branched sequences. The system is validated using antibodies and carbohydrate-binding modules known to target α- or β-glucans in different biological contexts, extending knowledge on their specificities, and applied to reveal new information on glucan recognition by two signaling molecules of the immune system against pathogens: Dectin-1 and DC-SIGN. The sequencing of the glucan oligosaccharides by the MS method and their interrogation on the microarrays provides detailed information on linkage, sequence and chain length requirements of glucan-recognizing proteins, and are a sensitive means of revealing unsuspected sequences in the polysaccharides. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

A method for the determination of insoluble (IDF), soluble (SDF), and total dietary fiber (TDF), as defined by the CODEX Alimentarius, was validated in foods. Based upon the principles of AOAC Official Methods 985.29, 991.43, 2001.03, and 2002.02, the method quantitates water-insoluble and water-soluble dietary fiber. This method extends the capabilities of the previously adopted AOAC Official Method 2009.01, Total Dietary Fiber in Foods, Enzymatic-Gravimetric-Liquid Chromatographic Method, applicable to plant material, foods, and food ingredients consistent with CODEX Definition 2009, including naturally occurring, isolated, modified, and synthetic polymers meeting that definition. The method was evaluated through an AOAC/AACC collaborative study. Twenty-two laboratories participated, with 19 laboratories returning valid assay data for 16 test portions (eight blind duplicates) consisting of samples with a range of traditional dietary fiber, resistant starch, and nondigestible oligosaccharides. The dietary fiber content of the eight test pairs ranged from 10.45 to 29.90%. Digestion of samples under the conditions of AOAC 2002.02 followed by the isolation, fractionation, and gravimetric procedures of AOAC 985.29 (and its extensions 991.42 and 993.19) and 991.43 results in quantitation of IDF and soluble dietary fiber that precipitates (SDFP). The filtrate from the quantitation of water-alcohol-insoluble dietary fiber is concentrated, deionized, concentrated again, and analyzed by LC to determine the SDF that remains soluble (SDFS), i.e., all dietary fiber polymers of degree of polymerization = 3 and higher, consisting primarily, but not exclusively, of oligosaccharides. SDF is calculated as the sum of SDFP and SDFS. TDF is calculated as the sum of IDF and SDF. The within-laboratory variability, repeatability SD (Sr), for IDF ranged from 0.13 to 0.71, and the between-laboratory variability, reproducibility SD (SR), for IDF ranged from 0.42 to 2.24. The within-laboratory variability Sr for SDF ranged from 0.28 to 1.03, and the between-laboratory variability SR for SDF ranged from 0.85 to 1.66. The within-laboratory variability Sr for TDF ranged from 0.47 to 1.41, and the between-laboratory variability SR for TDF ranged from 0.95 to 3.14. This is comparable to other official and approved dietary fiber methods, and the method is recommended for adoption as Official First Action.

McCleary B.V.,Megazyme International | DeVries J.W.,Medallion Laboratories General Mills Inc. | Rader J.I.,U.S. Food and Drug Administration | Cohen G.,Kraft Foods Inc. | And 4 more authors.
Journal of AOAC International | Year: 2010

A method for the determination of total dietary fiber (TDF), as defined by the CODEX Alimentarius, was validated in foods. Based upon the principles of AOAC Official MethodsSM 985.29, 991.43, 2001.03, and 2002.02, the method quantitates high- and low-molecular-weight dietary fiber (HMWDF and LMWDF, respectively). In 2007, McCleary described a method of extended enzymatic digestion at 37°C to simulate human intestinal digestion followed by gravimetric isolation and quantitation of HMWDF and the use of LC to quantitate low-molecular-weight soluble dietary fiber (LMWSDF). The method thus quantitates the complete range of dietary fiber components from resistant starch (by utilizing the digestion conditions of AOAC Method 2002.02) to digestion resistant oligosaccharides (by incorporating the deionization and LC procedures of AOAC Method 2001.03). The method was evaluated through an AOAC collaborative study. Eighteen laboratories participated with 16 laboratories returning valid assay data.

Mangan D.,Megazyme International | Szafranska A.,The Bakery | McKie V.,Megazyme International | McCleary B.V.,Megazyme International
Journal of Cereal Science | Year: 2016

α-Amylase content in milled wheat is a key quality parameter in the baking industry. This metric is usually determined using the Hagberg Falling Number (FN) method, the results of which can be used to segment grains into a range of quality categories. The authors describe herein an alternative to the traditional FN assay, namely the Amylase SD assay, as a predictor of baked bread quality. 144 Wheat grain samples with known FN values were analysed using the Amylase SD assay and a simple model for the conversion of Amylase SD units into “predicted FN” (PFN) values has been described. To test the usefulness of this approach, 11 separate wheat grain samples were analysed using the FN method, the Amylase SD assay, and also for gluten content. These grain samples were then milled to produce flour which was re-analysed using the Amylase SD assay and then formulated into dough that was subjected to Mixolab analysis, before being baked to produce pan bread. Correlations of baked bread volume and common Mixolab parameters to both FN and PFN values have been investigated for each sample. The Amylase SD assay has been shown to be a potentially promising alternative to the FN method for use as a baked bread quality predictor. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

Cornaggia C.,Megazyme International | Ivory R.,Megazyme International | Mangan D.,Megazyme International | Mccleary B.V.,Megazyme International
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2016

BACKGROUND: The measurement of α-amylase (EC in sprout-damaged grains is a crucial analysis yet a problematic one owing to the typically low α-amylase levels in ground wheat samples. A number of standardised methods such as the Falling Number method and the Ceralpha method exist which are routinely used for the assay of α-amylase. These methods, however, are either highly substrate-dependent or lack the required sensitivity to assess sprout damage. RESULTS: Novel colorimetric and fluorometric reagents have been prepared (Amylase HR, Amylase SD, BzCNPG7 reagent and BzMUG7 reagent) for the direct and specific assay of α-amylase activity in sprout-damaged wheat. Assays employing these reagents have been developed and optimised to include a decolourisation step using activated charcoal. When used in a convenient assay format, Amylase SD - containing EtNPG7 (II) as the colorimetric substrate and α-glucosidase as the ancillary enzyme - was found to be an excellent reagent for the assessment of sprout damage in wheat with incubation times as short as 5 min. CONCLUSION: The assay using Amylase SD is completely specific for α-amylase. The use of the Amylase SD assay represents a sensitive and valid alternative to the traditionally used Falling Number values for the assessment of sprout damage in wheat samples. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

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