Jagan Rao N.,Meenakshi Medical College and RI |
Jayasree T.,P.A. College |
Mallikarjuna Rao B.,Padmashri Dr Vithalrao Vikhe Patil Foundations Medical College |
Sandeep Kumar K.,Meenakshi Medical College and RI |
Vijay Kumar S.,Meenakshi Medical College and RI
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research | Year: 2012
To investigate the ant-inociceptive and the anti-inflammatory activities of the petroleum-ether extract of Portulaca oleracea. The petroleum-ether extract of Portulaca oleracea was subjected to a preliminary phytochemical screening. Acute toxicity studies were carried out in Swiss albino mice. The analgesic activity of the petroleum-ether extract of Portulaca oleracea was evaluated by using well established models like acetic acid induced writhing, the formalin test and the tail immersion method in mice. Its acute anti-inflammatory effect was studied by the Carrageenan induced hind paw oedema method in rats. Its phytochemical evaluation revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, favonoids, saponins and triterpenoids. The acute toxicity studies showed that the extract was non-toxic upto a maximum dose of 2000 mg/kg body weight. The petroleum-ether extract exhibited significant inhibition of the acetic acid induced writhing, it reduced the paw-licking response time significantly in the formalin test and it increased the withdrawal latency time in the tail immersion test. The Carrageenan induced hind paw oedema was significantly reduced in rats. The present study indicated that the petroleum-ether extract of Portulaca oleracea had potential ant-inociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities.
Francis Britto G.,IRT PMC |
Francis Britto G.,Sri Ramachandra University |
Subash K.R.,IRT PMC |
Subash K.R.,Sri Ramachandra University |
And 6 more authors.
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research | Year: 2012
Opioids constitute the first-line treatment for pain and they provide a potent analgesic effect, but they are also responsible for various adverse effects such as nausea, vomiting, sedation, constipation and respiratory depression, which seriously limit their use. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a GABA agonist which was given along with opioids at a minimal dose could elicit an anti-nociceptive activity in albino mice or not, as compared to morphine. Analgesia evaluation by using the acute pain model hotplate method was employed. The GABA agonists Gabapentin, Baclofen, Tiagabine and Vigabatrine with opioids Morphine and Tramadol, separately, at minimal doses, were given to mice and they were compared with a morphine analgesic dose. Morphine 3mg/kg showed a significant analgesic effect. This dose hot plate latency was taken as a standard and this was compared with all the test drugs which were used in this study. Morphine 1mg/kg (low dose) alone showed minimal antinociception, whereas in combination with a low dose GABA agonist, it showed significant antinociception. Tramadol 20mg/kg showed a significant analgesic effect and Tramadol 10mg/kg (low dose) showed a minimal analgesic effect, whereas the low dose Tramadol with the low dose GABA agonists in a combination showed a significant analgesic effect as that of Morphine 3mg/kg. The combination of a minimal dose of opioid and a GABA agonist has a significant anti nociceptive activity.
Kate N.N.,ESIC Medical College and Hospital |
Teli C.G.,ESIC Medical College and Hospital |
Gajbhiye R.,ESIC Medical College and Hospital |
Ambareesha K.,Meenakshi Medical College and RI |
Suresh M.,Meenakshi Medical College and RI
National Journal of Physiology, Pharmacy and Pharmacology | Year: 2015
Background: In nerve conduction laboratory, various types of cases are encountered. These are generally referred for electrophysiological investigation of the most common syndromes such as carpel tunnel syndrome where there is partial or total sparing of the thenar muscles from the effect of compression of their nerve supply. So for the assessment of traumatic and entrapment lesions of median and ulnar nerves, the knowledge of these anastomosis is important. Aims and Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of this anastomosis in healthy individuals, to draw attention of clinicians or surgeons from neurophysiology field to this anastomosis, and to avoid misinterpretations of different studies of needle electromyography and other nerve conduction studies. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 healthy volunteers were selected from the medical students aged 17–30 years. Surface recording electrodes were placed on the hand abductor pollicis brevis, abductor digiti minimi, and the first dorsal interossei (FDI) of each subject. Using surface electrodes, we percutaneously stimulated the median and ulnar nerves at the wrist and the elbow. Rectangular pulses of 0.2 ms duration were used and the stimulus strength was supramaximal. Compound muscle action potential (CMAP) was recorded. CMAP from the FDI, hypothenar, and thenar muscles larger (at least 1.0 mV) on median nerve stimulation at the elbow than at the wrist and that from one or more of these sites larger (at least 1.0 mV) on stimulation of ulnar nerve at the wrist than at the elbow were accepted as indicators of the presence of the MGA. Analysis was carried out using Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 10.0. P-value < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: The type of anastomosis frequently observed was type II, which was observed in 12 subjects; type I was observed in 3; type I + II was observed in 2; and type III was observed in 1 subject. Conclusion: Because of its high incidence and different electrodiagnostic considerations, MGA should be considered to be of great clinical significance for correct diagnosis and for planning appropriate therapy in peripheral lesions of median and ulnar nerves. © 2015 Nilesh N. Kate.
Teli C.G.,Meenakshi Medical College And Ri |
Kate N.N.,Meenakshi Medical College And Ri |
Kothandaraman U.,Meenakshi Medical College And Ri
Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research | Year: 2013
Objectives: To reveal the variations of the iliolumbar artery and the iliolumabar veins and their correlation with the surrounding important structures. Methods: We dissected the iliolumbar region bilaterally in 20 formalin-fxed adult cadavers. The diameter of the iliolumbar artery at its origin, its length up to the branching point, the distance between the iliolumbar artery and the inferior margin of the fifth lumbar vertebra and the distance between the iliolumbar artery and the bifurcation point of the common iliac artery, were measured. The pattern of drainage, the dimensions, the points of confuence with the common iliac vein and the obliquity of the iliolumbar vein were noted. The correlation between the iliolumbar artery and the veins to the obturator nerve and the lumbosacral trunk was recorded. Results: The iliolumbar artery originated from the posterior trunk of the internal iliac artery or from the internal iliac artery. The mean diameter of the iliolumbar artery, at its origin, was 3.5±0.5 mm. The mean distance between the origin of the iliolumbar artery and the bifurcation point to the iliac and the lumbar branches was 12.2±5.5 mm. The distance between the origin of the iliolumbar artery and the lower edge of the ffth lumbar vertebra was 43.2±11.6 mm. The distance between the origin of the iliolumbar artery and the bifurcation point of the common iliac artery was 38.7±10.6 mm. The mean distance of the iliolumbar veins from the inferior vena cava, overall, was 35± 9.9 mm. The mean width of the mouth of the iliolumbar vein was10.7 ± 5.1 mm and the mean angle of obliquity of the vein with respect to the long axis of the common iliac vein was 75.50. The tributaries which drained into the main iliolumbar vein were variable. The iliolumbar artery passed anterior in 70% and it passed posterior to the obturator nerve in 30%. The veins were lying anterior to the obturator nerve in 45% and they were lying posterior in 55%. The multiple tributaries which drained into the iliolumbar vein relation of the tributaries were variable, few passed anterior and few passed posterior. The iliolumbar artery was seen anterior to the lumbosacral trunk in 30%, it was posterior in 54%, it was cleaved in 8% and the branches of the artery were passing on either side of the lumbosacral trunk to enclose it like a clasp in 8%. The veins were anterior to the lumbosacral trunk in 40% and they were posterior in 60%. Conclusion: The anatomical features of the iliolumbar artery, the iliolumbar veins and their correlation with the anatomical landmarks, which were presented here, would be helpful in decreasing the iatrogenic trauma to the neurovascular structures in the iliolumbar region.