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Bailey D.B.,Oradell Animal Hospital | Malone E.K.,MedVet Medical and Cancer Center for Pets | Flory A.B.,Veterinary Specialty Hospital | Kiselow M.A.,Sage Centers for Veterinary Specialty and Emergency Care | Intile J.L.,VCA Veterinary Referral Associates
Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association | Year: 2014

This retrospective study describes toxicity associated with a protocol of lomustine (CCNU) and cyclophosphamide (CTX) in dogs with lymphoma. CCNU was administered per os (PO) at a targeted dosage of 60 mg/m2 body surface area on day 0, CTX was administered PO at a targeted dosage of 250 mg/m2 divided over days 0 through 4, and all dogs received prophylactic antibiotics. Ninety treatments were given to the 57 dogs included in the study. Neutropenia was the principal toxic effect, and the overall frequency of grade 4 neutropenia after the first treatment of CCNU/CTX was 30% (95% confidence interval, 19-43%). The mean body weight of dogs with grade 4 neutropenia (19.7 kg ± 13.4 kg) was significantly less than the mean body weight of dogs that did not develop grade 4 neutropenia (31.7 kg ± 12.4 kg; P=.005). One dog (3%) developed hematologic changes suggestive of hepatotoxicity. No dogs had evidence of either renal toxicity or hemorrhagic cystitis. Adverse gastrointestinal effects were uncommon. On the basis of the findings reported herein, a dose of 60 mg/m2 of CCNU combined with 250 mg/m2 of CTX (divided over 5 days) q 4 wk is tolerable in tumor-bearing dogs. © 2014 by American Animal Hospital Association. Source


Bufkin B.W.,MedVet Medical and Cancer Center for Pets | Barnhart M.D.,MedVet Medical and Cancer Center for Pets | Naber S.J.,Ohio State University | Kennedy S.C.,MedVet Medical and Cancer Center for Pets
Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology | Year: 2013

Objective: To evaluate the mechanical properties of the Polyaxial Advanced Locking System (PAX) in screw push-out and four-point bending. Materials and methods: Screw push-out: PAX locking screws were applied to first generation PAX plates at three different insertion angles with two different insertion torques. A load was applied parallel to the screw axis, and screw push-out force was measured. Four-point bending: PAX plates were applied to a bone model and a fracture gap was simulated. Bending stiffness, bending strength, and bending structural stiffness were evaluated and compared to published data. Results: Screw push-out forces were significantly higher at 0 and 5 degree insertion angles when compared with an insertion angle of 10 degrees. An insertion torque of 3.5 Nm also produced significantly higher push-out forces compared to 2.5 Nm. Four-point bending: Qualitative comparison of the data gained in this study with previously published data suggests that the PAX system bending stiffness and bending structural stiffness seems to be higher than that of other veterinary orthopaedic implants, but the bending strength was similar. Clinical relevance: The PAX locking system offers the benefit of polyaxial screw insertion while maintaining comparable biomechan-ical properties to other currently available orthopaedic implants. © Schattauer 2013. Source


Fox P.R.,The Animal Medical Center | Oyama M.A.,University of Pennsylvania | Hezzell M.J.,University of Pennsylvania | Rush J.E.,Tufts University | And 11 more authors.
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine | Year: 2015

Background: Cardiac biomarkers provide objective data that augments clinical assessment of heart disease (HD). Hypothesis/Objectives: Determine the utility of plasma N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide concentration [NT-proBNP] measured by a 2nd generation canine ELISA assay to discriminate cardiac from noncardiac respiratory distress and evaluate HD severity. Animals: Client-owned dogs (n = 291). Methods: Multicenter, cross-sectional, prospective investigation. Medical history, physical examination, echocardiography, and thoracic radiography classified 113 asymptomatic dogs (group 1, n = 39 without HD; group 2, n = 74 with HD), and 178 with respiratory distress (group 3, n = 104 respiratory disease, either with or without concurrent HD; group 4, n = 74 with congestive heart failure [CHF]). HD severity was graded using International Small Animal Cardiac Health Council (ISACHC) and ACVIM Consensus (ACVIM-HD) schemes without knowledge of [NT-proBNP] results. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis assessed the capacity of [NT-proBNP] to discriminate between dogs with cardiac and noncardiac respiratory distress. Multivariate general linear models containing key clinical variables tested associations between [NT-proBNP] and HD severity. Results: Plasma [NT-proBNP] (median; IQR) was higher in CHF dogs (5,110; 2,769-8,466 pmol/L) compared to those with noncardiac respiratory distress (1,287; 672-2,704 pmol/L; P < .0001). A cut-off >2,447 pmol/L discriminated CHF from noncardiac respiratory distress (81.1% sensitivity; 73.1% specificity; area under curve, 0.84). A multivariate model comprising left atrial to aortic ratio, heart rate, left ventricular diameter, end-systole, and ACVIM-HD scheme most accurately associated average plasma [NT-proBNP] with HD severity. Conclusions and Clinical Importance: Plasma [NT-proBNP] was useful for discriminating CHF from noncardiac respiratory distress. Average plasma [NT-BNP] increased significantly as a function of HD severity using the ACVIM-HD classification scheme. © 2014 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine. Source


Seibert R.L.,University of Florida | Maisenbacher III H.W.,University of Florida | Prosek R.,University of Florida | Adin D.B.,MedVet Medical and Cancer Center for Pets | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Veterinary Cardiology | Year: 2010

Closure of reversed patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is generally accepted to be contraindicated due to case based evidence of worsened outcomes, but little is known about closure of left-to-right PDA with concurrent pulmonary hypertension (PH). This report describes three dogs presenting with varying severity of PH and clinical signs, all with documented left-to-right PDA. The PDA was closed in each case; either by surgical ligation or transarterial device occlusion, and follow up was available for a minimum of 8 months. Every case had a successful outcome with improvement or resolution of PH and associated clinical signs. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Lovett M.C.,MedVet Medical and Cancer Center for Pets | Coates J.R.,University of Missouri | Shu Y.,Ohio State University | Oglesbee M.J.,Ohio State University | And 2 more authors.
Veterinary Journal | Year: 2014

Inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative diseases. Canine degenerative myelopathy (DM) is a progressive adult-onset neurodegenerative disease commonly associated with an E40K missense mutation in the SOD1 gene. DM has many similarities to some familial forms of human amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and may serve as an important disease model for therapy development. Pro-inflammatory mediators such as interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and heat shock protein (hsp) 70 play a role in the pathogenesis of ALS. The focus of the current work was to determine whether an inflammatory phenotype is present in canine DM as defined by IL-1β, TNF-α, and hsp70 responses in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and spinal cord tissue. Concentrations of hsp70, IL-1β and TNF-α were below the limits of detection by ELISA in the CSF of both normal and DM-affected dogs. Immunohistochemical staining for hsp70 was significantly increased in ependymal cells lining the spinal cord central canal of DM-affected dogs (P=0.003). This was not associated with increased IL-1β or TNF-α staining, but was associated with increased CD18 staining in the gray matter of DM-affected dogs. These results suggest that hsp70 in spinal cord tissue is a potential inflammatory signature in canine DM. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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