Fox P.R.,The Animal Medical Center |
Oyama M.A.,University of Pennsylvania |
Hezzell M.J.,University of Pennsylvania |
Rush J.E.,Tufts University |
And 11 more authors.
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine | Year: 2015
Background: Cardiac biomarkers provide objective data that augments clinical assessment of heart disease (HD). Hypothesis/Objectives: Determine the utility of plasma N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide concentration [NT-proBNP] measured by a 2nd generation canine ELISA assay to discriminate cardiac from noncardiac respiratory distress and evaluate HD severity. Animals: Client-owned dogs (n = 291). Methods: Multicenter, cross-sectional, prospective investigation. Medical history, physical examination, echocardiography, and thoracic radiography classified 113 asymptomatic dogs (group 1, n = 39 without HD; group 2, n = 74 with HD), and 178 with respiratory distress (group 3, n = 104 respiratory disease, either with or without concurrent HD; group 4, n = 74 with congestive heart failure [CHF]). HD severity was graded using International Small Animal Cardiac Health Council (ISACHC) and ACVIM Consensus (ACVIM-HD) schemes without knowledge of [NT-proBNP] results. Receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis assessed the capacity of [NT-proBNP] to discriminate between dogs with cardiac and noncardiac respiratory distress. Multivariate general linear models containing key clinical variables tested associations between [NT-proBNP] and HD severity. Results: Plasma [NT-proBNP] (median; IQR) was higher in CHF dogs (5,110; 2,769-8,466 pmol/L) compared to those with noncardiac respiratory distress (1,287; 672-2,704 pmol/L; P < .0001). A cut-off >2,447 pmol/L discriminated CHF from noncardiac respiratory distress (81.1% sensitivity; 73.1% specificity; area under curve, 0.84). A multivariate model comprising left atrial to aortic ratio, heart rate, left ventricular diameter, end-systole, and ACVIM-HD scheme most accurately associated average plasma [NT-proBNP] with HD severity. Conclusions and Clinical Importance: Plasma [NT-proBNP] was useful for discriminating CHF from noncardiac respiratory distress. Average plasma [NT-BNP] increased significantly as a function of HD severity using the ACVIM-HD classification scheme. © 2014 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
Bailey D.B.,Oradell Animal Hospital |
Malone E.K.,MedVet Medical and Cancer Center for Pets |
Flory A.B.,Veterinary Specialty Hospital |
Kiselow M.A.,Sage Centers for Veterinary Specialty and Emergency Care |
Intile J.L.,VCA Veterinary Referral Associates
Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association | Year: 2014
This retrospective study describes toxicity associated with a protocol of lomustine (CCNU) and cyclophosphamide (CTX) in dogs with lymphoma. CCNU was administered per os (PO) at a targeted dosage of 60 mg/m2 body surface area on day 0, CTX was administered PO at a targeted dosage of 250 mg/m2 divided over days 0 through 4, and all dogs received prophylactic antibiotics. Ninety treatments were given to the 57 dogs included in the study. Neutropenia was the principal toxic effect, and the overall frequency of grade 4 neutropenia after the first treatment of CCNU/CTX was 30% (95% confidence interval, 19-43%). The mean body weight of dogs with grade 4 neutropenia (19.7 kg ± 13.4 kg) was significantly less than the mean body weight of dogs that did not develop grade 4 neutropenia (31.7 kg ± 12.4 kg; P=.005). One dog (3%) developed hematologic changes suggestive of hepatotoxicity. No dogs had evidence of either renal toxicity or hemorrhagic cystitis. Adverse gastrointestinal effects were uncommon. On the basis of the findings reported herein, a dose of 60 mg/m2 of CCNU combined with 250 mg/m2 of CTX (divided over 5 days) q 4 wk is tolerable in tumor-bearing dogs. © 2014 by American Animal Hospital Association.
Wiese A.J.,MedVet Medical and Cancer Center for Pets |
Rathbun M.,MedVet Medical and Cancer Center for Pets |
Butt M.T.,Campus Veterinary Medicine |
Malkmus S.A.,MedVet Medical and Cancer Center for Pets |
And 9 more authors.
Anesthesiology | Year: 2013
Background: Neurokinin-1 receptors (NK1-rs) located on superficial dorsal horn neurons are essential for integration of nociceptive input. Intrathecal injection of substance P-saporin (SP-SAP) leads to local loss of spinal NK1-r (+) neurons suggesting its potential as a therapeutic agent for chronic pain. The authors determined, in a canine model, effects of lumbar intrathecal SP-SAP. Methods: Distribution of SP-SAP and Saporin was determined in plasma, lumbar cerebrospinal fluid, and tissue. Safety of intrathecal SP-SAP was determined in four groups (six dogs each) administered 0 (0.9% saline), 1.5, 15, or 150 ?g SP-SAP through lumbar intrathecal catheters. Behavioral, physiologic, and biochemical variables were assessed. Spinal tissues were collected at 7 and approximately 90 days, or earlier if significant morbidity developed, and analyzed for NK1-r (+) neuron loss and histopathology. Results: SP-SAP and Saporin were detectable in lumbar cerebrospinal fluid for up to 4 and 24 h, respectively. Animals receiving intrathecal saline, 1.5, or 15 ?g of SP-SAP showed no persistent neurologic deficits. Three animals receiving 150 ?g of SP-SAP developed pelvic limb paraparesis and were euthanized prematurely. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization cell counts confirmed a significant reduction in NK1-r (+) in superficial dorsal horn neurons from lumbar spinal cord after intrathecal administration of 15 and 150 ?g of SP-SAP. A significant loss of NK1-r neurons in the lumbar ventral horn occurred only with 150-?g SP-SAP. Conclusion: Intrathecal 15-?g SP-SAP reduced dorsal, but not ventral, NK1-r (+) neurons at the spinal level of delivery with minimal side effects, whereas 150-?g SP-SAP resulted in motor neuron toxicity. © 2013, the American Society of Anesthesiologists.
Seibert R.L.,University of Florida |
Maisenbacher III H.W.,University of Florida |
Prosek R.,University of Florida |
Adin D.B.,MedVet Medical and Cancer Center for Pets |
And 2 more authors.
Journal of Veterinary Cardiology | Year: 2010
Closure of reversed patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is generally accepted to be contraindicated due to case based evidence of worsened outcomes, but little is known about closure of left-to-right PDA with concurrent pulmonary hypertension (PH). This report describes three dogs presenting with varying severity of PH and clinical signs, all with documented left-to-right PDA. The PDA was closed in each case; either by surgical ligation or transarterial device occlusion, and follow up was available for a minimum of 8 months. Every case had a successful outcome with improvement or resolution of PH and associated clinical signs. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lovett M.C.,MedVet Medical and Cancer Center for Pets |
Coates J.R.,University of Missouri |
Shu Y.,Ohio State University |
Oglesbee M.J.,Ohio State University |
And 2 more authors.
Veterinary Journal | Year: 2014
Inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative diseases. Canine degenerative myelopathy (DM) is a progressive adult-onset neurodegenerative disease commonly associated with an E40K missense mutation in the SOD1 gene. DM has many similarities to some familial forms of human amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and may serve as an important disease model for therapy development. Pro-inflammatory mediators such as interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and heat shock protein (hsp) 70 play a role in the pathogenesis of ALS. The focus of the current work was to determine whether an inflammatory phenotype is present in canine DM as defined by IL-1β, TNF-α, and hsp70 responses in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and spinal cord tissue. Concentrations of hsp70, IL-1β and TNF-α were below the limits of detection by ELISA in the CSF of both normal and DM-affected dogs. Immunohistochemical staining for hsp70 was significantly increased in ependymal cells lining the spinal cord central canal of DM-affected dogs (P=0.003). This was not associated with increased IL-1β or TNF-α staining, but was associated with increased CD18 staining in the gray matter of DM-affected dogs. These results suggest that hsp70 in spinal cord tissue is a potential inflammatory signature in canine DM. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.
Bufkin B.W.,MedVet Medical and Cancer Center for Pets |
Barnhart M.D.,MedVet Medical and Cancer Center for Pets |
Naber S.J.,Ohio State University |
Kennedy S.C.,MedVet Medical and Cancer Center for Pets
Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology | Year: 2013
Objective: To evaluate the mechanical properties of the Polyaxial Advanced Locking System (PAX) in screw push-out and four-point bending. Materials and methods: Screw push-out: PAX locking screws were applied to first generation PAX plates at three different insertion angles with two different insertion torques. A load was applied parallel to the screw axis, and screw push-out force was measured. Four-point bending: PAX plates were applied to a bone model and a fracture gap was simulated. Bending stiffness, bending strength, and bending structural stiffness were evaluated and compared to published data. Results: Screw push-out forces were significantly higher at 0 and 5 degree insertion angles when compared with an insertion angle of 10 degrees. An insertion torque of 3.5 Nm also produced significantly higher push-out forces compared to 2.5 Nm. Four-point bending: Qualitative comparison of the data gained in this study with previously published data suggests that the PAX system bending stiffness and bending structural stiffness seems to be higher than that of other veterinary orthopaedic implants, but the bending strength was similar. Clinical relevance: The PAX locking system offers the benefit of polyaxial screw insertion while maintaining comparable biomechan-ical properties to other currently available orthopaedic implants. © Schattauer 2013.
PubMed | MedVet Medical and Cancer Center for Pets
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association | Year: 2011
To determine outcomes and prognostic factors for those outcomes in dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma treated with curative-intent surgery and adjuvant carboplatin.Retrospective case series.65 client-owned dogs with appendicular osteosarcoma and no evidence of gross metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis.Medical records of dogs that underwent limb amputation or distal ulnectomy and adjuvant carboplatin treatment for appendicular osteosarcoma were reviewed. Adverse effects of chemotherapy and findings regarding preoperative biopsy specimens and postoperative diagnostic imaging were recorded. Signalment, clinical history, and chemotherapy variables were evaluated for associations with outcome. Histologic grade and other variables were evaluated for association with outcome for 38 tumors that were retrospectively graded.The median disease-free interval was 137 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 112 to 177 days). Median survival time was 277 days (95% CI, 203 to 355 days). The 1-, 2-, and 3-year survival rates were 36%, 22%, and 19%, respectively. None of the chemotherapy variables were associated with outcome. Preoperative proteinuria was the only clinical variable associated with poor outcome. Histologic features of tumors associated with a poor outcome were intravascular invasion, mitotic index > 5 in 3 microscopic hpfs, and grade III classification.Carboplatin administration was well tolerated and resulted in a disease-free interval and median survival time similar to those of other published protocols.