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Hyattsville, MD, United States

Umans J.G.,MedStar Research Institute
Clinical journal of the American Society of Nephrology : CJASN | Year: 2012

Preeclampsia, a common and potentially devastating multisystem disorder unique to human pregnancy, represents a novel form of secondary hypertension with complex renal and systemic effects. Recent translational and clinical research reveals key pathophysiologic contributions due to dysregulation of angiogenic factors and of angiotensin signaling. Despite these insights, there are still difficulties in the clinical definition of preeclampsia and in the diagnosis of women with this disorder. Although recent research suggests the potential for new preventive and treatment strategies, most have not yet been shown ready for clinical use. Source

Brewer Jr. H.B.,MedStar Research Institute
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2011

Context: Statin treatment of cardiovascular patients reduces clinical events by 25 to 45%. Highdensity lipoprotein (HDL) has been proposed as a therapeutic target to further reduce this residual cardiovascular risk. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed from 1940 to the present was searched for all relevant citations related to the structure, function, and role of HDL in atherosclerosis. Evidence Synthesis: Epidemiological data, animal models with increased plasma HDL levels, as well as initial clinical and cardiovascular imaging trials suggest that increasing HDL in clinical patients will decrease the risk of cardiovascular disease. Proposed mechanisms by which HDL may reduce atherosclerosis include facilitating cholesterol efflux from cholesterol-loaded foam cells, role as an antiinflammatory lipoprotein, decreasing atherogenic oxidized low-density lipoprotein, increasing nitric oxide synthesis, serving as a plasma transport lipoprotein for biologically important proteins, and as an antithrombotic agent. The identification of the major receptors, enzymes, cellular transporters, and plasma lipid transfer proteins has provided major new insights into the pathways for HDL metabolism and cholesterol transport as well as targets for future drug development to increase HDL. Conclusions: Clinical trials with new HDL-raising drugs are currently under way to provide definitive evidence that increasing HDL will reduce cardiovascular events. The marked increase in our knowledge of the roles of HDL in cholesterol transport and the development of atherosclerosis now provides the framework for a more effective assessment of the plasma level and the function of HDL in an individual patient, as well as the lipoprotein profile after new drugs that increase HDL. Copyright © 2011 by The Endocrine Society. Source

Shara N.M.,MedStar Research Institute
Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases | Year: 2010

Morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease (CVD) are rising among Middle Eastern women. Despite this threat, awareness and understanding of CVD are low and surveillance data are nonexistent for many populations in this region. In this review, the data available on CVD in Middle Eastern women will be generalized. Population-based studies in the Middle East have been sporadic and most have been cross-sectional with small samples. Many Middle Eastern countries lack reliable surveillance data regarding the prevalence and incidence of CVD and its risk factors in women. This information is crucial for monitoring the scope of the problem and for guiding intervention strategies. Because of the ethnic heterogeneity of this region and the rapidly changing lifestyles, well-designed, longitudinal, large-scale population-based studies that focus on CVD and its risk factors are needed in multiple areas of the Middle East. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source

Brewer H.B.,MedStar Research Institute
Circulation Research | Year: 2014

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains a major burden for morbidity and mortality in the general population, despite current efficacious low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol-lowering therapies. Consequently, novel therapies are required to reduce this residual risk. Prospective epidemiological studies have shown that high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels are inversely correlated with cardiovascular disease risk, and this initiated the quest for HDL-C-increasing therapies. Consequently, several different targets in HDL metabolism have been identified.Initial studies addressing the effect of cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibition on cardiovascular disease outcome have been discontinued for reasons of futility or increased mortality. As of yet, 2 cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibitors are still in phase III studies. Other HDL-based interventions, such as apolipoprotein A1-based compounds, ABC-transporter upregulators, selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor modulators and lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase-based therapy, hold great promise for the future. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of HDL-targeted pharmaceutical strategies in humans, both in early development as well as in late stage clinical trials. Source

Genway Biotech Inc., Emory University and MedStar Research Institute | Date: 2012-03-01

This invention relates to the area of cardiovascular disorders and specifically relates to methods of diagnostic tests using a combination of markers to predict an individuals risk for developing coronary artery disease (CAD) and related diseases, such as angina pectoris and peripheral vascular disease and, more particularly, to determine an individuals risk of myocardial infarction, death, and stroke. Exemplary biomarkers include C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrin degradation products (FDPs), Heat Shock Protein 70 (HSP70), and/or anti-CMV antibody.

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