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Alexandria, Australia

Ellis R.J.,University of Queensland | Small D.M.,University of Queensland | Vesey D.A.,University of Queensland | Johnson D.W.,University of Queensland | And 5 more authors.

In the last decade, chronic kidney disease (CKD), defined as reduced renal function (glomerular filtration rate (GFR) < 60 mL/min per 1.73 m2) and/or evidence of kidney damage (typically manifested as albuminuria) for at least 3 months, has become one of the fastest-growing public health concerns worldwide. CKD is characterized by reduced clearance and increased serum accumulation of metabolic waste products (uremic retention solutes). At least 152 uremic retention solutes have been reported. This review focuses on indoxyl sulphate (IS), a protein-bound, tryptophan-derived metabolite that is generated by intestinal micro-organisms (microbiota). Animal studies have demonstrated an association between IS accumulation and increased fibrosis, and oxidative stress. This has been mirrored by in vitro studies, many of which report cytotoxic effects in kidney proximal tubular cells following IS exposure. Clinical studies have associated IS accumulation with deleterious effects, such as kidney functional decline and adverse cardiovascular events, although causality has not been conclusively established. The aims of this review are to: (i) establish factors associated with increased serum accumulation of IS; (ii) report effects of IS accumulation in clinical studies; (iii) critique the reported effects of IS in the kidney, when administered both in vivo and in vitro; and (iv) summarize both established and hypothetical therapeutic options for reducing serum IS or antagonizing its reported downstream effects in the kidney. © 2015 Asian Pacific Society of Nephrology. Source

Coulson S.,Medlab Clinical Ltd | Coulson S.,University of Sydney | Palacios T.,University of Sydney | Vitetta L.,Medlab Clinical Ltd | Vitetta L.,University of Sydney
Progress in Drug Research

Perna canaliculus (Green-Lippped Mussel) is found only in New Zealand waters and is cultivated and manufactured for both the food and nutraceutical industry world-wide. P. canaliculus has traditionally been used as a therapeutic to treat various arthralgias in both humans and animals; however, clinical research reports provide conflicting results. Numerous in vitro studies have reported anti-inflammatory activity of the mussel under various conditions and also demonstrated a synergistic effect with pharmaceutical medications such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) with P. canaliculus protecting the gastrointestinal mucosal lining against such medications. It is proposed that the anti-inflammatory activity demonstrated by P. canaliculus is predominantly due to the lipid fraction, however, among the major classes of compounds found in mussel meat, proteins and peptides are the largest with isolates demonstrating various anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, bioadhesive and anti-hypertensive activities. A review of the bioactive components, their function and therapeutic application is outlined in this chapter. Furthermore, we hypothesise and provide supportive evidence that the gastrointestinal microbiota play an important role in disease processes such as Rheumatoid arthritis and Osteoarthritis and also in the efficacy of P. canaliculus in chronic inflammatory conditions. The metabolic capacity of intestinal microbiota can modify bioactive food components altering the hosts’ exposure to these components, potentially enhancing or diminishing their health effects. Understanding the interaction of the bioactive compounds in P. canaliculus with commensal and pathogenic bacteria may facilitate the development of novel interventions to control intestinal and extraintestinal inflammation. © 2015, Progress in Drug Research, All rights Reserved. Source

Vitetta L.,University of Sydney | Vitetta L.,Medlab Clinical Ltd | Palacios T.,University of Sydney | Hall S.,Medlab Clinical Ltd | And 2 more authors.
Progress in Drug Research

Bacteria represent the earliest form of independent life on this planet. Bacterial development has included cooperative symbiosis with plants (e.g., Leguminosae family and nitrogen fixing bacteria in soil) and animals (e.g., the gut microbiome). It is generally agreed upon that the fusion of two prokaryotes evolutionarily gave rise to the eukaryotic cell in which mitochondria may be envisaged as a genetically functional mosaic, a relic from one of the prokaryotes. This is expressed by the appearance of mitochondria in eukaryotic cells (an alpha-proteobacteria input), a significant endosymbiotic evolutionary event. As such, the evolution of human life has been complexly connected to bacterial activities. Hence, microbial colonization of mammals has been a progressively driven process. The interactions between the human host and the microbiome inhabiting the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) for example, afford the human host the necessary cues for the development of regulated signals that in part are induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS). This regulated activity then promotes immunological tolerance and metabolic regulation and stability, which then helps establish control of local and extraintestinal end-organ (e.g., kidneys) physiology. Pharmacobiotics, the targeted administration of live probiotic cultures, is an advancing area of potential therapeutics, either directly or as adjuvants. Hence the continued scientific understanding of the human microbiome in health and disease may further lead to fine tuning the targeted delivery of probiotics for a therapeutic gain. © 2015, Progress in Drug Research, All rights Reserved. Source

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