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Bochum-Hordel, Germany

Schweigel H.,University of Hamburg | Geiger J.,University of Wurzburg | Beck F.,Leibniz Institute for Analytical Sciences | Buhs S.,University of Hamburg | And 5 more authors.
Proteomics | Year: 2013

Tyrosine phosphorylation plays a central role in signal transduction controlling many important biological processes. In platelets, the activity of several signaling proteins is controlled by tyrosine phosphorylation ensuring proper platelet activation and aggregation essential for regulation of the delicate balance between bleeding and hemostasis. Here, we applied Src-homology 2 region (SH2)-profiling for deciphering of the phosphotyrosine state of human platelets activated by adenosine diphosphate (ADP). Applying a panel of 31 SH2-domains, rapid and complex regulation of the phosphotyrosine state of platelets was observed after ADP stimulation. Specific inhibition of platelet P2Y receptors by synthetic drugs revealed a major role for the P2Y1 receptor in tyrosine phosphorylation. Concomitant activation of protein kinase A (PKA) abolished ADP-induced tyrosine phosphorylation in a time and concentration-dependent manner. Given the fact that PKA activity is negatively regulated by the P2Y12 receptor, our data provide evidence for a novel link of synergistic control of the state of tyrosine phosphorylation by both P2Y receptors. By SH2 domain pull down and MS/MS analysis, we identified distinct tyrosine phosphorylation sites in cell adhesion molecules, intracellular adapter proteins and phosphatases suggesting a major, functional role of tyrosine phosphorylation of theses candidate proteins in ADP-dependent signaling in human platelets. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Venne A.S.,Leibniz Institute for Analytical Sciences | Vogtle F.-N.,Institute For Biochemie Und Molekularbiologie | Meisinger C.,Institute For Biochemie Und Molekularbiologie | Meisinger C.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Proteome Research | Year: 2013

We present a novel straightforward method for enrichment of N-terminal peptides, utilizing charge-based fractional diagonal chromatography (ChaFRADIC). Our method is robust, easy to operate, fast, specific, and more sensitive than existing methods, enabling the differential quantitation of 1459 nonredundant N-terminal peptides between two S. cerevisiae samples within 10 h of LC-MS, starting from only 50 μg of protein per condition and analyzing only 40% of the obtained fractions. Using ChaFRADIC we compared mitochondrial proteins from wild-type and icp55Δ yeast (30 μg each). Icp55 is an intermediate cleaving peptidase, which, following mitochondrial processing peptidase (MPP)-dependent cleavage of signal sequences, removes a single amino acid from a specific set of proteins according to the N-end rule. Using ChaFRADIC we identified 36 icp55 substrates, 14 of which were previously unknown, expanding the set of known icp55 substrates to a total of 52 proteins. Interestingly, a novel substrate, Isa2, is likely processed by Icp55 in two consecutive steps and thus might represent the first example of a triple processing event in a mitochondrial precursor protein. Thus, ChaFRADIC is a powerful and practicable tool for protease and peptidase research, providing the sensitivity to characterize even samples that can be obtained only in small quantities. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

El Magraoui F.,Ruhr University Bochum | El Magraoui F.,Leibniz Institute for Analytical Sciences | Schrotter A.,AG Neuroproteomics | Schrotter A.,Leibniz Institute for Analytical Sciences | And 9 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Peroxisomal biogenesis is an ubiquitin-dependent process because the receptors required for the import of peroxisomal matrix proteins are controlled via their ubiquitination status. A key step is the monoubiquitination of the import receptor Pex5p by the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2) Pex4p. This monoubiquitination is supposed to take place after Pex5p has released the cargo into the peroxisomal matrix and primes Pex5p for the extraction from the membrane by the mechano-enzymes Pex1p/Pex6p. These two AAA-type ATPases export Pex5p back to the cytosol for further rounds of matrix protein import. Recently, it has been reported that the soluble Pex4p requires the interaction to its peroxisomal membrane-anchor Pex22p to display full activity. Here we demonstrate that the soluble C-terminal domain of Pex22p harbours its biological activity and that this activity is independent from its function as membrane-anchor of Pex4p. We show that Pex4p can be functionally fused to the trans-membrane segment of the membrane protein Pex3p, which is not directly involved in Pex5p-ubiquitination and matrix protein import. However, this Pex3(N)-Pex4p chimera can only complement the double-deletion strain pex4Δ/pex22Δ and ensure optimal Pex5p-ubiquitination when the C-terminal part of Pex22p is additionally expressed in the cell. Thus, while the membrane-bound portion Pex22(N)p is not required when Pex4p is fused to Pex3(N)p, the soluble Pex22(C)p is essential for peroxisomal biogenesis and efficient monoubiquitination of the import receptor Pex5p by the E3-ligase Pex12p in vivo and in vitro. The results merge into a picture of an ubiquitin-conjugating complex at the peroxisomal membrane consisting of three domains: the ubiquitin-conjugating domain (Pex4p), a membrane-anchor domain (Pex22(N)p) and an enhancing domain (Pex22(C)p), with the membrane-anchor domain being mutually exchangeable, while the Ubc- and enhancer-domains are essential. © 2014 El Magraoui et al.

El Magraoui F.,Ruhr University Bochum | El Magraoui F.,AG Neuroproteomics | Brinkmeier R.,Ruhr University Bochum | Schrotter A.,AG Neuroproteomics | And 6 more authors.
Traffic | Year: 2013

Peroxisomal matrix protein import is facilitated by cycling receptors that recognize their cargo proteins in the cytosol by a peroxisomal targeting sequence (PTS) and ferry them to the peroxisomal membrane. Subsequently, the cargo is translocated into the peroxisomal lumen, whereas the receptor is released to the cytosol for further rounds of protein import. This cycle is controlled by the ubiquitination status of the receptor, which is best understood for the PTS1-receptor. While polyubiquitination of PTS-receptors results in their proteasomal degradation, the monoubiquitinated PTS-receptors are exported to the cytosol and recycled for further rounds of protein import. Here, we describe the identification of two ubiquitination cascades acting on the PTS2 co-receptor Pex18p. Using in vivo and in vitro approaches, we demonstrate that the polyubiquitination of Pex18p requires the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2) Ubc4p, which cooperates with the RING (really interesting new gene)-type ubiquitin-protein ligases (E3) Pex2p as well as Pex10p. Monoubiquitination of Pex18p depends on the E2 enzyme Pex4p (Ubc10p), which functions in concert with the E3 enzymes Pex12p and Pex10p. Our findings for the PTS2-pathway complement the data on PTS1-receptor ubiquitination and add up to a unified concept of the ubiquitin-based regulation of peroxisomal import. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

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