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Huguet G.,Institute Pasteur Paris | Huguet G.,University Paris Diderot | Nava C.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Nava C.,French National Center for Scientific Research | And 22 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Inherited and de novo genomic imbalances at chromosome 16p11.2 are associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), but the causative genes remain unknown. Among the genes located in this region, PRRT2 codes for a member of the synaptic SNARE complex that allows the release of synaptic vesicles. PRRT2 is a candidate gene for ASD since homozygote mutations are associated with intellectual disability and heterozygote mutations cause benign infantile seizures, paroxysmal dyskinesia, or hemiplegic migraine. Here, we explored the contribution of PRRT2 mutations in ASD by screening its coding part in a large sample of 1578 individuals including 431 individuals with ASD, 186 controls and 961 individuals from the human genome Diversity Panel. We detected 24 nonsynonymous variants, 1 frameshift (A217PfsX8) and 1 in-frame deletion of 6 bp (p.A361-P362del). The frameshift mutation was observed in a control with no history of neurological or psychiatric disorders. The p.A361-P362del was observed in two individuals with autism from sub-Saharan African origin. Overall, the frequency of PRRT2 deleterious variants was not different between individuals with ASD and controls. Remarkably, PRRT2 displays a highly significant excess of nonsynonymous (pN) vs synonymous (pS) mutations in Asia (pN/pS = 4.85) and Europe (pN/pS = 1.62) compared with Africa (pN/pS = 0.26; Asia vs Africa: P = 0.000087; Europe vs Africa P = 0.00035; Europe vs Asia P = P = 0.084). We also showed that whole genome amplification performed through rolling cycle amplification could artificially introduce the A217PfsX8 mutation indicating that this technology should not be performed prior to PRRT2 mutation screening. In summary, our results do not support a role for PRRT2 coding sequence variants in ASD, but provide an ascertainment of its genetic variability in worldwide populations that should help researchers and clinicians to better investigate the role of PRRT2 in human diseases. © 2014 Huguet et al.

Lesca G.,Lyon Hospices Civils | Lesca G.,University of Lyon | Lesca G.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Rudolf G.,University of Strasbourg | And 24 more authors.
Epilepsia | Year: 2012

Purpose: The continuous spike and waves during slow-wave sleep syndrome (CSWSS) and the Landau-Kleffner (LKS) syndrome are two rare epileptic encephalopathies sharing common clinical features including seizures and regression. Both CSWSS and LKS can be associated with the electroencephalography pattern of electrical status epilepticus during slow-wave sleep and are part of a clinical continuum that at its benign end also includes rolandic epilepsy (RE) with centrotemporal spikes. The CSWSS and LKS patients can also have behavioral manifestations that overlap the spectrum of autism disorders (ASD). An impairment of brain development and/or maturation with complex interplay between genetic predisposition and nongenetic factors has been suspected. A role for autoimmunity has been proposed but the pathophysiology of CSWSS and of LKS remains uncharacterized. Methods: In recent years, the participation of rare genomic alterations in the susceptibility to epileptic and autistic disorders has been demonstrated. The involvement of copy number variations (CNVs) in 61 CSWSS and LKS patients was questioned using comparative genomic hybridization assays coupled with validation by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Key Findings: Whereas the patients showed highly heterogeneous in genomic architecture, several potentially pathogenic alterations were detected. A large number of these corresponded to genomic regions or genes (ATP13A4, CDH9, CDH13, CNTNAP2, CTNNA3, DIAPH3, GRIN2A, MDGA2, SHANK3) that have been either associated with ASD for most of them, or involved in speech or language impairment, or in RE. Particularly, CNVs encoding cell adhesion proteins (cadherins, protocadherins, contactins, catenins) were detected with high frequency (≈20% of the patients) and significant enrichment (cell adhesion: p = 0.027; cell adhesion molecule binding: p = 9.27 × 10-7). Significance: Overall our data bring the first insights into the possible molecular pathophysiology of CSWSS and LKS. The overrepresentation of cell adhesion genes and the strong overlap with the genetic, genomic and molecular ASD networks, provide an exciting and unifying view on the clinical links among CSWSS, LKS, and ASD. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2012 International League Against Epilepsy.

Ishida S.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Ishida S.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Picard F.,University of Geneva | Rudolf G.,University of Strasbourg | And 22 more authors.
Nature Genetics | Year: 2013

The main familial focal epilepsies are autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy, familial temporal lobe epilepsy and familial focal epilepsy with variable foci. A frameshift mutation in the DEPDC5 gene (encoding DEP domain-containing protein 5) was identified in a family with focal epilepsy with variable foci by linkage analysis and exome sequencing. Subsequent pyrosequencing of DEPDC5 in a cohort of 15 additional families with focal epilepsies identified 4 nonsense mutations and 1 missense mutation. Our findings provided evidence of frequent (37%) loss-of-function mutations in DEPDC5 associated with a broad spectrum of focal epilepsies. The implication of a DEP (Dishevelled, Egl-10 and Pleckstrin) domain-containing protein that may be involved in membrane trafficking and/or G protein signaling opens new avenues for research. © 2013 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

Burnashev N.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Burnashev N.,Mediterranean Institute of Neurobiology INMED | Burnashev N.,Aix - Marseille University | Szepetowski P.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | And 3 more authors.
Current Opinion in Pharmacology | Year: 2015

N-Methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are glutamate-gated cation channels that are expressed throughout the brain and play essential role in brain functioning. Diversity of the subunits and of their spatio-temporal expression imparts distinct functional properties for the particular NMDAR in a particular brain region and developmental stage. Mutations in NMDARs may have pathological consequences and actually lead to various neurological disorders. Recent human genetic studies as highlighted here show the existence of multiple alterations in NMDARs subunits genes in several usual and common brain diseases, such as intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorders (ASD), or epilepsy. Relation of a particular mutation to the corresponding alteration of NMDARs function may provide an avenue to the targeted therapy for the pharmacological treatment of the disorders. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Lesca G.,University of Lyon | Lesca G.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Lesca G.,A+ Network | Rudolf G.,A+ Network | And 61 more authors.
Nature Genetics | Year: 2013

Epileptic encephalopathies are severe brain disorders with the epileptic component contributing to the worsening of cognitive and behavioral manifestations. Acquired epileptic aphasia (Landau-Kleffner syndrome, LKS) and continuous spike and waves during slow-wave sleep syndrome (CSWSS) represent rare and closely related childhood focal epileptic encephalopathies of unknown etiology. They show electroclinical overlap with rolandic epilepsy (the most frequent childhood focal epilepsy) and can be viewed as different clinical expressions of a single pathological entity situated at the crossroads of epileptic, speech, language, cognitive and behavioral disorders. Here we demonstrate that about 20% of cases of LKS, CSWSS and electroclinically atypical rolandic epilepsy often associated with speech impairment can have a genetic origin sustained by de novo or inherited mutations in the GRIN2A gene (encoding the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor α2 subunit, GluN2A). The identification of GRIN2A as a major gene for these epileptic encephalopathies provides crucial insights into the underlying pathophysiology. © 2013 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved.

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