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Farazi P.,University of Nicosia | Farazi P.,Mediterranean Center for Cancer Research | Lander L.,University of Nebraska Medical Center | Pavlou P.,Cyprus Cancer Registry | And 3 more authors.
Tobacco Induced Diseases | Year: 2015

Background: Causal relationships have been previously established between smoking and various cancers. In Cyprus, 39 % of men and 14 % of women reported daily smoking in 2008. The objective of this study was to compare the incidence of tobacco-related cancers to all other cancers by district and rural-urban classification to understand the impact of tobacco in Cyprus. Methods: Data on lung, urinary bladder, oral, pharyngeal, head/neck, and laryngeal cancers were obtained from the Cyprus Cancer Registry (1998-2008). There were 3,635 patients with tobacco-related cancers and 18,780 with non-tobacco cancers. Univariate analysis comparing tobacco-related cancers and all other cancers were conducted with regards to age at diagnosis, age groups, sex, smoking status, disease stage, and rural/urban status, with a p-value of 0.05 considered significant. Smoking prevalence, lung cancer, and bladder cancer rates of Cyprus were also compared to a number of other European countries. Results: Patients with tobacco-related cancers were older than those with non-tobacco cancers (mean age 67.2 ± 12.4 vs. 62.4 ± 17.1, p < ;0.0001). Among those with tobacco-related cancers, 80.1 % were male compared to 45.4 % males with other cancer types. The proportion of ever smokers was higher among males compared to females in urban and rural districts. Sub-districts 41 (Age Adjusted Rate (AAR) 41.9, 95 % CI: 35.7-48.1), 60 (AAR 40.3, 95 % CI: 35.2-45.3), and 50 (AAR 36.3, 95 % CI: 33.8-38.7) had the highest rates of tobacco-related cancers. The overall tobacco-related cancer rate was the highest among males in urban districts (AAR 60.8, 95 % CI: 58.2-63.5). Among tobacco-related cancers, lung cancer had the highest overall AAR (17.9 per 100,000) while head and neck cancer had the lowest overall AAR (5.3 per 100,000). Additionally, even though Cypriot males aged 65-69 years old exhibited higher smoking prevalence than other European countries, the overall lung and bladder cancer rates were lower in Cyprus. Conclusion: Despite the high proportion of smokers in Cyprus, cancer rates are low compared to other countries. Future in-depth measurements of relevant risk factors and smoking exposure can help understand this phenomenon and provide insights for cancer prevention. © 2015 Farazi et al. Source


Farazi P.A.,University of Nicosia | Farazi P.A.,Mediterranean Center for Cancer Research
ecancermedicalscience | Year: 2014

Cyprus, a European Union member state, is a small island in the Mediterranean with a population approaching 900,000 people. Cancer is the second leading cause of death; more therapeutic options for any patient with the disease are available in a central oncology centre in the capital of the island (Nicosia) and fewer therapeutic options (e.g. chemotherapy and hormone therapy only) in a few other public hospitals. Palliative care is offered in several hospices and hospitals, although the field needs improvement. With regards to screening, a national breast cancer screening programme has been in place countrywide since 2007 and is offered free of charge to women between the ages of 50 and 69 years, while colorectal and prostate cancer screening is performed on an individual basis (a pilot programme for colorectal cancer screening was recently initiated). Genetic testing is available for breast and colon cancer. To improve understanding of the causes of cancer in the country, a cancer research centre was established in 2010 (Mediterranean Centre for Cancer Research). Recent epidemiologic work has revealed increasing cancer trends in Cyprus; prostate cancer is the most common in men and breast cancer is the most common in women. Interestingly, thyroid cancer incidence in women has been rising from 1998 to 2008. Cancer of the colon and rectum is also on the rise affecting both sexes. Overall, cancer incidence in Cyprus is lower than other EuroMed countries with similar lifestyle and geography. © the authors. Source


Cooter M.,University of Michigan | Soliman A.S.,University of Nebraska at Omaha | Pavlou P.,Cyprus Cancer Registry | Demetriou A.,Cyprus Cancer Registry | And 5 more authors.
Tumori | Year: 2015

Cyprus maintains a population-based cancer registry that allows for in-depth study of cancer in a culturally and environmentally unique setting. Using 11 years of collected data (1998-2008), we present the first comprehensive analysis of cancer in Cyprus. We calculated gender-specific, world age-adjusted incidence rates and time trends for the 26 most incident cancers. This study revealed that overall world age-standardized rates among men increased from 195.4 cases per 100,000 in 1998-2002 to 239.0 cases per 100,000 in 2006-2008. For the entire 11-year period, prostate, lung, colorectal and bladder cancers were the most incident cancers among men. Among women, the overall world age-standardized rate increased from 180.6 cases per 100,000 in 1998-2002 to 217.1 cases per 100,000 in 2006-2008. Over the entire period, breast, colorectal, uterine and thyroid cancers were the most incident cancers in women. There were 16 sex-specific cancers showing statistically significantly increasing incidence trends over the study period and no types for which the rate was significantly decreasing. Thyroid cancer illustrated rapid increases in rates. Results were compared to other Mediterranean European registries using the Cancer Incidence in 5 Continents reports for 1997-2002. Overall cancer incidence in Cyprus is lower than that of many southern Mediterranean countries, and given the known environmental risk factors in Cyprus, the low rate of lung cancer is especially interesting. The epidemiologic patterns reported in this study open the door for future etiologic studies to elucidate the role of environmental and lifestyle factors in this population and highlight opportunities for cancer prevention and control. © 2015 INTM, Italy. Published by Wichtig Publishing. Source

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