Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari CIHEAM IAMB

Valenzano, Italy

Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari CIHEAM IAMB

Valenzano, Italy
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Zaccaria D.,Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari CIHEAM IAMB | Oueslati I.,Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari CIHEAM IAMB | Neale C.M.U.,Utah State University | Lamaddalena N.,Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari CIHEAM IAMB | And 2 more authors.
Irrigation Science | Year: 2010

This study was conducted on an irrigated area of southern Italy to analyze the current operation of a large-scale irrigation delivery system and the effects of the operation procedures on crop irrigation management and aquifer salinity increase. The area is characterized by relatively high levels of groundwater salinity in the summer that are probably due to intensive groundwater pumping by farmers during periods of peak irrigation demand, with the resulting seawater intrusion. Two alternative delivery schedules, namely the rotation delivery schedule and the flexible delivery schedule, referred to as RDS and FDS, respectively, were simulated using a soil-water balance model under different combinations of crop, soil and climatic conditions. The first set of simulations concerned the farm irrigation management constrained by the rotational delivery used by the local water management organization. The second scenario simulated the farm irrigation schedule most commonly used by growers in the area for maximizing crop yields. Based on crop irrigation management under RDS and FDS, two alternative operational scenarios were also developed at the scheme level and then compared for evaluation. Winter and summer salinity maps of the aquifer were developed by interpolating salinity measurements of the groundwater samples collected during the 2006 irrigation season. From these maps, a close relationship can be inferred among delivery schedule, aquifer exploitation and salinity increase, which justifies the need for implementing FDS that might reduce the groundwater demand for irrigation. © 2009 Springer-Verlag.


Cantore V.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | Wassar F.,Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari CIHEAM IAMB | Yamac S.S.,Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari CIHEAM IAMB | Sellami M.H.,CNR Institute for Agricultural and Forest Systems In the Mediterranean | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Plant Production | Year: 2014

Potato grown for early or off-season production plays a crucial role in the economy of several areas in the Mediterranean countries. Irrigation is important for determining yield and earliness, thus a better investigation of plant response under various pedo-climatic conditions can help to improve resource use efficiency and farmer income. A two-year field research (2009-2010) was carried out in Apulia region, southern Italy, on cv Spunta grown under three irrigation regimes: full irrigation (I100), 50% of full irrigation (I50) and rainfed (I0). Treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replicates. Plant water status, plant growth and, at harvesting, water use efficiency, yield and quality parameters were quantified. Water stress significantly affected yield response: as an average of the two years, a marketable yield decrement of 25.9 and 63.6% was observed in I50 and rainfed compared with I100 treatment, respectively. On the contrary, tuber dry matter and specific gravity increased moving from irrigated treatments to the rainfed one and varied also as a function of experimental year. The results confirmed that irrigation is required for early potato cultivation because rainfall is not sufficient to meet crop water needs. In addition, the study indicated that the irrigation regime reduced by 50% of crop water requirements was able to furnish satisfactory yield, with tuber quality characteristics similar or even better than those obtained under full irrigation.


Cantore V.,CNR Institute of Neuroscience | Lechkar O.,Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari CIHEAM IAMB | Karabulut E.,Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari CIHEAM IAMB | Sellami M.H.,CNR Institute for Agricultural and Forest Systems In the Mediterranean | And 4 more authors.
Agricultural Water Management | Year: 2016

This study focused on the assessment of the interactive effect of deficit irrigation and strobilurin application in improving tomato physiological and yield response under water shortage. A two-year field research (2011 and 2012) was carried out in southern Italy, on tomato grown under three irrigation regimes - full recovering of crop evapotranspiration (I100), 50% of full irrigation supply (I50) and rainfed (I0) - and with three fungicide treatments - control (F0) without any fungicide; application of fungicides without strobilurin (F1); application of a strobilurin based fungicide (Cabrio® Duo) (F2).Plant water status, yield and quality parameters, biomass and yield water use efficiencies (B_WUE and Y_WUE), yield and biomass water response factors (Ky and Kby) were assessed.Water shortage significantly affected yield and quality response: as an average of the two years, a marketable yield decrement of 52.7 and 80.5% was observed in I50 and I0 in respect to I100 treatment, respectively, because of the reduction in both fruit weight and number. Fruit dry matter, total soluble solids, titratable acidity, firmness and redness showed an increase to the decline of water availability. Strobilurin based fungicide application increased total and marketable yield by 14.2% and 19.1%, respectively. In addition, strobilurin improved the plant water status under water shortage as a consequence of reduction in stomatal conductance.Deficit irrigation caused a decrease of B_WUE and Y_WUE, while the strobilurin application improved Y_WUE by 17%. Kby and Ky on average were equal to 1.11 and 1.40, respectively, and were unaffected by fungicide treatments. These results indicated the potential benefits of using strobilurin based agrochemicals in tomato disease management, due to their complementary action in improving yield, WUE, and plant water status under water stress conditions. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Abdelrahman H.M.,Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari CIHEAM IAMB | Abdelrahman H.M.,Cairo University | Ceglie F.G.,Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari CIHEAM IAMB | Awad F.A.,Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari CIHEAM IAMB | And 2 more authors.
Compost Science and Utilization | Year: 2016

This work evaluated the response of organic tomato seedlings to locally produced compost-amended growing media and commonly used N liquid fertilizers. Green (GC) and mixed (MC) composts were used in growing media formulation with 70, 45, 20, and 0% (control based on peat) on volume basis for organic tomato seedling growth. Three locally available N liquid fertilizers, hydrolyzed-protein-based fertilizer (HP), blood-meal-based fertilizer (BM), and algae-extract-based fertilizer (AE), were tested. Seedlings were evaluated 34 days after sowing for plant height; stem diameter; shoot weights; sturdiness index; specific leaf area; and N, P, and K contents in the seedlings shoot. The statistical analysis showed that the substrate type, fertilizer, and their interaction significantly (p ≤ 0.05) affected, in most cases, the seedlings growth. The compost, especially with 20 or 45% amended substrate, produced longer seedlings with thicker diameter, greater fresh and dry weights, and greater leaves number compared to the control (compost-free) substrate. The use of the HP or the AE fertilizer generally contributed to better seedlings growth than did the BM-based fertilizer. The HP fertilizer clearly affected (p ≤ 0.01) the seedling diameter, fresh weight, and leave numbers while the AE fertilizer affected clearly seedling sturdiness index. The use of the GC or MC compost complemented with the HP or the AE fertilizer successfully reduced up to 45% of peat use in growing media and produced robust organic tomato seedlings. © 2016 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC


Zaccaria D.,Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari CIHEAM IAMB | Lamaddalena N.,Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari CIHEAM IAMB | Neale C.M.U.,Utah State University | Merkley G.P.,Utah State University | And 2 more authors.
Irrigation Science | Year: 2013

This study describes a model named HydroGEN that was conceived for simulating hydrographs of daily volumes and hourly flow rates during peak-demand periods in pressurized irrigation delivery networks with on-demand operation. The model is based on a methodology consisting of deterministic and stochastic components and is composed of a set of input parameters to reproduce the crop irrigation management practices followed by farmers and of computational procedures enabling to simulate the soil water balance and the irrigation events for all cropped fields supplied by each delivery hydrant in a distribution network. The input data include values of weather, crop, and soil parameters, as well as information on irrigation practices followed by local farmers. The resulting model outputs are generated flow hydrographs during the peak-demand period, which allow the subsequent analysis of performance achievable under different delivery scenarios. The model can be applied either for system design or re-design, as well as for analysis of operation and evaluation of performance achievements of on-demand pressurized irrigation delivery networks. Results from application of HydroGEN to a real pressurized irrigation system at different scales are presented in a companion paper (Part II: model applications). © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


Bustamante M.A.,University Miguel Hernández | Ceglie F.G.,Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari CIHEAM IAMB | Aly A.,Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari CIHEAM IAMB | Mihreteab H.T.,Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari CIHEAM IAMB | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Management | Year: 2016

Rock phosphate constitutes a natural phosphorus (P) source for organic farming systems, but with a limiting direct agricultural use due to its poor inherent reactivity. Thus, this work studies the effect of the co-composting of rock phosphate with green wastes and elemental sulfur on phosphorus availability. Six composts were prepared combining different green wastes and rock phosphate in three different proportions (0%, 0.27% and 0.54% P fresh mass basis) and elemental sulfur in two proportions (0% and 0.5% S fresh mass basis). During composting, the temperature of the mixtures was monitored, as were physico-chemical and chemical parameters, especially those related to phosphorus. The co-composting of green wastes with rock phosphate improved phosphorus mobilization and also constituted a viable method to manage green wastes, obtaining P-enriched compost for organic farming systems. Sulfur addition favored the composting process and also phosphorus solubilization, especially in the mixture with the lowest proportion of rock phosphate. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd


Zaccaria D.,Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari CIHEAM IAMB | Lamaddalena N.,Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari CIHEAM IAMB | Neale C.M.U.,Utah State University | Merkley G.P.,Utah State University
Irrigation Science | Year: 2013

A deterministic-stochastic combined model named HydroGEN was developed, as described in a companion paper (Part I: Model development), to enable the simulation of demanded daily volumes and hourly flow rates during peak periods in pressurized irrigation delivery networks. The model was applied to a pilot large-scale irrigation system located in southern Italy for calibration and for testing its reliability in analyzing the operation of large-scale pressurized delivery systems through the simulated flow configurations. Daily input data on rainfall, temperature, solar radiation, wind speed and relative humidity were gathered from a meteorological station located within the study area, whereas information on local irrigation management practices were collected through interviews with farmers and from extension specialists. The model was tested at different management levels, from district to sector and hydrants. The model testing was supported by the use of high-resolution remote-sensing imagery acquired on a single overpass date in 2006 and then classified and recoded following a ground-truthing campaign conducted during the same year. Simulations were performed to identify the 10-day peak-demand period and to generate the hydrographs of daily volumes and of hourly flow rates. Results from the different simulations were compared with historical datasets of irrigation volumes and discharges recorded during the 2008 and 2009 seasons at the upstream end of the irrigation network under study, at a sector level during the 2007 season and at selected delivery hydrants during the 2005 season. Some discrepancies between simulated and recorded data were noted that can be related to small errors in estimating crop and soil parameters, application efficiency at field level, as well as to large variability in irrigation management practices followed by local farmers. Overall, the results from testing showed that the model is capable of forecasting with good accuracy the timing of peak-demand periods, the irrigation volumes demanded during the season, as well as the hydrographs of daily volumes and hourly flow rates withdrawn by farmers during these peak-demand periods, especially when it is applied to large multi-cropped command areas. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


Abdelrahman H.M.,Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari CIHEAM IAMB | Ceglie F.G.,Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari CIHEAM IAMB | Erriquens F.G.,Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari CIHEAM IAMB | Verrastro V.,Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari CIHEAM IAMB | And 2 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2012

Two types of compost were produced at the experimental compost facility of the Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari (IAMB). The green waste compost (GWC) was composed of olive pruning and broccoli residues, and mixed waste compost (MWC) was composed of olive pruning and bovine manure. Both composts have alkaline pH, acceptable salinity content and low C/N ratio. They were evaluated as components of growing media in partial substitution of Sphagnum peat for organic melon seedlings production. A greenhouse trial was carried out to evaluate the composts as a peat substitute for melon seedlings' growth. Treatments, differentiated on the basis of the volume percentage of both composts, were compared to the control (a mixture of peat, coconut fiber and perlite). Compost-based substrates were analyzed for physical, physicochemical and chemical parameters (bulk density, porosity, pH, EC, nutrients content, etc.). In accordance with the guidelines of organic production, all treatments were fertilized, at the beginning of the trial, with guano. At transplant stage of nursery trial, biometric parameters and nutrient contents of shoots were measured. Compost addition has affected the chemical and physical characteristics of the media. Even though significant differences were observed, recorded values were in the range of acceptability for growing media. In terms of performance, seedling growth in treatments containing 30 and 50% of composts was significantly higher than in control. In terms of peat substitution, good results were obtained even though 10% of peat was used in the tested media.


Mihreteab H.T.,Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari CIHEAM IAMB | Ceglie F.G.,Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari CIHEAM IAMB | Aly A.,Mediterranean Agronomic Institute of Bari CIHEAM IAMB | Tittarelli F.,Italian Agricultural Research Council
Biological Agriculture and Horticulture | Year: 2015

Peat substitution in growth media with renewable organic components such as compost is one of the main challenges for organic nursery production. Two greenhouse experiments were carried out to investigate the performance of tomato seedlings grown on different compost-based growing media. The factors investigated were: (1) dose of compost, (2) level of phosphorus (P) enrichment and, only in the experiment 2, (3) source of P enrichment (rock phosphate enriched compost or rock phosphate amended growing media). Tomato seedling length, diameter, leaf area, leaf dry weight, shoot dry weight and seedling N, P and K concentrations were determined. Growth substrates with 30% compost showed the best seedling growth regardless of the source and level of P enrichment. Furthermore, at higher compost doses (60%) in the growth media, rock phosphate enriched compost (0.59 g P kg− 1 compost) produced seedlings that were comparable to the rock phosphate amended substrates (1.18 g P kg− 1 substrate). This demonstrates the capacity of the rock phosphate enriched compost in the growing media to supply more P to seedlings than the rock phosphate amended substrate. Moreover, growth media with 60% compost and peat-based growing media with standard rock phosphate application produced similar seedling growth confirming the potential of compost to substitute 60% of the peat in the growth media. © 2015 Taylor & Francis

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