Subramanian H.,University of Wurzburg |
Zahedi R.P.,Leibniz Institute for Analytical Sciences |
Sickmann A.,Leibniz Institute for Analytical Sciences |
Sickmann A.,Medinzinisches Proteom Center |
And 3 more authors.
Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis
Background: Signaling via protein kinase A (PKA) and protein kinase G (PKG) is critical for maintaining platelets in the resting state. Both kinases down-regulate the activity of the small GTPase Rap1b, a critical signaling switch for integrin activation and platelet aggregation. However, the mechanism of Rap1b regulation by PKA and PKG is largely unknown. Objective: To identify the PKA phosphorylation sites in calcium and diacylglycerol-regulated guanine nucleotide exchange factor I (CalDAG-GEFI), the main GEF for Rap1b in platelets, and the effect of CalDAG-GEFI phosphorylation in Rap1b activation. Methods: The phosphorylation sites in CalDAG-GEFI were identified by radio-active phosphate incorporation assay and mass spectrometry. Phospho-antibody was developed to detect CalDAG-GEFI phosphorylation in Western blots. Rap1b activation was detected by Rap1-GTP pull-down assay. Results: S587 was identified as the major PKA phosphorylation site in CalDAG-GEFI, while S116/117 was weakly phosphorylated. Phosphorylation of S587 correlated with the inhibitory effect of PKA on Rap1b activation in platelets. In HEK293 cells, expression of a phospho-mimetic mutant of CalDAG-GEFI (S587D) abolished agonist-induced Rap1b activation. Mutation of S587 to alanine partially reversed the inhibitory effect of PKA signaling on Rap1b activation, while mutation of S116, S117 and S587 to alanine completely abolished the inhibitory effect of PKA on Rap1b activation. Conclusion: Our study strongly suggests that phosphorylation of CalDAG-GEFI is a critical mechanism by which PKA controls Rap1b-dependent platelet aggregation. © 2013 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis. Source
Mossmann D.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg |
Vogtle F.-N.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg |
Taskin A.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg |
Teixeira P.,University of Stockholm |
And 16 more authors.
Most mitochondrial proteins possess N-terminal presequences that are required for targeting and import into the organelle. Upon import, presequences are cleaved off by matrix processing peptidases and subsequently degraded by the peptidasome Cym1/PreP, which also degrades Amyloid-beta peptides (Aβ). Here we find that impaired turnover of presequence peptides results in feedback inhibition of presequence processing enzymes. Moreover, Aβ inhibits degradation of presequence peptides by PreP, resulting in accumulation of mitochondrial preproteins and processing intermediates. Dysfunctional preprotein maturation leads to rapid protein degradation and an imbalanced organellar proteome. Our findings reveal a general mechanism by which Aβ peptide can induce the multiple diverse mitochondrial dysfunctions accompanying Alzheimer's disease. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source