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Budapest, Hungary

Gerbig S.,Justus Liebig University | Golf O.,Justus Liebig University | Balog J.,Medimass Ltd. | Denes J.,Justus Liebig University | And 5 more authors.
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2012

Negative ion desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) was used for the analysis of an ex vivo tissue sample set comprising primary colorectal adenocarcinoma samples and colorectal adenocarcinoma liver metastasis samples. Frozen sections (12 μm thick) were analyzed by means of DESI imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) with spatial resolution of 100 μm using a computer-controlled DESI imaging stage mounted on a high resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometer. DESI-IMS data were found to predominantly feature complex lipids, including phosphatidylinositols, phophatidyl-ethanolamines, phosphatidyl-serines, phosphatidyl-ethanolamine plasmalogens, phosphatidic acids, phosphatidyl-glycerols, ceramides, sphingolipids, and sulfatides among others. Molecular constituents were identified based on their exact mass and MS/MS fragmentation spectra. An identified set of molecules was found to be in good agreement with previously reported DESI imaging data. Different histological tissue types were found to yield characteristic mass spectrometric data in each individual section. Histological features were identified by comparison to hematoxylin-eosin stained neighboring sections. Ions specific to certain histological tissue types (connective tissue, smooth muscle, healthy mucosa, healthy liver parenchyma, and adenocarcinoma) were identified by semi-automated screening of data. While each section featured a number of tissuespecific species, no potential global biomarker was found in the full sample set for any of the tissue types. As an alternative approach, data were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) which resulted in efficient separation of data points based on their histological types. A pixel-by-pixel tissue identification method was developed, featuring the PCA/LDA analysis of authentic data set, and localization of unknowns in the resulting 60D, histologically assigned LDA space. Novel approach was found to yield results which are in 95% agreement with the results of classical histology. KRAS mutation status was determined for each sample by standard molecular biology methods and a similar PCA/LDA approach was developed to assess the feasibility of the determination of this important parameter using solely DESI imaging data. Results showed that the mutant and wild-type samples fully separated. DESI-MS and molecular biology results were in agreement in 90% of the cases. © Springer-Verlag 2012. Source

Schafer K.-C.,Justus Liebig University | Balog J.,Medimass Ltd. | Szaniszlo T.,Medimass Ltd. | Szalay D.,Medimass Ltd. | And 6 more authors.
Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2011

Direct combination of cavitron ultrasonic surgical aspirator (CUSA) and sonic spray ionization mass spectrometry is presented. A commercially available ultrasonic surgical device was coupled to a Venturi easy ambient sonic-spray ionization (V-EASI) source by directly introducing liquified tissue debris into the Venturi air jet pump. The Venturi air jet pump was found to efficiently nebulize the suspended tissue material for gas phase ion production. The ionization mechanism involving solely pneumatic spraying was associated with that of sonic spray ionization. Positive and negative ionization spectra were obtained from brain and liver samples reflecting the primary application areas of the surgical device. Mass spectra were found to feature predominantly complex lipid-type constituents of tissues in both ion polarity modes. Multiply charged peptide anions were also detected. The influence of instrumental settings was characterized in detail. Venturi pump geometry and flow parameters were found to be critically important in ionization efficiency. Standard solutions of phospholipids and peptides were analyzed in order to test the dynamic range, sensitivity, and suppression effects. The spectra of the intact tissue specimens were found to be highly specific to the histological tissue type. The principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) based data analysis method was developed for real-time tissue identification in a surgical environment. The method has been successfully tested on post-mortem and ex vivo human samples including astrocytomas, meningeomas, metastatic brain tumors, and healthy brain tissue. © 2011 American Chemical Society. Source

Balog J.,Medimass Ltd. | Szaniszlo T.,Medimass Ltd. | Schaefer K.-C.,Justus Liebig University | Denes J.,Justus Liebig University | And 9 more authors.
Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2010

The newly developed rapid evaporative ionization mass spectrometry (REIMS) provides the possibility of in vivo, in situ mass spectrometric tissue analysis. The experimental setup for REIMS is characterized in detail for the first time, and the description and testing of an equipment capable of in vivo analysis is presented. The spectra obtained by various standard surgical equipments were compared and found highly specific to the histological type of the tissues. The tissue analysis is based on their different phospholipid distribution; the identification algorithm uses a combination of principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). The characterized method was proven to be sensitive for any perturbation such as age or diet in rats, but it was still perfectly suitable for tissue identification. Tissue identification accuracy higher than 97% was achieved with the PCA/LDA algorithm using a spectral database collected from various tissue species. In vivo, ex vivo, and post mortem REIMS studies were performed, and the method was found to be applicable for histological tissue analysis during surgical interventions, endoscopy, or after surgery in pathology. © 2010 American Chemical Society. Source

Schafer K.-C.,Justus Liebig University | Szaniszlo T.,Medimass Ltd. | Gunther S.,Justus Liebig University | Balog J.,Medimass Ltd. | And 8 more authors.
Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2011

Laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometric (LDI-MS) analysis of vital biological tissues and native, ex vivo tissue specimens is described. It was found that LDI-MS analysis yields tissue specific data using lasers both in the ultraviolet and far-infrared wavelength regimes, while visible and near IR lasers did not produce informative MS data. LDI mass spectra feature predominantly phospholipid-type molecular ions both in positive and negative ion modes, similar to other desorption ionization methods. Spectra were practically identical to rapid evaporative ionization MS (REIMS) spectra of corresponding tissues, indicating a similar ion formation mechanism. LDI-MS analysis of intact tissues was characterized in detail. The effect of laser fluence on the spectral characteristics (intensity and pattern) was investigated in the case of both continuous wave and pulsed lasers at various wavelengths. Since lasers are utilized in various fields of surgery, a surgical laser system was combined with a mass spectrometer in order to develop an intraoperative tissue identification device. A surgical CO2 laser was found to yield sufficiently high ion current during normal use. The principal component analysis-based real-time data analysis method was developed for the quasi real-time identification of mass spectra. Performance of the system was demonstrated in the case of various malignant tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. © 2011 American Chemical Society. Source

Guenther S.,Justus Liebig University | Schafer K.-C.,Justus Liebig University | Balog J.,Medimass Ltd. | Denes J.,Justus Liebig University | And 7 more authors.
Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry | Year: 2011

The feasibility of electrospray (ES) ionization of aerosols generated by electrosurgical disintegration methods was investigated. Although electrosurgery itself was demonstrated to produce gaseous ions, post-ionization methods were implemented to enhance the ion yield, especially in those cases when the ion current produced by the applied electrosurgical method is not sufficient for MS analysis. Post-ionization was implemented by mounting an ES emitter onto a Venturi pump, which is used for ion transfer. The effect of various parameters including geometry, high voltage setting, flow parameters, and solvent composition was investigated in detail. Experimental setups were optimized accordingly. ES post-ionization was found to yield spectra similar to those obtained by the REIMS technique, featuring predominantly lipid-type species. Signal enhancement was 20- to 50-fold compared with electrosurgical disintegration in positive mode, while no improvement was observed in negative mode. ES post-ionization was also demonstrated to allow the detection of non-lipid type species in the electrosurgical aerosol, including drug molecules. Since the tissue specificity of the MS data was preserved in the ES post-ionization setup, feasibility of tissue identification was demonstrated using different electrosurgical methods. © 2011 American Society for Mass Spectrometry. Source

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