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Djurickovic M.,Medicinski fakultet | Ivanovic M.,Stomatoloski fakultet
Vojnosanitetski Pregled | Year: 2011

Background/Aim. Oral health is very important for the function and the quality of human life. The aim of this study was to determine the spread of caries on the permanent teeth, the state of health of the periodontium and the state of oral hygiene in the children at the age of 12 in Montenegro. Methods. The research was carried out within 2006 and included 455 primary school pupils of both sex, the age of 12 in the northern, midlle and southern area of Montenegro. The parameters used to estimate oral health condition were: mean number of decayed, missing, and filled teeth due to caries (DMFT), Significant Caries Index (SiC), Community Perio-dontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN), presence of sealants, and to estimate oral hygiene condition: Debris Index (Green-Vermillion) and Calculus Index (Green). A dental team clinically examined all the subjects in line with World Health Organization (WHO) methodology and criteria. All chosen children from the sample were checked by the standard dental diagnostic equipment (plane dental mirror, dental, standard CPITN periodontal probe) under the artificial light on the dry teeth, on the dental chair. Results. The average value of Index DMFT at 12-year-old in Montenegro was 3.43. On average, 88.35% of the examined children had dental caries. The SiC Index was 6.35. Among the examined children, 11.9% had at least one tooth with a fissure sealant. The healty periodontium had 64% of the 12-year-old children. The average value of Debris Index was 1.086, and the average value of Calculus Index was 0.6508. Conclusion. Oral health condition in children at the age of 12 in Montenegro does not satisfy. Thus the importance of the modern preventive measures and programmes should be emphasized and applied through the system of primary oral protection and intensively promote oral health.

Petkovic M.,Medicinski fakultet
Medicinski pregled | Year: 2012

INTRODUCTION: There is still no good solution for the treatment of all the forms of clubfoot. HISTORY OF THE TREATMENT IN THE WORLD: The first written description of the treatment of this deformity was given by Hippocrates. In the Middle Ages, Galenus, Celsus and Averroe only reviewed the lessons of Hippocrates's principles. The first description of orthopedic prosthetic for the treatment of clubfoot was published in "Opera Chirurgica" by Amboise Peréa in 1575. In 1796, Bruckner wrote the first monography about clubfoot. The biggest contribution to the modern way of treating clubfoot was given by Abel Mix Phelebs, who described the medial "release" in 1890. Since 1980 an advantage has been given to early non-operative treatment. The progressive operative approach (use of "release procedures") was introduced. THE HISTORY OF TREATMENT IN OUR COUNTRY: The first procedures were performed by D. Jovcić and S. Stojanović in Belgrade in 1937. In the period from 1960 to 1970, more and more orthopedic and pediatric surgeons became interested in clubfoot treatment. In 1970 one of the main topics of the 5th Congress of Orthopedics and Traumatology in Belgrade was "Foot Surgery". Many specialists from Belgrade were engaged in clubfoot treatment: D. Rakić, S. Rajić, S. Popović, L. Stojanović among pediatricians, and B. Radulović, P. Klisić among orthopedic surgeons, as well as R. Brdar, Z. Vukasinović and G. Cobeljić with their assistants. In Novi Sad, in 1967, D. Pajić began diagnosis and treatment of clubfoot. Very soon D. Pajić became a symbol of clubfoot treatment followed by hardworking assistants L. Petković and V. Tomasević. CONCLUSION: The treatment of clubfoot is still controversial and continues to be one of the most interesting fields in pediatric orthopedics.

Resic B.,Medicinski Fakultet
Paediatria Croatica, Supplement | Year: 2013

The last decade has witnessed an unprecedented advancement in genetic testing and a better understanding of the genetic basis of complex traits. Previously, cerebral palsy has been considered by some to be a condition primarily associated with mismanaged perinatal events. An undeniable large body of evidence has now emerged that identifies cerebral palsy as being a predominantly neurogenetic condition. A carefully planned diagnostic evaluation can identify the cause of cerebral palsy in 75% or more of the cases. Cerebral palsy and related developmental disorders are more common in males than in females, but the reason for this disparity are uncertain. Males born very preterm also appear to be more vulnerable to white matter injury and intraventricular hemorrhage than females. Spontaneous preterm labor and preterm births are still the leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality in the developed world. Gene polymorphisms regulating the maternal immunologic response during pregnancy, potentially causing an inadequate immunologic response to an infectious stimulus, have been of particular interest. A number of genes are thought to be associated with preterm birth, including genes which encode the adrenergic β receptor, genes related to thrombophilia and others related to immune processes. The presented studies underline the central role of infection and inflammatory response in the fetal as well as in the maternal context. A genetic component is a part of the current conception of the pathogenesis of preterm birth. New information indicates that there are important neurobiological differences between males and females with respect to their response to brain injuries. This information is relevant to understanding the pathogenesis of CP as well as to the design of future clinical trials of potential neuroprotective strategies.

Milenkovic V.,Medicinski fakultet
Medicinski pregled | Year: 2011

Gestational trophoblastic disease is characterized by abnormal proliferation of pregnancy-associated trophoblastic tissue with malignant potential. Gestational trophoblastic disease covers a spectrum of conditions including hydatidiform mole, invasive mole, choriocarcinoma and placental site trophoblastic tumour. It is very important to understand the pathophysiology and natural history of the disease in order to achieve faster recognition and effective treatment. The presence and course of the disease can be monitored with quantitative levels of human chorionic gonadotrophin in all cases. Clinical signs and symptoms are usually insufficient to diagnose and predict the extent of disease. Nowadays, gestational trophoblastic diseases are the best treated gynaecological malignancy thanks to modern technology. This review covers various aspects of gestational trophoblastic disease: its development, epidemiology, aetiology and pathogenesis, as well as its classification, clinical manifestations and diagnostic methods.

Jankovic S.M.,Medicinski fakultet | Stefanovic S.M.,Medicinski fakultet
Vojnosanitetski Pregled | Year: 2011

Introduction. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors are leading cause of drug-induced angioedema, with incidence of 0.1 to 0.2%. The angioedema is not of immune nature; in predisposed individuals it is caused by accumulation of vasoactive mediators due to reduced activity of angiotensinconverting enzyme. Case report. We presented a 63-year old male patient suffering from hypertension and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, who had developed two episodes of angioedema during a 5-year long therapy with enalapril. The first episode happened after three, and the second after five years of the therapy. On both occasions, the patient was admitted to the hospital and tracheotomy was avoided in the last moment. Conclusion. Long-term therapy with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors could be associated with delayed angioedema, especially in patients with inflammation of airways caused by infection or chronic irritation.

Krstic T.,Medicinski fakultet
Medicinski pregled | Year: 2013

The process of adaptation and acceptance of a child's diagnosis of cerebral palsy requires from parents to process the trauma caused by this knowledge cognitively and emotionally. Parents who manage to come to terms with their children's condition are labeled as resolved. As opposed to them, unresolved parents do not accept the reality of their children's condition and fail to overcome the crisis caused by knowledge of the child's diagnosis. Unresolved status has negative implications for the child, the parents and their relationship. Two case reports of mothers whose children have been diagnosed to have cerebral palsy are given. The first case shows a resolved mother who managed to overcome the initial shock and started to feel a sense of relief from the period when she found out the child's diagnosis. In contrast, another case shows an unresolved mother with no significant changes in thoughts and feelings from the time since she learned the child's diagnosis. She was preoccupied with anger and attempted to minimize the child's problem. Interviews on reaction to diagnosis and reaction to diagnosis classification system allow identification of mothers' resolution of their children's diagnosis of cerebral palsy. The characteristics of resolved and unresolved maternal status are discussed. Parental resolution of diagnosis is essential for the successful adaptation to raising children with disabilities, as well as meeting the requirements of the parental role. It is important to recognize parental cognitions and feelings regarding the child's condition in order to direct psychotherapeutic interventions towards vulnerable population of parents.

Subat-Dezulovic M.,Medicinski Fakultet
Paediatria Croatica | Year: 2015

Microscopic hematuria (MH) as a frequent finding in pediatric settings is due to heterogenic diseases including familial hematuria. Familial hematuria is characterized by MH in several family members, presents in childhood, last for the whole life and carries unpredictable risk of renal failure. Based on molecular genetic studies, familial hematuria is explained by three collagen IV genes COL4A3/COL4A4 or COL4A5 causing autosomal and X-linked Alport syndrome and a subset of patients with thin basement membrane nephropathy, followed by rare diseases caused by MYH9 gene mutation and recently discovered C3 glomerulopathy caused by CFHR5 gene mutation. Observed great variability between X-linked Alport syndrome, ranging from milder course reminiscent of patients with autosomal recessive Alport syndrome and thin basement membrane disease, to very severe clinical picture progressing to renal failure, deafness and ocular anomalies, resulted in new guidelines proposals for diagnosis and possible treatment of familial hematuria. Proposed effective treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition is neither a cure nor an adequate protector of kidney function. The emerging role of molecular genetics in diagnosis familiar hematuria in selected patients and overall aim of discovering new treatments is discussed.

The paper deals with the analysis of the language competence of the students of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Care at the Medical School of Novi Sad University at the level of their basic language skills of general English and English for Medical Purposes. It also presents the analysis of students' needs of these skills within the field of teaching English for Medical Purposes. The aim of the study was to determine the level of students' language skills, knowledge of general and medical vocabulary and of academic writing in English and to determine which of the skills have the greatest priority in teaching English for Medical Purposes. The students were given a questionnaire and were asked to grade their language skills and knowledge of general and medical vocabulary and of academic writing on the scale from one to five. For the same skills, the students had to determine the level of priority in teaching English for Medical Purposes. The results were given for each of the groups of students evaluated, and the average grade was calculated for all the skills. The students' needs in terms of the priority of the evaluated skills were also presented in the same manner. Analysis Students' skills were analyzed according to the average grade acquired through the students' self-evaluation. The distinction was made between the general language skills and the knowledge of medical vocabulary and academic writing. The analysis of needs was conducted with the same distinction in mind. The study groups were analyzed separately and the general common conclusions for all the groups were made. For a successful program of English for Medical Purposes, it is necessary to conduct "the level of general language competence" test and to test the students' needs beforehand. The difference in the level of knowledge between different study groups points to a need of a student oriented teaching program. The analysis of needs shows the importance of all language skills which have to be included in the course Of teaching English for Medical Purposes.

Strajnic L.,Medicinski fakultet
Medicinski pregled | Year: 2011

A dramatic increase in the number of people living in their seventies, eighties and nineties is associated with a loss of teeth and the use of mobile dentures. The aim of this paper was to highlight the consequences of poor denture hygiene on oral and general health in vulnerable elderly people, in long-term hospitalized elderly patients and in long-term institutionalized elderly in nursing homes. DENTURE DEPOSITS AND CONSEQUENCES OF POOR DENTURE HYGIENE: The number of bacteria living in the mouth is getting larger after putting denture on. Namely, a small "space" develops between jaw and denture, creating perfect conditions for bacterial growth. Denture becomes a "reservoir" of micro-organisms. Denture deposits such as bacterial plaque, fungi, tartar and remnants could be responsible for stomatitis prothetica, cheilitis angularis, inflammatory fibrous hyperplasia, halitosis (bad breath), dental caries in mobile denture carriers, mucositis and periimplantitis in mobile implant over-dentures carriers, accelerated destruction of denture materials for underlying, such as denture base soft liners, respiratory airways diseases, bacterial endocarditis and gastrointestinal infections. REMOVAL OF DENTURE DEPOSITS: It is recommendable to combine mechanical and chemical denture cleaning. Denture submersion into a commercial cleansing solution for less than one hour is an effective cleaning method. Commercial cleanser: specifically intended for dentures with metal parts should be used for those dentures. Commercial cleansers with a new component of silicon polymer, whose thin layer surrounds all denture surfaces and disables oral bacteria to agglomerate, are effective and useful. Preventive hygienic treatments are very important in hospitals and homes for the aged, bearing in mind that old and ill persons reside here. Those institutions are recommended to get equipped with ultrasound denture cleaners. IMPORTANCE OF WRITTEN BROCHURE ON PROPER DENTURE HYGIENE: Patients should be verbally instructed and showed about cleaning techniques, but also written instructions inform of brochure should be distributed in order to achieve better effects.

Latas M.,Medicinski fakultet
Medicinski pregled | Year: 2010

Most students experience some level of anxiety during the exam. However, when anxiety affects the exam performance, it represents a problem. Test anxiety is a special form of anxiety, which is characterised with somatic, cognitive and behavioural symptoms of anxiety in situations of preparing and performing tests and exams. Test anxiety turns into a problem when it becomes so high that it interferes with test preparation and performance. The objective of this study was to ascertain the presence of test anxiety in medical students and to analyze some aspects of test anxiety in medical students of different gender, at different years of studying and possibility of failing a year. The study sample consisted of 198 students of Belgrade University School of Medicine of all years. Test anxiety was assessed by the Test Anxiety Inventory. The following results have been obtained in the study: 1. Medical students generally present moderate level of test anxiety; 2. female students have statistically significant more intense symptoms of test anxiety than male students. 3. the most intense symptoms are in the 3rd year and the least are in the 4th year of studies; 4. there is no statistically significant difference in the presence of symptoms of test anxiety among the students who have repeated one of the years of studies and regular students. There is a considerable number of medical students who have intense symptoms of test anxiety and these students require help and support.

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