Medicines for Malaria Venture MMV

Genève, Switzerland

Medicines for Malaria Venture MMV

Genève, Switzerland
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Katsuno K.,The Global Fund | Burrows J.N.,Medicines for Malaria Venture MMV | Duncan K.,Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation | Van Huijsduijnen R.H.,Medicines for Malaria Venture MMV | And 6 more authors.
Nature Reviews Drug Discovery | Year: 2015

Reducing the burden of infectious diseases that affect people in the developing world requires sustained collaborative drug discovery efforts. The quality of the chemical starting points for such projects is a key factor in improving the likelihood of clinical success, and so it is important to set clear go/no-go criteria for the progression of hit and lead compounds. With this in mind, the Japanese Global Health Innovative Technology (GHIT) Fund convened with experts from the Medicines for Malaria Venture, the Drugs for Neglected Diseases initiative and the TB Alliance, together with representatives from the Bill &Melinda Gates Foundation, to set disease-specific criteria for hits and leads for malaria, tuberculosis, visceral leishmaniasis and Chagas disease. Here, we present the agreed criteria and discuss the underlying rationale. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

Muller J.,University of Bern | Aguado A.,University of Bern | Laleu B.,Medicines for Malaria Venture MMV | Balmer V.,University of Bern | And 2 more authors.
International Journal for Parasitology | Year: 2017

Neospora caninum is a major cause of abortion in cattle and represents an important veterinary health problem of great economic significance. The Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV) Pathogen Box, an open-source collection of 400 compounds with proven anti-infective properties against a wide range of pathogens, was screened against a N. caninum beta-galactosidase reporter strain grown in human foreskin fibroblasts. A primary screening carried out at 1μM yielded 40 compounds that were effective against N. caninum tachyzoites. However, 30 of these compounds also affected the viability of the host cells. The 10 remaining compounds exhibited IC50 values between 4 and 43nM. Three compounds with IC50 values below 10nM, namely MMV676602, MMV688762 and MMV671636, were further characterized in vitro in more detail with respect to inhibition of invasion versus intracellular proliferation, and only MMV671636 had an impact on intracellular proliferation of tachyzoites. This was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, showing that the primary target of MMV671636 was the mitochondrion. MMV671636 treatment of experimentally infected mice significantly reduced the number of animals with lung and brain infection, and these mice also exhibited a significantly reduced titer of antibodies directed against N. caninum antigens. Thus, MMV671636 is a promising starting point for the development of a future neosporosis therapy. © 2017 Australian Society for Parasitology.

Van Huijsduijnen R.H.,Medicines for Malaria Venture MMV | Guy R.K.,St Jude Childrens Research Hospital | Chibale K.,University of Cape Town | Haynes R.K.,North West University South Africa | And 6 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

We have tested five distinct classes of established and experimental antimalarial drugs for their anticancer potential, using a panel of 91 human cancer lines. Three classes of drugs: artemisinins, synthetic peroxides and DHFR (dihydrofolate reductase) inhibitors effected potent inhibition of proliferation with IC50s in the nM- low μM range, whereas a DHODH (dihydroorotate dehydrogenase) and a putative kinase inhibitor displayed no activity. Furthermore, significant synergies were identified with erlotinib, imatinib, cisplatin, dasatinib and vincristine. Cluster analysis of the antimalarials based on their differential inhibition of the various cancer lines clearly segregated the synthetic peroxides OZ277 and OZ439 from the artemisinin cluster that included artesunate, dihydroartemisinin and artemisone, and from the DHFR inhibitors pyrimethamine and P218 (a parasite DHFR inhibitor), emphasizing their shared mode of action. In order to further understand the basis of the selectivity of these compounds against different cancers, microarray-based gene expression data for 85 of the used cell lines were generated. For each compound, distinct sets of genes were identified whose expression significantly correlated with compound sensitivity. Several of the antimalarials tested in this study have well-established and excellent safety profiles with a plasma exposure, when conservatively used in malaria, that is well above the IC50s that we identified in this study. Given their unique mode of action and potential for unique synergies with established anticancer drugs, our results provide a strong basis to further explore the potential application of these compounds in cancer in pre-clinical or and clinical settings. © 2013 Hooft van Huijsduijnen et al.

Spangenberg T.,Medicines for Malaria Venture MMV | Burrows J.N.,Medicines for Malaria Venture MMV | Kowalczyk P.,Scynexis, Inc. | McDonald S.,Medicines for Malaria Venture MMV | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Historically, one of the key problems in neglected disease drug discovery has been identifying new and interesting chemotypes. Phenotypic screening of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum has yielded almost 30,000 submicromolar hits in recent years. To make this collection more accessible, a collection of 400 chemotypes has been assembled, termed the Malaria Box. Half of these compounds were selected based on their drug-like properties and the others as molecular probes. These can now be requested as a pharmacological test set by malaria biologists, but importantly by groups working on related parasites, as part of a program to make both data and compounds readily available. In this paper, the analysis and selection methodology and characteristics of the compounds are described. © 2013 Spangenberg et al.

PubMed | University of California at San Diego, Cambridge Broad Institute, Biomedical Primate Research Center, Genomics Institute of the Novartis Research Foundation and Medicines for Malaria Venture MMV
Type: Journal Article | Journal: ACS infectious diseases | Year: 2016

In order to identify the most attractive starting points for drugs that can be used to prevent malaria, a diverse chemical space comprising tens of thousands to millions of small molecules may need to be examined. Achieving this throughput necessitates the development of efficient ultra-high-throughput screening methods. Here, we report the development and evaluation of a luciferase-based phenotypic screen of malaria exoerythrocytic-stage parasites optimized for a 1536-well format. This assay uses the exoerythrocytic stage of the rodent malaria parasite,

PubMed | University of California at San Diego, Cambridge Broad Institute, Harvard University, Genomics Institute of the Novartis Research Foundation and Medicines for Malaria Venture MMV
Type: Evaluation Studies | Journal: Cell host & microbe | Year: 2016

Preventing transmission is an important element of malaria control. However, most of the current available methods to assay for malaria transmission blocking are relatively low throughput and cannot be applied to large chemical libraries. We have developed a high-throughput and cost-effective assay, the Saponin-lysis Sexual Stage Assay (SaLSSA), for identifying small molecules with transmission-blocking capacity. SaLSSA analysis of 13,983 unique compounds uncovered that >90% of well-characterized antimalarials, including endoperoxides and 4-aminoquinolines, as well as compounds active against asexual blood stages, lost most of their killing activity when parasites developed into metabolically quiescent stage V gametocytes. On the other hand, we identified compounds with consistent low nanomolar transmission-blocking activity, some of which showed cross-reactivity against asexual blood and liver stages. The data clearly emphasize substantial physiological differences between sexual and asexual parasites and provide a tool and starting points for the discovery and development of transmission-blocking drugs.

Anthony M.P.,Medicines for Malaria Venture MMV | Burrows J.N.,Medicines for Malaria Venture MMV | Duparc S.,Medicines for Malaria Venture MMV | Jmoehrle J.,Medicines for Malaria Venture MMV | Wells T.N.C.,Medicines for Malaria Venture MMV
Malaria Journal | Year: 2012

Over the past decade, there has been a transformation in the portfolio of medicines to combat malaria. New fixed-dose artemisinin combination therapy is available, with four different types having received approval from Stringent Regulatory Authorities or the World Health Organization (WHO). However, there is still scope for improvement. The Malaria Eradication Research agenda identified several gaps in the current portfolio. Simpler regimens, such as a single-dose cure are needed, compared with the current three-day treatment. In addition, new medicines that prevent transmission and also relapse are needed, but with better safety profiles than current medicines. There is also a big opportunity for new medicines to prevent reinfection and to provide chemoprotection. This study reviews the global portfolio of new medicines in development against malaria, as of the summer of 2012. Cell-based phenotypic screening, and fast followers of clinically validated classes, mean that there are now many new classes of molecules starting in clinical development, especially for the blood stages of malaria. There remain significant gaps for medicines blocking transmission, preventing relapse, and long-duration molecules for chemoprotection. The nascent pipeline of new medicines is significantly stronger than five years ago. However, there are still risks ahead in clinical development and sustainable funding of clinical studies is vital if this early promise is going to be delivered. © 2012 Anthony et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Leroy D.,Medicines for Malaria Venture MMV | Campo B.,Medicines for Malaria Venture MMV | Ding X.C.,Medicines for Malaria Venture MMV | Burrows J.N.,Medicines for Malaria Venture MMV | Cherbuin S.,Medicines for Malaria Venture MMV
Trends in Parasitology | Year: 2014

Malaria is still considered a deadly scourge in Africa, Asia, and South America despite improved vector control and curative treatments with new antimalarial combinations. The next challenge is to work towards disease eradication. To achieve this goal it is crucial to develop, validate, and integrate biological assays into test cascades that align with the key target product profiles. For anti-relapse, a parent molecule should kill hypnozoites or cause activation of Plasmodium vivax liver stages. For transmission blocking, dual equal-activity antimalarials killing both the asexual and the sexual parasite stages in human blood are favored. Finally, by assessing cross resistance and generating drug resistance in the laboratory, it is expected that new medicines with acceptable resistance profiles will be forthcoming. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Burrows J.N.,Medicines for Malaria Venture MMV | Hooft Van Huijsduijnen R.,Medicines for Malaria Venture MMV | Mohrle J.J.,Medicines for Malaria Venture MMV | Oeuvray C.,Medicines for Malaria Venture MMV | Wells T.N.,Medicines for Malaria Venture MMV
Malaria Journal | Year: 2013

In the fight against malaria new medicines are an essential weapon. For the parts of the world where the current gold standard artemisinin combination therapies are active, significant improvements can still be made: for example combination medicines which allow for single dose regimens, cheaper, safer and more effective medicines, or improved stability under field conditions. For those parts of the world where the existing combinations show less than optimal activity, the priority is to have activity against emerging resistant strains, and other criteria take a secondary role. For new medicines to be optimal in malaria control they must also be able to reduce transmission and prevent relapse of dormant forms: additional constraints on a combination medicine. In the absence of a highly effective vaccine, new medicines are also needed to protect patient populations. In this paper, an outline definition of the ideal and minimally acceptable characteristics of the types of clinical candidate molecule which are needed (target candidate profiles) is suggested. In addition, the optimal and minimally acceptable characteristics of combination medicines are outlined (target product profiles). MMV presents now a suggested framework for combining the new candidates to produce the new medicines. Sustained investment over the next decade in discovery and development of new molecules is essential to enable the long-term delivery of the medicines needed to combat malaria. © 2013 Burrows et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

PubMed | Medicines for Malaria Venture MMV, University of Melbourne and Deakin University
Type: Review | Journal: International journal for parasitology. Drugs and drug resistance | Year: 2016

There is a substantial need to develop new medicines against parasitic diseases via public-private partnerships. Based on high throughput phenotypic screens of largely protozoal pathogens and bacteria, the Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV) has recently assembled an open-access Pathogen Box containing 400 well-curated chemical compounds. In the present study, we tested these compounds for activity against parasitic stages of the nematode Haemonchus contortus (barbers pole worm). In an optimised, whole-organism screening assay, using exsheathed third-stage (xL3) and fourth-stage (L4) larvae, we measured the inhibition of larval motility, growth and development of H.contortus. We also studied the effect of the hit compound on mitochondrial function by measuring oxygen consumption. Among the 400 Pathogen Box compounds, we identified one chemical, called tolfenpyrad (compound identification code: MMV688934) that reproducibly inhibits xL3 motility as well as L4 motility, growth and development, with IC

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