Time filter

Source Type

Mountain Home, TN, United States

Cui L.,University of Pittsburgh | Cui L.,Tsinghua University | Morris A.,University of Pittsburgh | Huang L.,University of California at San Francisco | And 5 more authors.
Annals of the American Thoracic Society | Year: 2014

Investigation of the human microbiome has become an important field of research facilitated by advances in sequencing technologies. The lung, which is one of the latest body sites being explored for the characterization of human-associated microbial communities, has a microbiome that is suspected to play a substantial role in health and disease. In this review, we provide an overview of the basics of microbiome studies. Challenges in the study of the lung microbiome are highlighted, and further attention is called to the optimization and standardization of methodologies to explore the role of the lung microbiome in health and disease. We also provide examples of lung microbial communities associated with disease or infection status and discuss the role of fungal species in the lung. Finally, we review studies demonstrating that the environmental microbiome can in fluence lung health and disease, such as the finding that the diversity of microbial exposure correlates inversely with the development of childhood asthma. © 2014, American Thoracic Society. All rights reserved. Source

Beck J.M.,Medicine Service | Beck J.M.,Aurora University
Clinics in Chest Medicine | Year: 2013

The broad variety of pulmonary infections encountered in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals demonstrates that the host defense network is impaired. An improved understanding of these events in the lung can lead to specific interventions aimed at restoration of deficient function. This review summarizes the pulmonary host defense deficits in HIV-infected individuals, focusing on lymphocytes, alveolar macrophages, and neutrophils. © 2013. Source

Bailey B.A.,East Tennessee State University | Kuriacose R.,East Tennessee State University | Copeland R.J.,East Tennessee State University | Manning T.,Medicine Service | Peiris A.N.,East Tennessee State University
Journal of the American Medical Directors Association | Year: 2011

Objectives: Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a common and often overlooked entity responsible for considerable morbidity and mortality. Recent evidence suggests that nontraditional risk factors such as vitamin D may contribute to atherosclerosis. We hypothesized that vitamin D status was associated with cardiovascular risk factors and that vitamin D deficiency (25(OH)D <20 ng/mL) enhanced the risk of amputation. Design: We reviewed medical records of 1435 veterans between 2000 and 2008 in Tennessee via retrospective chart analysis using correlations, logistic regressions, t tests, and χ2 analyses. Results: Vitamin D status was significantly and inversely correlated with body mass index (BMI), glucose, and triglyceride values. Hypertension and diabetes but not smoking also emerged as significantly associated. Of the sample population, 5.2% (n = 75) had an amputation performed. Those individuals who were vitamin D deficient had a significantly higher amputation rate (6.7%) compared with patients who were nondeficient (4.2%). BMI, triglyceride, total cholesterol, hypertension, and diabetes were found to account for 5.7% of the variation in amputation status. Vitamin D concentration and deficiency status accounted for a nonsignificant amount of additional variance. Conclusions: We conclude that vitamin D deficiency is closely linked to increased adiposity, triglyceride, and glucose measurements. Vitamin D deficiency was associated with an increased amputation risk in veterans with PAD and appears to mediate its effects through traditional risk factors. © 2011. Source

Hoffman R.M.,Medicine Service | Hoffman R.M.,University of New Mexico
Current Opinion in Urology | Year: 2010

Purpose of Review: Prostate cancer screening remains controversial. This review will address recently published results from randomized controlled screening trials as well as current practice guidelines. Recent Findings: The Prostate Lung Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial found that screening did not decrease prostate cancer mortality after 7 years of follow-up. High-screening rates in the control group, the low number of deaths from prostate cancer, and the relatively short follow-up duration contributed to the negative results. The European Randomized Study of Screening for Prostate Cancer found that screening reduced prostate cancer mortality by 20% during a median 9 years of follow-up. However, the absolute benefit (0.7/1000 reduction) was small and was associated with a 70% increase in prostate cancer diagnosis. Subsequently, the American Urological Association recommended beginning screening at the age of 40 years and not relying on a specific prostate-specific antigen cutoff for biopsy referral. The United States Preventive Services Task Force and American Cancer Society have yet to issue updated guidelines. Summary: The randomized trials suggest that screening at best will have a small survival benefit but substantial potential risk for overdiagnosis and overtreatment. Patients need to understand these tradeoffs in order to make informed decisions about screening. © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

Sarmento-Ribeiro A.B.,University of Coimbra | Proenca M.T.,University of Coimbra | Sousa I.,University of Coimbra | Pereira A.,University of Coimbra | And 3 more authors.
Leukemia Research | Year: 2012

The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of oxidative stress in the pathobiology of lymphoid leukaemias and its involvement in leukaemic relapse. For this purpose the generation of peroxides by mononuclear cells, the erythrocyte activity of superoxide-dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GL-PX), and the plasma levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and vitamin E (VIT E) were determined in 52 patients with two different types of lymphoid leukaemias, chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), 36 prior to chemotherapy and 16 treated patients. A decrease in SOD and GL-PX activities was observed in ALL patients prior to therapy, while a decrease in GSH and VIT E plasma levels was observed in untreated CLL, as compared to age-matched controls. An increase in peroxides formation occurred in both types of leukaemia, as compared to age-matched controls. There are significant differences for GSH, VIT E and peroxides generation between the different types of leukaemias. In relapsed ALL patients a decrease in peroxides generation was observed which may be due to the increase of the non-enzymatic defences GSH and VIT E. These data suggest the involvement of oxidative stress in acute and chronic lymphoid leukaemias and leukaemic relapse. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Discover hidden collaborations