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Li K.,Medicine and Science Research Institute of Gansu province | Du H.,Medicine and Science Research Institute of Gansu province | Lian X.,Medicine and Science Research Institute of Gansu province | Chai D.,Medicine and Science Research Institute of Gansu province | And 3 more authors.
BMC Cancer | Year: 2016

Background: A mouse model of metastasis of human gastric cancer is one of the most important tools for studying the biological mechanisms underlying human gastric cancer metastasis. In this paper, we established a mouse model of metastatic human gastric cancer in nude mice that has a higher rate of tumor formation and metastasis than existing models. Methods: To generate the mouse model of metastatic human gastric cancer, fresh tumor tissues from patients that have undergone surgery for gastric cancer were subcutaneously implanted in the right and left groins of nude mice. When the implanted tissue grew to 1 cubic centimeter, the mice were killed, and the tumor tissues were examined and resected. The tumor tissues were implanted into nude mice and subjected to pathological examination, immunohistochemical staining, and real-time PCR for cytokeratin 8/18 (CK8/18), E-cadherin, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). The mice were also analyzed for metastasis in their peritoneum, abdominal cavity, and internal organs by histopathological examination. Tissues collected from these organs were examined for pathology. Results: After ten generations of implantation, all mice developed tumor growth at the implanted position, 94 % of the mice developed metastasis to the retroperitoneum and viscera. The implanted and metastatic tumor maintained the same histological features across all generations, and metastasis was observed in the esophagus, stomach, spleen, liver, kidney, adrenal, intestine, and pancreas. These metastatic tumors revealed no detectable expression of CK8/18, E-cadherin, VCAM-1, and ICAM-1. Conclusions: This model will serve as valuable tool for understanding the metastatic process of human gastric cancer. © 2016 Li et al. Source


Li K.,Medicine and Science Research Institute of Gansu province | Du H.,Medicine and Science Research Institute of Gansu province | Lian X.,Medicine and Science Research Institute of Gansu province | Yang S.,Tumor Hospital of Gansu Province | And 4 more authors.
BMC Cancer | Year: 2014

Background: Βeta-2-microglobulin (β2-M) has been demonstrated as a growth factor and signaling molecule in breast cancer and leukemia. The purpose of the study is to characterize β2-M expression in molecular subtypes of breast cancer, thereby investigating the mechanism of β2-M action in breast cancer.Methods: β2-M and B-Cell Lymphoma/Leukemia 2 (Bcl-2) transcript expression levels in breast cancer tissue and the corresponding normal tissue were quantified using real-time PCR. The protein expression levels of β2-M, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2), tumor protein 53 (p53) and Ki67 were determined by immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. Following silencing of the β2-M by siRNA, the levels of Bcl-2, ER, PR and HER-2 transcripts and the protein expression levels in human breast cancer cells were measured by real-time PCR and western blotting, respectively.Results: The expression of β2-M transcripts demonstrated no significant differences between the four breast cancer molecular subtypes and no significant correlations with age, clinical stage or lymph node metastasis. β2-M transcript expression demonstrated a positive correlation when compared to Bcl-2 transcript expression (P < 0.05). The β2-M protein expression was significantly higher in breast cancer when compared with benign breast tumors (P < 0.01), and have no significant correlation with age, clinical stage or lymph node metastasis. There was a significant difference demonstrated in β2-M protein expression in the four breast cancer molecular subtypes (P < 0.05), and between the ER+ and ER- groups (P < 0.01); however, no significant difference was demonstrated between the HER-2+ and HER-2- groups. β2-M protein expression had a negative correlation with ER protein expression (P < 0.01), a positive correlation with p53 protein expression (P < 0.01), and no correlation with Ki67 protein expression. β2-M silencing significantly inhibited Bcl-2 mRNA expression, but did not inhibit ER, PR and HER-2 mRNA expression in MCF-7 cells (ER+, PR+ and HER-2-). In addition, Bcl-2 and HER-2 mRNA expression were significantly up-regulated in MDA-MB-231 cells (ER-, PR- and HER-2-), which is consistent with the silencing effect seen at the protein level.Conclusions: β2-M expression demonstrated a significant difference in the four breast cancer molecular subtypes, and may be related to apoptosis regulation in breast cancer. © 2014 Li et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

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