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Ghodsalavi B.,Copenhagen University | Ahmadzadeh M.,University of Tehran | Soleimani M.,Isfahan University of Technology | Madloo P.B.,University of Tehran | Taghizad-Farid R.,Medicinal Plant Research Institute
Australian Journal of Crop Science | Year: 2013

Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are a group of microorganisms which can enhance growth parameters of host plants and can be used as biofertilizers. Valerian (Valeriana officinalis) is a perennial herb which is used as a medicinal plant. In the current study 40 colonies of bacteria were isolated from the rhizosphere of valerian by growing in various enriched and selective media including S1 and King B, crystal violet agar and methyl red agar. Furthermore, the ability of bacteria to produce siderophore, indoleacetic acid (IAA), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), lipase and protease were tested in vitro. Identification of isolates was performed by using Bergey's manual of systematic bacteriology. Additionally, the effects of seven isolated bacteria (belong to Pseudomonas genus) that showed a high potential of siderophore, IAA, HCN, lipase and protease production on the quantity of root extracts were investigated under greenhouse condition. Results showed that the population of Pseudomonas was the highest in comparison to other genera in the rhizosphere of plant. Isolated bacteria could mostly produce siderophore, lipase, HCN and protease. Two isolates (belong to Pseudomonas genus) significantly increased the amount of valerenic acid in the root extract. The results revealed that PGPR increased shoot length and could also enhance quantity of root extract.

Parichatikanond W.,Mahidol University | Suthisisang C.,Mahidol University | Dhepakson P.,Medical Biotechnology Center | Herunsalee A.,Medicinal Plant Research Institute
International Immunopharmacology | Year: 2010

In inflammation, the responses to noxious stimuli are controlled by the highly modulated interactions between various immune cells and chemical mediators. The purpose of this study is to evaluate and compare the anti-inflammatory effect of diterpenoids isolated from Andrographis paniculata, including dehydroandrographolide (AP1), andrographolide (AP2) and neoandrographolide (AP3), on the production of inflammatory cytokines and COX activities. Furthermore, the alteration of gene expression involved in this activity was investigated in the most potent compound to elucidate the other possible molecular mechanisms. AP1 (30.1μM; 10μg/ml) and AP2 (28.5μM; 10μg/ml) markedly inhibited COX-1 in ionophore A23187-induced human platelets. AP2 (28.5μM) and AP3 (20.8μM; 10μg/ml) strongly suppressed the LPS-stimulated COX-2 activity in human blood. In addition, AP2 modulated the level of LPS-induced TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β and IL-10 secretion in human blood in a concentration-dependent manner. The results revealed that AP2 exhibited the highest efficacy. Therefore, changes in the levels of mRNA transcripts by AP2 were further measured using human cDNA microarrays. The molecular response to AP2 was complex and mediated by various processes. Among the altered gene expressions, the genes involved in immune and inflammation processes were selectively down-regulated, such as cytokines and cytokine receptors (TNFSF14, TNF, TNFRSF6, and IL1A), chemokines (CCL8 and CXCL11), JAK/STAT signaling (JAK3 and STAT5A), TLRs family (TLR4 and TLR8) and NF-κB (NFKB1). Expression of some genes was validated using RT-PCR. The results demonstrated that AP1, AP2 and AP3 exhibited the anti-inflammatory effect by interfering COX and inflammatory cytokines and the underlying mechanisms of AP2 may be related to down-expression of genes involved in inflammatory cascade. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Rahimi-Dehgolan R.,Tarbiat Modares University | Sarvestani Z.T.,Tarbiat Modares University | Rezazadeh S.A.,Medicinal Plant Research Institute | Dolatabadian A.,Tarbiat Modares University
Journal of Herbs, Spices and Medicinal Plants | Year: 2012

Aloe vera is grown in arid climates where salinity can limit plant growth and development. A study was conducted to examine the morphological and physiological characters under salt stress. Plants were cultivated in pots and irrigated with freshwater (EC 450 μs cm-1) or saline lake water (EC 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, or 21 dS m-1). Results indicated that salinity influenced the plant growth and morphological traits and the biomass. Glucose, xylose, and mannose concentrations in leaf gel increased with increasing salinity up to 9 dS m-1 and decreased with higher saline concentrations. Aloin concentration increased with salt stress up to 15 dS m-1that decreased at higher salinity concentrations. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Watcharananun W.,King Mongkuts University of Technology Thonburi | Chivapat S.,Medicinal Plant Research Institute | Rangsripipat A.,Chulalongkorn University | Attawish A.,Medicinal Plant Research Institute | And 4 more authors.
Kasetsart Journal - Natural Science | Year: 2013

Liquid smoke (LS) from 'Tian Op ' has been developed for 'feathering' (softening) the odor of many Thai desserts. The benefits of liquid smoke are reduced smoking time, increased ease of utilization and standardization of the intensity of the flavor in dessert products. The Medicinal Plant Research Institute, Department of Medical Science, Ministry of Public Health, Thailand conducted a 90 d oral subchronic toxicity test of LS in 120 Wistar rats divided into five groups (12 per sex per group). Groups 1 and 2 were control groups receiving distilled water and propylene glycol at a volume of 10 mL.kg-1. day-1, respectively, where the weight was based on live body weight. Groups 3-5 were experimental groups receiving LS at doses of 0.04, 0.4 and 4.0 g.kg-1.day-1, respectively. LS at any dosage did not affect growth, food consumption and hematological values. Rats receiving LS at doses of 0.4 and 4.0 mL.kg-1.day-1 had significantly higher albumin levels than the water control and the propylene glycol-treated rats, but these alterations did not indicate any abnormalities. Histopathology of organs revealed no abnormalities related to liquid smoke toxicity. Therefore, it may be concluded that liquid smoke at the given dosages did not produce toxicity in Wistar rats.

Chivapat S.,Medicinal Plant Research Institute | Sincharoenpokai P.,Medicinal Plant Research Institute | Saktiyasuthorn N.,Medicinal Plant Research Institute | Shuaprom A.,Medicinal Plant Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
Thai Journal of Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2011

Moringa oleifera leaves have been reported to possess potential hypotensive and hypocholesterolemic and hypoglycemic activities; nevertheless toxicological data of this herb in animal models have still been scanty. The objective of this study was to evaluate both acute and chronic toxicity of the water extract of M. oleifera leaves by oral administration. Acute toxicity test in mice by gavage with the extract twice, each at the dose of 10g/kg, revealed that the extract produced no acute toxic symptoms and gross lesions of vital organs. Chronic toxicity study was investigated in eighty Wistar rats allocated into four groups, each of ten per sex. Group 1 was the control group receiving distilled water. Group 2 to 4 were experimental groups receiving the extract at the doses of 10, 100 and 1000mg/kg/day for six months consecutively. The results revealed that the extract at different doses did not affect growth, food consumption, general health status and any hematological values of the animals. Blood chemistry profiles of the extract-treated male rats were not significantly different from those of the control-group male rats. In the female, when compared to the control group, the group receiving the extract at the dose of 100mg/kg/day had significantly higher albumin and the highest dose-treated group had significantly lower potassium levels. Histopathological results revealed that the incidence of lesions in some organs of all extract-treated groups were not significantly different from those of the control group. In conclusion, the water extract of M. oleifera leaves at the tested doses produce no acute toxicity and serious chronic toxicity in experimental animals.

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