Medicinal Plant Research Institute

Bangkok, Thailand

Medicinal Plant Research Institute

Bangkok, Thailand
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Parichatikanond W.,Mahidol University | Suthisisang C.,Mahidol University | Dhepakson P.,Medical Biotechnology Center | Herunsalee A.,Medicinal Plant Research Institute
International Immunopharmacology | Year: 2010

In inflammation, the responses to noxious stimuli are controlled by the highly modulated interactions between various immune cells and chemical mediators. The purpose of this study is to evaluate and compare the anti-inflammatory effect of diterpenoids isolated from Andrographis paniculata, including dehydroandrographolide (AP1), andrographolide (AP2) and neoandrographolide (AP3), on the production of inflammatory cytokines and COX activities. Furthermore, the alteration of gene expression involved in this activity was investigated in the most potent compound to elucidate the other possible molecular mechanisms. AP1 (30.1μM; 10μg/ml) and AP2 (28.5μM; 10μg/ml) markedly inhibited COX-1 in ionophore A23187-induced human platelets. AP2 (28.5μM) and AP3 (20.8μM; 10μg/ml) strongly suppressed the LPS-stimulated COX-2 activity in human blood. In addition, AP2 modulated the level of LPS-induced TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β and IL-10 secretion in human blood in a concentration-dependent manner. The results revealed that AP2 exhibited the highest efficacy. Therefore, changes in the levels of mRNA transcripts by AP2 were further measured using human cDNA microarrays. The molecular response to AP2 was complex and mediated by various processes. Among the altered gene expressions, the genes involved in immune and inflammation processes were selectively down-regulated, such as cytokines and cytokine receptors (TNFSF14, TNF, TNFRSF6, and IL1A), chemokines (CCL8 and CXCL11), JAK/STAT signaling (JAK3 and STAT5A), TLRs family (TLR4 and TLR8) and NF-κB (NFKB1). Expression of some genes was validated using RT-PCR. The results demonstrated that AP1, AP2 and AP3 exhibited the anti-inflammatory effect by interfering COX and inflammatory cytokines and the underlying mechanisms of AP2 may be related to down-expression of genes involved in inflammatory cascade. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Vachirayonstien T.,Medical Biotechnology Center | Promkhatkaew D.,Medical Biotechnology Center | Bunjob M.,Medicinal Plant Research Institute | Chueyprom A.,Medicinal Plant Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Natural Product Research | Year: 2010

Clinacanthus nutans (Burm. f.) Lindau (C. nutans), a medicinal herb belonging to the family Acanthaceae, has traditionally been used in herpes simplex virus (HSV) treatment in Thailand. Clinical trials have indicated that topical preparations produced from its extracts were effective in HSV-2 treatment. However, there is no clear evidence of the mechanism of action or a molecular target of C. nutans. In this study, the extracellular activity of C. nutans extracts against HSV-2 infected on HEp-2 cells was investigated in terms of its molecular aspects. HSV-2 was treated with the extracts and adsorped into the HEp-2 cells. After infection, HSV-2 DNA quantities in the infected cells were assessed and compared by the quantitative dot blot hybridisation technique. The results showed that treating the viruses with either less or more highly purified extracts before infection resulted in great reductions of viral infectivity. Further investigation was performed by Western blot analysis to determine the activities of the extracts on the viral proteins. At least eight viral proteins of the infected cell proteins (ICP) and some structural proteins, including 146, 125, 78, 69, 55, 44, 40 and 20 KDa proteins, were depleted and reduced gradually with higher and lower concentrated herb extracts, respectively. These suggest that the C. nutans extracts highly inactivated or inhibited HSV-2 before infection. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.


Watcharananun W.,King Mongkut's University of Technology Thonburi | Chivapat S.,Medicinal Plant Research Institute | Rangsripipat A.,Chulalongkorn University | Attawish A.,Medicinal Plant Research Institute | And 4 more authors.
Kasetsart Journal - Natural Science | Year: 2013

Liquid smoke (LS) from 'Tian Op ' has been developed for 'feathering' (softening) the odor of many Thai desserts. The benefits of liquid smoke are reduced smoking time, increased ease of utilization and standardization of the intensity of the flavor in dessert products. The Medicinal Plant Research Institute, Department of Medical Science, Ministry of Public Health, Thailand conducted a 90 d oral subchronic toxicity test of LS in 120 Wistar rats divided into five groups (12 per sex per group). Groups 1 and 2 were control groups receiving distilled water and propylene glycol at a volume of 10 mL.kg-1. day-1, respectively, where the weight was based on live body weight. Groups 3-5 were experimental groups receiving LS at doses of 0.04, 0.4 and 4.0 g.kg-1.day-1, respectively. LS at any dosage did not affect growth, food consumption and hematological values. Rats receiving LS at doses of 0.4 and 4.0 mL.kg-1.day-1 had significantly higher albumin levels than the water control and the propylene glycol-treated rats, but these alterations did not indicate any abnormalities. Histopathology of organs revealed no abnormalities related to liquid smoke toxicity. Therefore, it may be concluded that liquid smoke at the given dosages did not produce toxicity in Wistar rats.


Kuptniratsaikul V.,Mahidol University | Pinthong T.,Medicinal Plant Research Institute | Bunjob M.,Medicinal Plant Research Institute | Thanakhumtorn S.,Mahidol University | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine | Year: 2011

Objectives: The objectives of this study were to determine the efficacy and safety of Derris scandens Benth extracts in pain reduction and functional improvement in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Design: This was a prospective, randomized, controlled trial, single-blinded (assessor). Settings: The study was conducted at the Rehabilitation Medicine Department, Siriraj Hospital. Subjects: One hundred and seven (107) patients with primary OA knee who had pain score of ≥5 were recruited. Interventions: Patients were randomized to receive naproxen 500 mg/day or Derris 800 mg/day for 4 weeks. Outcome measurements: Western Ontario McMaster Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) scores and 6-minute walking distance were the outcome measurements. Results: Fifty-five (55) and 52 patients were randomized to Derris and naproxen groups, respectively. The mean differences of all WOMAC scores between 2 groups at week 4 adjusted by week 0 were within ± 1 point. The mean scores of the aforementioned outcomes at weeks 0, 2, and 4 were significantly improved compared to the baseline values. There was no difference of WOMAC scores between groups. The gastrointestinal irritation and dyspepsia were observed more often in the naproxen than in the Derris group. Conclusions: Derris scandens Benth extracts were efficacious and safe for the treatment of knee OA. © 2011, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.


Ghodsalavi B.,Copenhagen University | Ahmadzadeh M.,University of Tehran | Soleimani M.,Isfahan University of Technology | Madloo P.B.,University of Tehran | Taghizad-Farid R.,Medicinal Plant Research Institute
Australian Journal of Crop Science | Year: 2013

Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are a group of microorganisms which can enhance growth parameters of host plants and can be used as biofertilizers. Valerian (Valeriana officinalis) is a perennial herb which is used as a medicinal plant. In the current study 40 colonies of bacteria were isolated from the rhizosphere of valerian by growing in various enriched and selective media including S1 and King B, crystal violet agar and methyl red agar. Furthermore, the ability of bacteria to produce siderophore, indoleacetic acid (IAA), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), lipase and protease were tested in vitro. Identification of isolates was performed by using Bergey's manual of systematic bacteriology. Additionally, the effects of seven isolated bacteria (belong to Pseudomonas genus) that showed a high potential of siderophore, IAA, HCN, lipase and protease production on the quantity of root extracts were investigated under greenhouse condition. Results showed that the population of Pseudomonas was the highest in comparison to other genera in the rhizosphere of plant. Isolated bacteria could mostly produce siderophore, lipase, HCN and protease. Two isolates (belong to Pseudomonas genus) significantly increased the amount of valerenic acid in the root extract. The results revealed that PGPR increased shoot length and could also enhance quantity of root extract.


Rahimi-Dehgolan R.,Tarbiat Modares University | Sarvestani Z.T.,Tarbiat Modares University | Rezazadeh S.A.,Medicinal Plant Research Institute | Dolatabadian A.,Tarbiat Modares University
Journal of Herbs, Spices and Medicinal Plants | Year: 2012

Aloe vera is grown in arid climates where salinity can limit plant growth and development. A study was conducted to examine the morphological and physiological characters under salt stress. Plants were cultivated in pots and irrigated with freshwater (EC 450 μs cm-1) or saline lake water (EC 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, or 21 dS m-1). Results indicated that salinity influenced the plant growth and morphological traits and the biomass. Glucose, xylose, and mannose concentrations in leaf gel increased with increasing salinity up to 9 dS m-1 and decreased with higher saline concentrations. Aloin concentration increased with salt stress up to 15 dS m-1that decreased at higher salinity concentrations. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Saktiyasunthorn N.,Medicinal Plant Research Institute | Chivapat S.,Medicinal Plant Research Institute | Sincharoenpokai P.,Medicinal Plant Research Institute | Rungsipipat A.,Chulalongkorn University | And 3 more authors.
Thai Journal of Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2012

Several plants species in the genus Ardisia contained various biologically active compounds. Ram Yai or Pilangkasa (Ardisia elliptica Thunb.) has been used in traditional medicines. The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety of ethanolic extract of A. elliptica fruit in animal models by oral administration. Acute toxicity test in mice by gavage the extract at each dose of 2.5 g/kg twice revealed no abnormal signs, mortality and gross lesion of vital organs. Subchronic toxicity study was investigated in one hundred Wistar rats separated into five groups, each of twenty (ten males and ten females). Two control groups received distilled water and 0.5% tragacanth respectively. While three experimental groups were orally administered with the extract at the doses of 20, 200 and 2000 mg/kg/day for 90 days consecutively. The results revealed that the extract at different doses did not affect growth, food consumption, health status, organ weights and clinical chemistry values of the rats. Hematological results revealed that the male rats receiving the extract at 200 mg/kg had higher MCHC value than the water control group; however it did not show any dose dependency. The significant alterations of neutrophil and eosinophil in the highest dose-treated male group were within the reference range. The incidence of histopathological lesions in some organs did not show any dose response relationship. In conclusion, the ethanolic extract of Ram Yai fruit at the tested doses did not produce any acute and subchronic toxicity in experimental animals.


Chivapat S.,Medicinal Plant Research Institute | Sincharoenpokai P.,Medicinal Plant Research Institute | Saktiyasuthorn N.,Medicinal Plant Research Institute | Shuaprom A.,Medicinal Plant Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
Thai Journal of Veterinary Medicine | Year: 2011

Moringa oleifera leaves have been reported to possess potential hypotensive and hypocholesterolemic and hypoglycemic activities; nevertheless toxicological data of this herb in animal models have still been scanty. The objective of this study was to evaluate both acute and chronic toxicity of the water extract of M. oleifera leaves by oral administration. Acute toxicity test in mice by gavage with the extract twice, each at the dose of 10g/kg, revealed that the extract produced no acute toxic symptoms and gross lesions of vital organs. Chronic toxicity study was investigated in eighty Wistar rats allocated into four groups, each of ten per sex. Group 1 was the control group receiving distilled water. Group 2 to 4 were experimental groups receiving the extract at the doses of 10, 100 and 1000mg/kg/day for six months consecutively. The results revealed that the extract at different doses did not affect growth, food consumption, general health status and any hematological values of the animals. Blood chemistry profiles of the extract-treated male rats were not significantly different from those of the control-group male rats. In the female, when compared to the control group, the group receiving the extract at the dose of 100mg/kg/day had significantly higher albumin and the highest dose-treated group had significantly lower potassium levels. Histopathological results revealed that the incidence of lesions in some organs of all extract-treated groups were not significantly different from those of the control group. In conclusion, the water extract of M. oleifera leaves at the tested doses produce no acute toxicity and serious chronic toxicity in experimental animals.


Chivapat S.,Medicinal Plant Research Institute | Bunjob M.,Medicinal Plant Research Institute | Shuaoprom A.,Medicinal Plant Research Institute | Bansidhi J.,Medicinal Plant Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Applied Research in Natural Products | Year: 2011

The extract of Passiflora foetida leaf has been reported to possess various interesting biological benefits. The objective of this study was to investigate the safety of ethanolic extract, containing 0.84% vitexin in Wistar rats. The animals were randomly allocated into five groups, each of twenty four rats (12 male and 12 female). Four experimental groups were orally given the P. foetida extract at the doses of 16, 160, 800 and 1600 mg/kg/day for six months respectively, whereas the control received distilled water. The extract did not affect the body weights, food intake and relative organ weights of the animals, and nor did cause the abnormal changes of hematological and biochemical values. Histopathological alterations in the various organs of all extract-treated group did not show any significance, except the adrenal glands of the highest dose male group showed the appearance of fatty infiltration in the cortex; however this phenomenon might be physiological rather than pathological change. The results suggested that the ethanolic extract of P. foetida extract at the given doses did not induce any harmful effects in the rats. In this study, 40% ethanolic extract from Passiflora foetida leaves contained 0.84% vitexin which was reported to possess potent anti-inflammatory effect. In addition, other compounds i.e. Kaempferol, apigenin and luteolin in this plant were found to exert anti-histamine release. The present toxicity study revealed no harmful effect in the experimental animal. Therefore, the quality control of the above mentioned compounds in the extract could lead to antiinflammatory and anti-allergic drug development for compensation of excessive steroidal drugs usage. © 2011. IJARNP-HS Publications.


Chivapat S.,Medicinal Plant Research Institute | Chavalittumrong P.,Medicinal Plant Research Institute | Tantisira M.H.,Chulalongkorn University
Thai Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2011

Acute toxicity study of Centella asiatica standardized extract ECa 233 was conducted by an oral administration of 10.0 g/kg extract into 10 male and 10 female mice. The extract at the given dose did not cause any toxic signs and death within the observation period of 14 days. Sub-chronic toxicity study of ECa 233 has been investigated in four groups of Wistar rats, each of 24 rats (12 of each sex). Control group was orally given distilled water and three experimental groups were orally administered with ECa 233 in distilled water at the doses of 10, 100, and 1,000 mg/kg/day for 90 days. All ECa 233-treated rats showed no difference with regards to body weight, food consumption and health in comparison to the control group except that female rats receiving 1,000 mg/kg/day of ECa 233 had significantly higher white blood cell counts than the control group (p < 0.05). However, this alteration was not associated with internal organ pathology. In addition, male rats receiving 1,000 mg/kg/day of ECa 233 had significantly higher sodium level, but still within normal range, than those of control group (p < 0.05). Histopathological results of internal organs did not demonstrate any incidence or degree of lesions in a dose-dependent manner with the increasing dose of ECa 233. Therefore, based on the present studies it can be concluded that ECa 233 in the dose up to 10.0 g/kg produced no acute toxicity and no significant sub-chronic toxicity was observed in rats receiving 10-1,000 mg/kg of ECa 233.

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