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Kamal A.,Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacology | Kamal A.,Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research | Kamal A.,Indian Institute of Chemical Technology | Kamal A.,National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research | And 8 more authors.
Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry

A series of 2-anilinopyridyl-triazole conjugates (6a-t) were prepared and evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against a panel of three human cancer cell lines. Among them compounds 6q, 6r and 6s showed significant cytotoxic activity with IC50 values ranging from 0.1 to 4.1 μM. Structure-activity relationships were elucidated with various substitutions on these conjugates. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that these compounds arrest the cell cycle at the G2/M phase and induce cell death by apoptosis. The tubulin polymerization assay and immunofluorescence analysis showed that these compounds (6q, 6r and 6s) effectively inhibited the microtubule assembly in human prostate cancer cells (DU-145). The docking studies showed that 6s interacts and binds efficiently with the tubulin protein at the colchicine binding site. This was further confirmed by the colchicine competitive binding assay. Moreover, compounds 6q, 6r and 6s possess anti-tubulin activity both in vitro and within cells as demonstrated by the ratio of soluble versus polymerized tubulin. Further the apoptotic effects of compounds were confirmed by Hoechst staining, caspase 3 activation, annexin-V FITC, mitochondrial membrane potential and DNA fragmentation analysis. Interestingly, these compounds did not affect the normal human embryonic kidney cells, HEK-293. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015. Source

Kamal A.,Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacology | Shaik A.B.,Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacology | Polepalli S.,Indian Institute of Chemical Technology | Kumar G.B.,Medicinal Chemistry and Pharmacology | And 4 more authors.
Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry

In an attempt to develop potent and selective anticancer agents, a series of twenty arylpyrazole linked benzimidazole conjugates (10a-t) were designed and synthesized as microtubule destabilizing agents. The joining of arylpyrazole to the benzimidazole moiety resulted in a four ring (A, B, C and D) molecular scaffold that comprises of polar heterocyclic rings in the middle associated with rotatable single bonds and substituted aryl rings placed in the opposite directions. These conjugates were evaluated for their ability to inhibit the growth of sixty cancer cell line panel of the NCI. Among these some conjugates like 10a, 10b, 10d, 10e, 10p and 10r exhibited significant growth inhibitory activity against most of the cell lines ranging from 0.3 to 13μM. Interestingly, the conjugate 10b with methoxy group on D-ring expressed appreciable cytotoxic potential. A549 cells treated with some of the potent conjugates like 10a, 10b and 10d arrested cells at G2/M phase apart from activating cyclin-B1 protein levels and disrupting microtubule network. Moreover, these conjugates effectively inhibited tubulin polymerization with IC50 values of 1.3-3.8μM. Whereas, the caspase assay revealed that they activate the casepase-3 leading to apoptosis. Particularly 10b having methoxy substituent induced activity almost 3 folds higher than CA-4. Furthermore, a competitive colchicine binding assay and molecular modeling analysis suggests that these conjugates bind to the tubulin successfully at the colchicine binding site. These investigations reveal that such conjugates having pyrazole and benzimidazole moieties have the potential in the development of newer chemotherapeutic agents. © 2015. Source

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