Medicina Veterinaria

Jaboticabal, Brazil

Medicina Veterinaria

Jaboticabal, Brazil
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Bolanos C.A.D.,Paulista University | De Paula C.L.,Paulista University | Callefe J.L.R.,São Paulo State University | Alves A.C.,Paulista University | And 5 more authors.
Semina:Ciencias Agrarias | Year: 2017

Proteus spp. are opportunistic multidrug resistant enterobacteria associated with diverse clinical diseases in domestic animals. However, Proteus infections in domestic animals are often misdiagnosed or considered contaminants in microbiological cultures rather than a primary agent of disease. Descriptions of Proteus infections in domestic animals are typically restricted to case reports, retrospective studies, or surveillance of other microorganisms. The present study investigated multiple antibiotic resistance indices, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), and ESBL production in 73 strains of Proteus mirabilis (n = 69) and Proteus vulgaris (n = 4) isolated from domestic animals with various clinical manifestations. In dogs, the pathogen was most commonly associated with cystitis (48.21), enteritis (21.42%), otitis (14.29%), and conjunctivitis (3.57%). In bovines, the microorganism was predominant in cases of enteritis (22.22%), abscess (11.11%), otitis (11.11%), omphalitis (11.11%), and peritonitis (11.11%), and in organ fragments (11.11%). In equines (50.0%) and cats (100.0%), diarrhea was the main clinical sign. In vitro standard disk diffusion assay showed that the most effective antimicrobials against the isolates were imipenem (98.63), norfloxacin (95.89), amikacin (95.89), levofloxacin (90.41), ceftriaxone (87.64), and florfenicol (87.67). In contrast, the isolates commonly showed resistance to novobiocin (95.89), azithromycin (57.53), and trimethropim/sulfamethoxazole (39.73). Among the 73 isolates, the efficacy of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, gentamicin, ceftriaxone, and ciprofloxacin according to MICs was 87.67%, 86.30%, 84.93%, and 82.19%, respectively. The MIC50 values of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, and gentamicin were, respectively, 1.0, 0.004, 0.03, and 1.0 μg/mL. Thirty-three strains (45.21%) showed a antimicrobial multiple resistance index of ≥0.3. Multidrug resistance profiles of isolates were observed most frequently in dogs (n = 25; 75.76%), particularly in those with cystitis (n = 13; 52.0%), followed by bovines (n = 4; 12.12%), equines (n = 2; 6.06%), and cats (n = 2; 6.06%). Two (2.7%) strains, obtained from canine skin and feces, were diagnosed phenotypically as ESBL-producers. Here, we observed the diversity of Proteus infections in domestic animals. The presence of multidrug-resistant isolates and ESBL-producers reinforces the need for appropriate antimicrobial use and in vitro antimicrobial tests to support therapy.


Carneiro M.K.,State University of the Central West | Neumann M.,State University of the Central West | Junior J.C.H.,Ciencias Veterinarias | Horst E.H.,Ciencias Veterinarias | And 3 more authors.
Semina:Ciencias Agrarias | Year: 2017

This study aimed to evaluate mechanical and chemical methods of forage dehydration in the production of black oat pre-dried silage (Avena strigosa Schreb) under different dehydration times. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block experimental design with five replications and arranged in a 2 x 6 factorial scheme. We assessed two methods of dehydration, mechanical and chemical, over six dewatering times, being made at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 days after cutting or application of glyphosate. Harvest took place at 88 days after emergence, at pre-fowering. We evaluated dry biomass production at harvest, dry matter losses during dehydration in the feld, losses during ensiling, gauging effluent output, and pre-dried silage chemical composition. There was an interaction between dehydration method and harvest time for most of the production characteristics. Chemical dehydration showed an enhanced dry matter recovery at the feld level, however, unsuitable for pre-dried silage. The longer the dehydration period, the lower the losses for both analyzed methods; nevertheless, the chemical method reached unsatisfactory DM contents to produce good quality silage.


Da Cunha A.F.,Medicina Veterinaria | Braganca L.J.,Medico Veterinario | Quintao L.C.,Medico Veterinario | Coelho K.S.,Graduando em Medicina Veterinaria | And 2 more authors.
Acta Veterinaria Brasilica | Year: 2016

Bovine mastitis is the inflammation of the mammary gland which causes great losses in milk production. Therefore, the objective of study was to evaluate the prevalence, causative agents and factors related to management practices and production characteristics that influenced clinical mastitis in 44 dairy farms of Viçosa-MG. In 617 cows, clinical mastitis was determined by clinical examination of the mammary gland and mug test. Milk samples from mammary quarters with clinical mastitis were subjected to microbiological tests. A structured questionnaire was used to determine the risk factors for mastitis. The prevalence of clinical mastitis in cattle was 4.8%. The etiological agents more isolated were Staphylococcus aureus (29.73%), Streptococcus agalactiae (16.21%), Escherichia coli (13.51%) and yeast (13.51%). The high number of lactating animals per property, lack of herd sanity, poor hygiene of the environment and inappropriate practices of dry cow treatment had a significant association (p < 0.05) with the prevalence of clinical mastitis. Therefore, environmental and animals management should be reviewed to help to reduce cases of mastitis in cattle of Viçosa (MG).


News Article | November 8, 2016
Site: www.sciencedaily.com

A new study challenges the tenet of herpes viruses being strictly host-specific. Scientists from the Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research (IZW) in Germany have discovered that gammaherpesviruses switch their hosts more frequently than previously thought. In fact, bats and primates appear to be responsible for the transfer of these viruses to other mammals in many cases. The findings were published in the scientific journal mBio. For herpes, it has generally been thought that every animal has its own specific viruses and that virus and host species have co-evolved. Now, an international team of scientists led by the Leibniz-IZW discovered that herpesviruses may not conform to this commonly held view. Surprisingly, while studying a group of herpesviruses called gammaherpesviruses, the researchers demonstrated that the herpes viruses found in common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) and hairy-legged vampire bats (Diphylla ecaudata) were similar to those previously found in cattle. While it is known that vampire bats exclusively feed on animal blood, preferring domestic swine and cattle, since they represent an easily accessible food source, the result was somewhat unusual. Were bats being infected by viruses from their food source? To answer this question, researchers from the Leibniz-IZW worked together with the Centro Nacional de Investigación Disciplinaria en Microbiología Animal -- INIFAP; the Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia of the Universidad Veracruzana; the Instituto de Biotecnología of the National Autonomous University of Mexico, the SUNY Downstate Medical Center in the USA, and the Freie Universität Berlin in Germany. Following up on the results from vampire bats, the researchers compiled the largest dataset of gammaherpesvirus sequences to date from their own sequencing data and publicly available data, including viruses from many bat species, and performed extensive analyses to determine the relationships of the viruses to one another and to their hosts. This shows that herpesviruses have frequently switched between species in the past, rather than being host specific. Most switches derived from bats, with primates being the second most common source of switches. "We speculate that bat-specific traits such as their ability to fly and a wide geographical range might have been important in promoting a virus spillover from bats to other animal groups," says Dr Marina Escalera-Zamudio, scientist at the Leibniz-IZW. After switching, herpesviruses may have adapted to their new hosts, creating the impression of host specificity. So the vampire bats were not likely infected by their food but more likely infected by other mammals in the past. Also surprisingly, vampire bats were not more prone among bats to transfer viruses, as many viruses from non-blood feeding bats also appear to have jumped. Since many viruses that cause disease in humans belong to the herpes virus family, it is important to understand their evolutionary development. "Herpes viruses establish latent life-long infections. Although they generally cause disease only in immunosuppressed individuals, they can survive largely below the radar even after infection," Escalera-Zamudio adds. Therefore, there may be even more species switches to uncover. However, only further sampling across a larger diversity of hosts will help determine the full scale of such switches. Future efforts should concentrate on clarifying the role of bats and primates for spreading these viruses.


News Article | November 8, 2016
Site: phys.org

A new study challenges the tenet of herpes viruses being strictly host-specific. Scientists from the Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research (IZW) in Germany have discovered that gammaherpesviruses switch their hosts more frequently than previously thought. In fact, bats and primates appear to be responsible for the transfer of these viruses to other mammals in many cases. The findings were published in the scientific journal "mBio". For herpes, it has generally been thought that every animal has its own specific viruses and that virus and host species have co-evolved. Now, an international team of scientists led by the Leibniz-IZW discovered that herpesviruses may not conform to this commonly held view. Surprisingly, while studying a group of herpesviruses called gammaherpesviruses, the researchers demonstrated that the herpes viruses found in common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) and hairy-legged vampire bats (Diphylla ecaudata) were similar to those previously found in cattle. While it is known that vampire bats exclusively feed on animal blood, preferring domestic swine and cattle, since they represent an easily accessible food source, the result was somewhat unusual. Were bats being infected by viruses from their food source? To answer this question, researchers from the Leibniz-IZW worked together with the Centro Nacional de Investigación Disciplinaria en Microbiología Animal - INIFAP; the Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia of the Universidad Veracruzana; the Instituto de Biotecnología of the National Autonomous University of Mexico, the SUNY Downstate Medical Center in the USA, and the Freie Universität Berlin in Germany. Following up on the results from vampire bats, the researchers compiled the largest dataset of gammaherpesvirus sequences to date from their own sequencing data and publicly available data, including viruses from many bat species, and performed extensive analyses to determine the relationships of the viruses to one another and to their hosts. This shows that herpesviruses have frequently switched between species in the past, rather than being host specific. Most switches derived from bats, with primates being the second most common source of switches. "We speculate that bat-specific traits such as their ability to fly and a wide geographical range might have been important in promoting a virus spillover from bats to other animal groups," says Dr Marina Escalera-Zamudio, scientist at the Leibniz-IZW. After switching, herpesviruses may have adapted to their new hosts, creating the impression of host specificity. So the vampire bats were not likely infected by their food but more likely infected by other mammals in the past. Also surprisingly, vampire bats were not more prone among bats to transfer viruses, as many viruses from non-blood feeding bats also appear to have jumped. Since many viruses that cause disease in humans belong to the herpes virus family, it is important to understand their evolutionary development. "Herpes viruses establish latent life-long infections. Although they generally cause disease only in immunosuppressed individuals, they can survive largely below the radar even after infection," Escalera-Zamudio adds. Therefore, there may be even more species switches to uncover. However, only further sampling across a larger diversity of hosts will help determine the full scale of such switches. Future efforts should concentrate on clarifying the role of bats and primates for spreading these viruses. Explore further: Virus in bats homologous to retroviruses in rodents and primates More information: Escalera-Zamudio M, et al. (2016): Bats, primates, and the evolutionary origins and diversification of mammalian gammaherpesviruses. mBio, DOI: 10.1128/mBio.01425-16


Zaine L.,Medicina Veterinaria | Monti M.,São Paulo State University | Vasconcellos R.S.,State University of Maringá | Carciofi A.C.,São Paulo State University
Semina:Ciencias Agrarias | Year: 2014

The use of nutraceuticals in veterinary medicine is growing and is assumed that they could aid in clinical treatment. This review aims to describe some nutraceuticals that act on the immunity of dogs and cats and show the possible benefits as an adjuvant treatment for some diseases. The action of some yeast derivates as immunomodulators, especially the beta-glucan fraction, was already proved to occur in dogs and cats, being beneficial as an adjuvant therapy in many clinical conditions. Omega-3 polyunsatured fatty acids, possibly the mostly used nutraceuticals, can improve the condition in some diseases, such as hypertension, renal, cardiac, gastrointestinal and autoimmune diseases, arthritis and cancer. Vitamin E has antioxidant and immunomodulatory action and can aid in the treatment of dermatologic and hepatobiliar conditions. The use of carotenoids, which have similar action to vitamin E, can be of interest for being potent antioxidants and might be helpful for enhancing immune response against microorganisms and also act preventing tumors. Despite it are still needed clinical trials to better understand the real benefits of nutraceuticals supplementation in each specific disease, the comprehension of the mechanisms by which they act indicates they are promising for clinical use.


Souza E.O.,Mestrando em Ciencia Animal | Haese D.,Medicina Veterinaria | Kill J.L.,Medicina Veterinaria | Haddade I.R.,IFES CST | And 4 more authors.
Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia | Year: 2011

In order evaluate digestible lysine levels in diets supplemented with 20 ppm of ractopamine on the performance and carcass traits, 64 barrows with high genetic potential at finishing phase were allotted in a completely randomized block design with four digestible lysine levels (0.80, 0.90, 1.00, and 1.10%), eight replicates and two pigs per experimental unit. Initial body weight and pigs' kinship were used as criteria in the blocks formation. Diets were mainly composed of corn and soybean meal supplemented with minerals, vitamins and amino acids to meet pigs' nutritional requirements at the finishing phase, except for digestible lysine. No effect of digestible lysine levels was observed in animal performance. The digestible lysine intake increased linearly by increasing the levels of digestible lysine in the diets. Carcass traits were not influenced by the dietary levels of digestible lysine. The level of 0.80% of digestible lysine in diets supplemented with 20 ppm ractopamine meets the nutritional requirements of castrated male pigs during the finishing phase. © 2011 Sociedade Brasileira de Zootecnia.


Laposy C.B.,University of West Paulista | Silva D.K.M.,Mestrado Ciencia Animal | Pessoto J.N.,Medicina Veterinaria
Semina:Ciencias Agrarias | Year: 2014

Cefovecin is the third generation semi synthetic cephalosporin. The drug is indicated for treatment of skin and urinary infections. The main difference between cefovecin and the others cephalosporins is the highest plasma protein binding, providing an extend action. Due to lack of laboratory studies demonstrating changes caused by the use of cefovecin, the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of cefovecin therapy on the serum proteins, hemogram, urea and creatinine activities, blood gas, platelet distribution width (PDW) and platelet count. Ten healthy dogs (males n=4; females n=6), average weight of 10.03±3.54 kg were used. The animals were kept in individual cages all over the experiment. The animals were submitted to the clinical and laboratory examinations as an inclusion criterion for the experiment. Sodium cefovecin (Convenia®) was subcutaneously administered (8mg/ kg) to the dogs. Clinical evaluation and laboratorial analysis was performed prior and at 1, 2, 3, 7, 14 and 21 days post treatment (dpt). Despite to be in accordance with the reference values, it was observed a statistically significant (p<0.05) decrease in total serum protein, globulin, hemoglobin and packed cell volume at 21 dpt. The platelet distribution width (PDW) and platelet count were increased at seven and 21 days (p>0.05), respectively. No changes in urea and creatinine activities, blood gas and leukocyte values were observed in the dogs after the administration of cefovecin. In conclusion, cefovecin can be administered in healthy dogs without causing significant laboratory abnormalities.


De Almeida Rego F.C.,University of Northern Paraná | Ludovico A.,Medicina Veterinaria | Da Silva L.C.,Medicina Veterinaria | De Lima L.D.,University of Northern Paraná | And 2 more authors.
Semina:Ciencias Agrarias | Year: 2012

The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of microbial inoculants on the reduced concentration of gases and effluent, dry matter recovery, pH, volatile fatty acids, and chemical composition of orange pulp silage, using a completely randomized design, with four treatments and four replicates per treatment. The treatments were: orange pulp silage (CONT), citrus pulp silage + Lactobacillus plantarum (LAC), citrus pulp silage + Lactobacillus buchneri (BUCH), citrus pulp silage + Lactobacillus plantarum and buchneri (LACBUCH). Inoculants were applied at a rate of 25 liters of solution per ton of citrus pulp containing 1×103 CFU respectively of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus buchneri per gram of silage. There was no effect of the usage of different inoculants on the reduction of gas and effluent, as well as the pH of the silage. The dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), non-fibrous carbohydrate (NFC), mineral matter (MM), ether extract (EE) and the profile of fatty acids did not change significantly with the inclusion of the inoculants. The contents of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) were higher for silage with Lactobacillus buchneri compared to control. The administration of microbial inoculants in orange pulp silage did not result in benefits relative to the dry matter losses during ensiling or the nutritional components.


De Moura A.B.,Santa Catarina State University | Matiello J.P.,Medicina Veterinaria | Da Silva M.O.,Ciencia Animal | De Souza A.P.,Santa Catarina State University | Sartor A.A.,Santa Catarina State University
Semina:Ciencias Agrarias | Year: 2016

Toxoplasmosis is a zoonotic disease caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii. Among domestic species, the horse is one of those most resistant to T. gondii infection; however, upon acute infection, horses may present hyperirritability, poor motor coordination, ocular disorders, and abortion. Herein, we investigated the presence of antibodies against T. gondii, in order to identify possible risk factors for infection in horses and to establish the correlation of T. gondii infection with reproductive and/ or neurological disorders. We collected 615 blood samples from animals in the mountain mesoregion (n=311) and the coastal mesoregion (n=304) of Santa Catarina state. An epidemiological questionnaire was used to identify possible risk factors. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected by immuno-fluorescence assay (IFA.1:64) using RH strain tachyzoites of the protozoan as antigen. Correlation (P<0.05) between seropositivity and race, sex, age, diet, contact with other animals, reproductive and/or neurological disorders, and origin were assessed. The overall incidence of seropositivity was 10.4% (64/615), and in the mountain and coastal regions, 10.3% and 10.5%, respectively. The reciprocal of the titles observed was: 1:64 (36), 1:256 (26) and 1:1024 (two). There was no significant difference (P>0.05) between regions, and there was no correlation between seropositivity and the variables analyzed.

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