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Graz, Austria

The Medical University of Graz is a university in Graz, Austria. Wikipedia.


Heitzer E.,Medical University of Graz | Tomlinson I.,Oxford Genetics
Current Opinion in Genetics and Development | Year: 2014

Three DNA polymerases - Pol α, Pol δ and Pol e{open} - are essential for DNA replication. After initiation of DNA synthesis by Pol α, Pol δ or Pol e{open} take over on the lagging and leading strand respectively. Pol δ and Pol e{open} perform the bulk of replication with very high fidelity, which is ensured by Watson-Crick base pairing and 3'exonuclease (proofreading) activity. Yeast models have shown that mutations in the exonuclease domain of Pol δ and Pol e{open} homologues can cause a mutator phenotype. Recently, we identified germline exonuclease domain mutations (EDMs) in human POLD1 and POLE that predispose to 'polymerase proofreading associated polyposis' (PPAP), a disease characterised by multiple colorectal adenomas and carcinoma, with high penetrance and dominant inheritance. Moreover, somatic EDMs in POLE have also been found in sporadic colorectal and endometrial cancers. Tumors with EDMs are microsatellite stable and show an 'ultramutator' phenotype, with a dramatic increase in base substitutions. © 2014 The Authors.


Holman R.R.,University of Oxford | Sourij H.,Medical University of Graz | Califf R.M.,Duke University
The Lancet | Year: 2014

Few trials of glucose-lowering drugs or strategies in people with type 2 diabetes have investigated cardiovascular outcomes, even though most patients die from cardiovascular causes despite the beneficial effects of lipid-reducing and blood pressure-lowering treatments. The evidence-based reduction in risk of microvascular disease with glucose lowering has resulted in guidelines worldwide recommending optimisation of glycosylated haemoglobin, but no trial results have shown unequivocal cardiovascular risk reduction with glucose lowering. However, results of the post-trial follow-up of the UK Prospective Diabetes Study, and of a meta-analysis of the four glucose-lowering outcome trials completed to date, suggest about a 15% cardiovascular relative risk reduction per 1% decrement in HbA1c. The 2008 US Food and Drug Administration industry guidance for licensing of antidiabetic drugs greatly increased the number of cardiovascular outcome trials in diabetes, but most trials opted for non-inferiority designs aiming primarily to show absence of cardiovascular toxicity in the shortest possible time. This unintended consequence of the new regulations has meant that the potential long-term benefits, and the possible risks of new therapies, are not being assessed effectively. Also, essential head-to-head trials of therapies for this complex progressive disease, to answer issues such as how best to achieve and maintain optimum glycaemia without promoting weight gain or hypoglycaemia, are not being undertaken. In this Series paper, we summarise randomised controlled cardiovascular outcome trials in type 2 diabetes, provide an overview of ongoing trials and their limitations, and speculate on how future trials could be made more efficient and effective.


Holzer P.,Medical University of Graz
Acta Physiologica | Year: 2011

Acidosis in the gastrointestinal tract can be both a physiological and pathological condition. While gastric acid serves digestion and protection from pathogens, pathological acidosis is associated with defective acid containment, inflammation and ischaemia. The pH in the oesophagus, stomach and intestine is surveyed by an elaborate network of acid-sensing mechanisms to maintain homeostasis. Deviations from physiological values of extracellular pH (7.4) are monitored by multiple acid sensors expressed by epithelial cells and sensory neurones. Protons evoke multiple currents in primary afferent neurones, which are carried by several acid-sensitive ion channels. Among these, acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) and transient receptor potential (TRP) vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) ion channels have been most thoroughly studied. ASICs survey moderate decreases in extracellular pH whereas TRPV1 is activated only by severe acidosis resulting in pH values below 6. Other molecular acid sensors comprise TRPV4, TRPC4, TRPC5, TRPP2 (PKD2L1), epithelial Na+ channels, two-pore domain K+ (K2P) channels, ionotropic purinoceptors (P2X), inward rectifier K+ channels, voltage-activated K+ channels, L-type Ca2+ channels and acid-sensitive G-protein-coupled receptors. Most of these acid sensors are expressed by primary sensory neurones, although to different degrees and in various combinations. As upregulation and overactivity of acid sensors appear to contribute to various forms of chronic inflammation and pain, acid-sensitive ion channels and receptors are also considered as targets for novel therapeutics. © 2010 The Author. Journal compilation © 2010 Scandinavian Physiological Society.


Becker J.C.,Medical University of Graz
Annals of Oncology | Year: 2010

Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a highly aggressive neuroendocrine carcinoma of the skin. The incidence of this rare tumor is increasing rapidly; the American Cancer Society estimates for 2008 almost 1500 new cases in the USA. Thus, the incidence of MCC will exceed the incidence of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Moreover, the mortality rate of MCC at 33% is considerably higher than that of cutaneous melanoma. These clinical observations are especially disturbing as we are only recently beginning to understand the pathogenesis of MCC. For the same reason, the therapeutic approach is often unclear; reliable data are only available for the therapy of locoregional disease. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved.


Frohlich E.,Medical University of Graz
International Journal of Nanomedicine | Year: 2012

Many types of nanoparticles (NPs) are tested for use in medical products, particularly in imaging and gene and drug delivery. For these applications, cellular uptake is usually a prerequisite and is governed in addition to size by surface characteristics such as hydrophobicity and charge. Although positive charge appears to improve the efficacy of imaging, gene transfer, and drug delivery, a higher cytotoxicity of such constructs has been reported. This review summarizes findings on the role of surface charge on cytotoxicity in general, action on specific cellular targets, modes of toxic action, cellular uptake, and intracellular localization of NPs. Effects of serum and intercell type differences are addressed. Cationic NPs cause more pronounced disruption of plasma-membrane integrity, stronger mitochondrial and lysosomal damage, and a higher number of autophagosomes than anionic NPs. In general, nonphagocytic cells ingest cationic NPs to a higher extent, but charge density and hydrophobicity are equally important; phagocytic cells preferentially take up anionic NPs. Cells do not use different uptake routes for cationic and anionic NPs, but high uptake rates are usually linked to greater biological effects. The different uptake preferences of phagocytic and nonphagocytic cells for cationic and anionic NPs may influence the efficacy and selectivity of NPs for drug delivery and imaging. © 2012 Cárdenas et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.

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