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Bialystok, Poland

Medical University of Białystok was created in 1950 in a historic building from the 18th century, Pałac Branickich, which is the most historically important building for the city of Białystok.The university is home to the Medical department with a division of Dentistry and a division of a six-year MD program in English for foreigners, Pharmacology department with Medical Analytics division, and Nursing and Health Protection department with divisions of Physiotherapy, Medical Rescue, Obstetrics, Public Health and Nursing. Wikipedia.

Kowalewska J.,Medical University of Bialystok
Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation | Year: 2013

Purpose of review: Glomerulonephritis is the leading cause of end-stage renal failure in renal transplant recipients. Recurrence of diseases in kidney allograft provides a unique opportunity to study the mechanisms of kidney disorders leading to the underlying native organ failure. There have been new advances in the understanding of the mechanisms of membranous nephropathy and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). Recent findings: Recent studies of recurrent membranous nephropathy provide evidence of the presence of circulating recipient factor that targets the donor kidney and put forward the evidence of antiphospholipase A2 receptor antibody pathogenicity in some cases, point to a different pathogenesis of recurrent and de-novo membranous nephropathy, and stress the importance of early morphologic recognition of recurrent membranous nephropathy. New advances in understanding the FSGS include identification of soluble podocyte urokinase receptor as a circulating factor leading to the development and recurrence of FSGS after transplantation, imply that podocyte injury may be a reversible lesion, and suggest a dual role of activated parietal epithelial cells in sclerosing glomerular injury as well as in regeneration and repair. Summary: Several new mechanisms of glomerular injury have been implicated in the development of recurrent kidney diseases. When further confirmed, some of these might result in early diagnosis and development of better therapy of the respective disorders. © 2013 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Malyszko J.,Medical University of Bialystok
Clinica Chimica Acta | Year: 2010

Endothelium is the largest organ in the body strategically located between the wall of blood vessels and the blood stream. The human body contains approximately 1013 endothelial cells weighing approximately 1kg, and covering a surface area of 4000 to 7000m2 equivalent to the soccer playground. Hypertension and shear stress, inflammation, diabetes-associated factors such as advanced glycated end products, and uremic toxins are some of the prevalent risk factors of endothelial dysfunction in chronic kidney disease. In renal failure endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis are almost universal, as well as cardiovascular complications. Endothelial cell damage or injury is invariably associated with such clinical conditions as thrombosis, hypertension, renal failure and atherosclerosis and may be also responsible for accelerated atherosclerosis in patients with chronic renal failure. Traditional risk factor cannot explain the high prevalence and incidence of cardiovascular disease in chronic kidney disease, therefore other non-traditional risk factors such as endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress or insulin resistance have increasingly been studied. In this review paper mechanism of endothelial dysfunction, including the role of nitric oxide pathway, adipocytokines and hemodialysis-induced endothelial dysfunction is discussed. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

We investigated the genetic similarities and expression of the MexAB-OprM efflux pump system in different clones of multiresistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains collected from 2002 to 2009 at two intensive care units (ICU). Regulatory and structural genes mexB, mexR, and mexA were found in 99%, 98%, and 94% of tested strains, respectively. The presence of class 1 integron was found in 90% of the strains, while class 2 integron in only one strain (Psa506). Class 3 integron was not found in any of the tested strains. Among the eleven clones identified, only two clones, I and D, exhibited higher levels of mexB gene expression than the other clones. Clone I had the highest expression (FC = 10.36, p < 0.05). The results of our study indicated a high level of MexAB-OprM pump expression in groups of strains isolated in the years 2008-2009 (FC = 12.92, p < 0.03) and 2002-2006 (FC = 5.14, p < 0.03). There were no statistically significant differences in resistance to all tested antibiotics among the various clones. The high level of antimicrobial resistance may have been due to the coexistence of different resistance mechanisms among the studied P. aeruginosa strains. However, this does not exclude the contribution of the MexAB-OprM pump, particularly in resistance to meropenem and ciprofloxacin. © 2014 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Malyszko J.,Medical University of Bialystok
Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs | Year: 2014

Anemia has remained one of the most characteristic and visible manifestations of chronic renal failure for over 150 years. The pathogenesis of anemia of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is multifactorial with inadequate production of erythropoietin being the leading factor. The development of recombinant human erythropoietin (epoetin) in the late 1980s was a milestone in treatment of renal anemia. Despite new drugs, our 'good old friend' erythropoietin-stimulating agents are our everyday life in nephrology practice. It seems that peginesatide would not become a new approach for treating anemia of CKD patients, but rather a falling star. Several new strategies for treating the anemia of CKD are currently being investigated in clinical trials, including prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors and modulators of hepcidin activity, but their role in the management of this condition remains to be established. As shown by the expert in this review, we have to take into account not only the safety and convenience of administration but also cost-effectiveness, while biosimilars are consequently knocking at the doors of dialysis units more and more, particularly in Europe. © Informa UK, Ltd.

Szulc A.,Medical University of Bialystok
Neuroscience letters | Year: 2013

Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) enables the evaluation of in vivo brain function. The purpose of the study was to compare 1H MRS measurements in schizophrenic patients, who were clinical responders after short-term antipsychotic treatment, with non-responders and healthy controls. We investigated a group of 47 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. Patients were examined twice--once after a period of at least 7 days without neuroleptics and the second time at least 4 weeks after therapy with stable doses of medication. The follow-up was available in 42 patients. Baseline MRS measurements of clinical responders were compared with non-responders and the group of healthy controls (N=26). We assessed the following metabolite ratios: NAA (N-acetylaspartate), Glx (complex of GABA, glutamine and glutamate), Cho (choline) and mI (myo-inositol) to creatinine (Cr) in the left frontal and temporal lobes and the thalamus. Responders showed a significantly lower baseline frontal Glx/Cr level than non-responders. Both groups had a significantly lower NAA/Cr ratio in the frontal lobe than the controls, but only non-responders had a significantly lower NAA/Cr ratio in the thalamus. Our results confirm the relationship between the glutamatergic system and pathophysiology of schizophrenia and suggest a significant value of 1H MRS examination in the assessment of the future treatment effect. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

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