Medical University of Bialystok
Bialystok, Poland

Medical University of Białystok was created in 1950 in a historic building from the 18th century, Pałac Branickich, which is the most historically important building for the city of Białystok.The university is home to the Medical department with a division of Dentistry and a division of a six-year MD program in English for foreigners, Pharmacology department with Medical Analytics division, and Nursing and Health Protection department with divisions of Physiotherapy, Medical Rescue, Obstetrics, Public Health and Nursing. Wikipedia.

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Braszko J.J.,Medical University of Bialystok
Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews | Year: 2010

Angiotensin IV (Ang IV) and des-Phe6Ang IV are naturally occurring neuroactive peptides of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) involved in memory processing. However, the relevant mechanisms are poorly understood. In this review it is proposed that the pro-cognitive effects of these peptides are, at least partly, mediated by dopamine (DA). Recent studies demonstrated that the improvement of several memory aspects; recall of appetitively and aversively motivated behaviors and learning of spatial tasks by Ang IV and des-Phe6Ang IV was abolished, or significantly diminished by behaviorally inactive per se doses of the D1 and D2 receptor blockers SCH 23390 (R-[+]-7-chloro-8-hydroxy-3methyl-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepine) and remoxipride, respectively. The D3 receptor inhibition with nafadotride was almost ineffective but again, the D4 receptor blockade by L745,870 hydrochloride (3-{[4-(4-chlorophenyl)piperazin-1-yl]methyl}-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridine hydrochloride) diminished all, except for spatial memory, improving actions of the peptides. These results suggest that Ang IV and des-Phe6Ang IV enhance memory in a brain region-specific manner, dependent on local DA receptor subpopulations and the memory aspects controlled by them. The data reviewed here, demonstrating DA-Ang IV and des-Phe6Ang IV interactions in brain, strongly suggest probability of clinically relevant effects of concomitant use of antipsychotic and RAS affecting drugs. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Trofimiuk E.,Medical University of Bialystok | Braszko J.J.,Medical University of Bialystok
Psychopharmacology | Year: 2014

Rationale: The role of histamine neurons in stress evoked cognitive impairments remains unclear. Previous research has indicated that the blockade of H(3)-type histamine receptors may improve attention and memory in naïve rodents. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine if ciproxifan, (cyclopropyl-(4-(3-1H-imidazol-4-yl) propyloxy) phenyl) ketone, an H(3) receptor antagonist, could alleviate cognitive deficits observed in chronically stressed rats. Methods: Specifically, we attempted to characterize the preventive action of single dose of ciproxifan (3 mg/kg, i.p.) against an impairment caused by chronic restraint stress (2 h daily for 21 days) on recognition memory tested in an object recognition task and on the long-term memory tested in a passive avoidance test. Results: We found that administration of ciproxifan potently prevented deleterious effects of chronic restraint stress, when administered prior to learning, or immediately after learning, or before retrieval on both the recognition (p<0.001) and the passive avoidance behavior (p<0.001). Conclusions: These data support the idea that modulation of H(3) receptors represents a novel and viable therapeutic strategy in the treatment of stress evoked cognitive impairments. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

In the present paper, the hypothesis that low chronic exposure to cadmium (Cd) enhances the risk of long bone fractures was investigated in a female rat model simulating human lifetime exposure in non-Cd-polluted areas. For this purpose, the femur and both tibias of control female rats and those exposed to Cd (1mg Cd l -1 in drinking water for 24months since weaning) were assigned to geometric, densitometric (bone mineral content, BMC, and density, BMD), radiographic and biomechanical studies as well as assessing their chemical composition. The exposure to Cd disturbed mineralization (decreased BMD and minerals content, including calcium, magnesium, zinc, copper and iron) and weakened the biomechanical strength of the femur and tibia, enhancing their fragility. The Z-score values for the BMD revealed osteopenia of the femur and tibia in 20 and 30% of the Cd-exposed female rats, respectively, and osteoporosis in 80 and 70%, respectively. In 30% of the Cd-exposed animals, femoral neck fracture was evident in the radiographic picture. The findings seem to confirm the hypothesis that a low exposure to Cd during the lifetime may be an important risk factor for osteoporosis and fractures of long bones, and especially for femoral neck fracture in elderly women. The results indicate that greater attention should be paid to Cd as an environmental risk factor for the increasing rate of osteoporosis and bone fractures in old population. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Kusaczuk M.,Medical University of Bialystok | Cechowska-Pasko M.,Medical University of Bialystok
Current Pharmaceutical Design | Year: 2013

Many disturbances in the normal function of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) cause accumulation of unfolded proteins in the lumen of ER, triggering an evolutionary conserved response, termed the unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR is the mechanism enabling cells to cope with unfolded proteins, accumulated in ER lumen after the cell has been exposed to various unfavorable conditions. The UPR process has strong prosurvival implications, but switches towards apoptotic cell death when the stress becomes severe and unsolvable. The hallmark of the cytoprotective branch of UPR is stimulation of the expression of ER chaperones, of which ORP150 has gained a great deal of attention. ORP150 has been identified as being overexpressed in the pathology of many diseases and is involved in the cellular response to environmental stress. Although some fragmentary results concerning ORP150 molecular activity have been presented, its exact mode of action still remains unclear. In this paper we focused on the role of ORP150 in the pathogenesis of the main types of ER stress-related diseases: diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. © 2013 Bentham Science Publishers.

Brzoska M.M.,Medical University of Bialystok | Rogalska J.,Medical University of Bialystok
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology | Year: 2013

It was investigated whether protective influence of zinc (Zn) against cadmium (Cd)-induced disorders in bone metabolism may be related to its antioxidative properties and impact on the receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)-κΒ (RANK)/RANK ligand (RANKL)/osteoprotegerin (OPG) system. Numerous indices of oxidative/antioxidative status, and Cd and Zn were determined in the distal femur of the rats administered Zn (30 and 60. mg/l) or/and Cd (5 and 50. mg/l) for 6. months. Soluble RANKL (sRANKL) and OPG were measured in the bone and serum. Zn supplementation importantly protected from Cd-induced oxidative stress preventing protein, DNA, and lipid oxidation in the bone. Moreover, Zn protected from the Cd-induced increase in sRANKL concentration and the sRANKL/OPG ratio, and decrease in OPG concentration in the bone and serum. Numerous correlations were noted between indices of the oxidative/antioxidative bone status, concentrations of sRANKL and OPG in the bone and serum, as well as the bone concentrations of Zn and Cd, and previously reported by us in these animals (Brzóska et al., 2007) indices of bone turnover and bone mineral density. The results allow us to conclude that the ability of Zn to prevent from oxidative stress and the RANK/RANKL/OPG system imbalance may be implicated in the mechanisms of its protective impact against Cd-induced bone damage. This paper is the first report from an in vivo study providing evidence that beneficial Zn impact on the skeleton under exposure to Cd is related to the improvement of the bone tissue oxidative/antioxidative status and mediating the RANK/RANKL/OPG system. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Sendrowski K.,Medical University of Bialystok | Sobaniec W.,Medical University of Bialystok
Pharmacological Reports | Year: 2013

Hippocampal sclerosis (HS) is considered one of the major pathogenic factors of drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy. HS is characterized by selective loss of pyramidal neurons - especially of sectors CA1 and CA3 of the hippocampus - pathological proliferation of interneuron networks, and severe glia reaction. These changes occur in the course of long-term and complex epileptogenesis. The authors, on the basis of a review of the literature and own experience, present the pathomechanisms leading to hippocampal sclerosis and epileptogenesis, including various morphological and functional elements of this structure of the brain and pharmacological possibilities of preventing these processes. Copyright © 2013 by Institute of Pharmacology Polish Academy of Sciences.

Szymanska E.,Medical University of Bialystok | Winnicka K.,Medical University of Bialystok
Marine Drugs | Year: 2015

Chitosan - one of the natural multifunctional polymers - due to its unique and versatile biological properties is regarded as a useful compound in medical and pharmaceutical technology. Recently, considerable research effort has been made in order to develop safe and efficient chitosan products. However, the problem of poor stability of chitosan-based systems restricts its practical applicability; thus, it has become a great challenge to establish sufficient shelf-life for chitosan formulations. Improved stability can be assessed by controlling the environmental factors, manipulating processing conditions (e.g., temperature), introducing a proper stabilizing compound, developing chitosan blends with another polymer, or modifying the chitosan structure using chemical or ionic agents. This review covers the influence of internal, environmental, and processing factors on the long-term stability of chitosan products. The aim of this paper is also to highlight the latest developments which enable the physicochemical properties of chitosan-based applications to be preserved upon storage. © 2015 by the authors.

Malyszko J.,Medical University of Bialystok
Clinica Chimica Acta | Year: 2010

Endothelium is the largest organ in the body strategically located between the wall of blood vessels and the blood stream. The human body contains approximately 1013 endothelial cells weighing approximately 1kg, and covering a surface area of 4000 to 7000m2 equivalent to the soccer playground. Hypertension and shear stress, inflammation, diabetes-associated factors such as advanced glycated end products, and uremic toxins are some of the prevalent risk factors of endothelial dysfunction in chronic kidney disease. In renal failure endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis are almost universal, as well as cardiovascular complications. Endothelial cell damage or injury is invariably associated with such clinical conditions as thrombosis, hypertension, renal failure and atherosclerosis and may be also responsible for accelerated atherosclerosis in patients with chronic renal failure. Traditional risk factor cannot explain the high prevalence and incidence of cardiovascular disease in chronic kidney disease, therefore other non-traditional risk factors such as endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress or insulin resistance have increasingly been studied. In this review paper mechanism of endothelial dysfunction, including the role of nitric oxide pathway, adipocytokines and hemodialysis-induced endothelial dysfunction is discussed. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Malyszko J.,Medical University of Bialystok
Kidney and Blood Pressure Research | Year: 2010

Acute kidney injury (AKI) is diagnosed in 5% of all hospitalized patients and in up to 50% of all ICU patients. In the last years a dramatic rise in the prevalence of AKI has been observed with virtually no change in mortality, reaching up to 50-80% in all dialyzed ICU patients. AKI may progress to end-stage renal disease, and even subclinical episodes of AKI, which are common, may also progress to end-stage renal disease. The early detection of AKI may enable timely intervention and prevention of progression; however, in animal models and in human studies the 'window of therapeutic intervention' is narrow. Different urinary and serum proteins have been intensively investigated as possible biomarkers for the early diagnosis of AKI. There are promising candidate biomarkers with the ability to detect an early and graded increase in tubular epithelial cell injury and distinguish pre-renal disease from acute tubular necrosis. In this review, new emerging biomarkers of AKI are presented and described in some clinical settings, such as cardiac surgery, contrast-induced nephropathy, delayed graft function and ICU/emergency departments, where biomarkers are urgently needed to diagnose, make prognoses and differentiate. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Lukaszewicz-Hussain A.,Medical University of Bialystok
Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology | Year: 2010

The objective of this paper is to present a short review of the state of knowledge regarding oxidative stress and its role in toxicity of organophosphate insecticides. The information has been obtained by searching the relevant literature using chemical abstracts, PubMed, scopus, medline and other data bases. The significance of the problem has been elucidated. Organophosphate insecticides (OP), apart from inhibition of cholinesterase and presence of cholinergic effects, oxidative stress and hyperglycemia has been reported by many authors as one of the adverse effects in poisoning by OP in both humans and animals. Oxidative stress induced by organophosphate leads to disturbances in the function of different organs and tissues. In subchronic or chronic OP exposition induction of oxidative stress has been reported, by many authors, as the main mechanism of its toxicity. Data were categorized according to animal studies (in vitro and in vivo) and clinical studies. On the basis of relevant literature it is concluded, that determination of oxidative stress parameters can be useful for monitoring people exposed to OP professionally. Supplementation with natural or synthetic antioxidant may be beneficial in OP poisoning, however the rat models of OP poisoning used in those studies do not completely reflect clinical situation. For this reason the clinical trials are needed to explore effectiveness of these antioxidants in protection against toxicity of OP. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

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