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Chong S.T.,5th Medical Detachment | Kim H.C.,5th Medical Detachment | Lee I.-Y.,Yonsei University | Kollars Jr. T.M.,Medical Section | And 4 more authors.
Korean Journal of Parasitology | Year: 2013

This study describes the seasonal distribution of larvae, nymph, and adult life stages for 3 species of ixodid ticks collected by tick drag and sweep methods from various habitats in the Republic of Korea (ROK). Grasses less than 0.5 m in height, including herbaceous and crawling vegetation, and deciduous, conifer, and mixed forests with abundant leaf/needle litter were surveyed at United States (US) and ROK operated military training sites and privately owned lands near the demilitarized zone from April-October, 2004 and 2005. Haemaphysalis longicornis Neumann adults and nymphs were more frequently collected from April-August, while those of Haemaphysalis flava Neumann and Ixodes nipponensis Kitaoka and Saito were collected more frequently from April-July and again during October. H. longicornis was the most frequently collected tick in grass habitats (98.9%), while H. flava was more frequently collected in deciduous (60.2%) and conifer (57.4%) forest habitats. While more H. flava (54.1%) were collected in mixed forest habitats than H. longicornis (35.2%), the differences were not significant. I. nipponensis was more frequently collected from conifer (mean 8.8) compared to deciduous (3.2) and mixed (2.4) forests. © 2013, Korean Society for Parasitology and Tropical Medicine. Source

Chong S.T.,5th Medical Detachment | Kim H.C.,5th Medical Detachment | Lee I.-Y.,Yonsei University | Kollars Jr. T.M.,Medical Section | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Medical Entomology | Year: 2013

As part of the 65th Medical Brigade tick-borne disease surveillance program to determine the abundance, geographical and seasonal distributions, and tick-borne pathogens present in the Republic of Korea, dragging and sweeping methods were compared to determine their efficiency for collecting ticks in grass and deciduous, conifer, and mixed forest habitats at military training sites and privately owned lands in northern Gyeonggi Province near the demilitarized zone from April-October, 2004-2005. Three species of Ixodid ticks, Haemaphysalis longicornis, Haemaphysalis flava, and Ixodes nipponensis, were collected. Overall, H. longicornis adults and nymphs were most frequently collected from grass and deciduous forest habitats, accounting for 98.2 and 66.2%, respectively, of all ticks collected. H. flava adults and nymphs were most frequently collected from conifer and mixed forests, accounting for 81.6, and 77.8%, respectively, of all ticks collected. I. nipponensis adults and nymphs accounted for 9.3% of all ticks collected from mixed forests, were less commonly collected from deciduous (4.1%) and conifer (4.1%) forests, and infrequently collected from grass habitats (0.9%). Overall, there were no significant differences between dragging and sweeping methods for the three species when the areas sampled were similar (sweeping = 2 × the area over the same transect). Adults and nymphs of H. longicornis were most commonly collected from April-August, while those of H. flava and I. nipponensis were most commonly collected during April-July and again during October. Larvae of all three species were most frequently observed from July-September. © 2013 Entomological Society of America. Source

Yang D.,Jining Hospital of Prevention and Treatment for Mental Disease | Gao X.,Jining Hospital of Prevention and Treatment for Mental Disease | Liu L.,Jining Hospital of Prevention and Treatment for Mental Disease | Chen Y.,Medical Section | Li W.,Jining Medical University
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Pathology | Year: 2016

Objectives: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported to be involved in depression. Besides, cell-mediated immunity (CMI) and inflammatory response system (IRS) are responsible for depression. The purpose of our study was to investigate the role of microRNA-155 (miR-155) in depression and the possible mechanism involving pro-inflammatory cytokines (PICs). Methods: Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly assigned to control and stress group. The rats in the stress group were subjected to chronic mild stress (CMS). Natural killer (NK) cells were isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of the rats in the both two groups. The expression levels of miR-155 in NK cells were determined by quantitative real-time RCP (qRT-PCR). Lentiviral vectors expressing a miR-155 sponge (Lv-miR155-sponge) and an empty vector (Lv-control) were then transfected into NK cells and confirmed by qRT-PCR.Quantitative analyses of supernatants levels for interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-a, and interferon (IFN)-α were performed before and after transfection using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In addition, the protein levels of phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 and ERK1/2 were evaluated after transfection. Results: The relative levels of miR-155 and PICs were significantly increased in the stress group compared to the control group. But transfection with Lv-miR155-sponge significantly decreased the levels of IL-1, IL-6, TNF-a, and IFN-α (all P<0.05) and activated ERK1/2 signaling pathway. Conclusion: Our results suggest that miR-155 modulates the expression of PICs in NK cells of rats exposed to CMS by regulation of ERK1/2 signaling pathway. Source

Massimiliano B.,Internal Medicine and Geriatrics Institute | Nicola S.,Internal Medicine and Geriatrics Institute | Sante B.,Medical Section | Carmela F.,Internal Medicine and Geriatrics Institute | And 2 more authors.
British Journal of Sports Medicine | Year: 2011

Objective To collect medical data on women's boxing. Design Cross-sectional and longitudinal study. Setting Medical examinations requested by Italian laws. Participants A retrospective study was conducted on all female boxing competitions in Italy from April 2001 to December 2007. Sixty-one amateur female boxers were evaluated longitudinally. Interventions (1) Retrospective study: All pre-/ postmatch medical reports were analysed. (2) Prospective study: Breast, gynaecologic, brain, eyes, ear, nose and throat examinations were carried out. Main outcome measurements (1) Retrospective study: Any injury assessed before/after the match. (2) Prospective study: Health problems which could be related to boxing activity. Results (1) Retrospective study: Data from 5600 examinations were collected. Precompetition, a medical problem was recorded in three athletes (one conjunctiva hyperemia, one zygomatic bruise, one eyelid haematoma). Post competition, 51/2800 medical checks showed mild common injuries, such as soft tissue facial lesions, epistaxis and hand-wrist problems. Only one concussion was recorded with hospitalisation (for a thorough evaluation). Another athlete was hospitalised for a nasal fracture. (2) Prospective study: Two fibroadenomas, three ovarian cysts and one intramural uterine myoma were diagnosed. In four boxers, nonspecific electroencephalographic abnormalities were detected, however, with a normal brain MRI in three (the fourth is still waiting for the radiologic procedure). Nasal septum deviation was common (42.6%) and a transmissive hypoacusia was observed in two athletes. No major eye injuries were reported. Conclusions Female boxing seems to be a safe sport with a very low incidence of events requiring hospitalisation. No specific diseases in female boxers could be observed, in particular regarding the breast and reproductive system. Source

Seidelin J.B.,Medical Section | Bjerrum J.T.,Medical Section | Coskun M.,Medical Section | Widjaya B.,Medical Section | And 2 more authors.
Immunology Letters | Year: 2010

Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is a novel member of the IL-1 cytokine family. It has been shown to elicit a Th2-like cytokine response in immunocompetent cells through binding and activation of the T1/ST2 receptor. IL-33 has recently been associated with immune responses to helminthic intestinal infections, airway inflammation and arthritis in animal models. We now report IL-33 to be produced by colonic epithelial cells in humans and it is highly upregulated in ulcerative colitis (UC). Little mRNA expression was found in control subjects (N = 9), whereas patients with UC in remission (N = 7) and active UC (N = 9) had a 3-fold (p < 0.006) and 13-fold (p < 0.0002) increased expression, respectively. On the protein level, IL-33 in its uncleaved form was overexpressed in active UC compared to controls (p < 0.006) and inactive UC (p < 0.03). Immunohistochemistry of IL-33 confirmed expression in active UC in colonic epithelial cells, whereas no detectable epithelial expression was seen in control specimens. Caspase 1, which is known to activate IL-33, was expressed in colonocytes, albeit at just detectable levels when the activated p20 caspase 1 was measured. Since IL-33 recently has been shown to be biologically active in its pro-form, and cleavage seems to inactivate IL-33, IL-33 is suggested to be active in UC. We found no IL-33 expression in Caco2 cells, regardless of stimulation by pro-inflammatory cytokines. In contrast to the IL-33 expression data, we could not show any difference in the production of another member of the IL-1 cytokine family, IL-1β. This is the first study to describe that IL-33 is upregulated in UC. If IL-33 is driving a Th2-like cytokine response in UC, inhibition of the IL-33 T1/ST2 receptor pathway could be a future therapeutic option in UC. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

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