Wegner M.,University of Bern |
Schuler J.,University of Bern |
Budde H.,Medical School Hamburg |
Budde H.,Reykjavik University
Psychoneuroendocrinology | Year: 2014
It has been previously shown that the implicit affiliation motive - the need to establish and maintain friendly relationships with others - leads to chronic health benefits. The underlying assumption for the present research was that the implicit affiliation motive also moderates the salivary cortisol response to acute psychological stress when some aspects of social evaluation and uncontrollability are involved. By contrast we did not expect similar effects in response to exercise as a physical stressor. Fifty-nine high school students aged M=14.8 years were randomly assigned to a psychosocial stress (publishing the results of an intelligence test performed), a physical stress (exercise intensity of 65-75% of HRmax), and a control condition (normal school lesson) each lasting 15min. Participants' affiliation motives were assessed using the Operant Motive Test and salivary cortisol samples were taken pre and post stressor. We found that the strength of the affiliation motive negatively predicted cortisol reactions to acute psychosocial but not to physical stress when compared to a control group. The results suggest that the affiliation motive buffers the effect of acute psychosocial stress on the HPA axis. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.
Feddermann-Demont N.,Medical Assessment and Research Center |
Feddermann-Demont N.,University of Zurich |
Junge A.,Medical Assessment and Research Center |
Junge A.,Medical School Hamburg |
And 3 more authors.
British Journal of Sports Medicine | Year: 2014
Background: The International Association of Athletics Federation has systematically surveyed all Athletics injuries in their competitions since 2007 in order to develop strategies for health protection of their athletes. Aims: Analysis of frequency and characteristics of injuries during 13 international Athletics championships from 2007 to 2012 regarding different types of championships and discipline categories. Methods: The team physicians and the Local Organizing Committee reported daily all injuries on a standardised injury report form during each championship. Results: A total of 1470 injuries were reported, equivalent to 81.1±4.2 injuries per 1000 registrations of which 36.7±2.9 were expected to result in absence from sports. The incidence of time-loss injuries was significantly higher in competition (29.0±2.6) than in training (5.8±1.9), and in outdoor (46.4±4.0) than in indoor (23.7±6.2) or youth/junior championships (13.2±4.0). While most in-competition time-loss injuries were reported during short distance events (32.5%), combined events had the highest incidence of incompetition time-loss injuries (106±26.5). The most frequent diagnosis was thigh strain (28.2%), followed by lower leg strain and ankle sprain. Injury location varied between different discipline categories: In long distances the lower leg, in Marathon the foot and in throws the upper extremity were mainly affected. Conclusions: The incidence of injuries varied substantially between different types of Athletics championships and between discipline categories. Specialattention should be paid to combined events, running disciplines and (thigh) strain to better understand the injury mechanisms and risk factors and develop related preventive measures.
Wegwarth O.,Max Planck Institute for Human Development |
Kurzenhauser-Carstens S.,Medical School Hamburg |
Gigerenzer G.,Max Planck Institute for Human Development
Vaccine | Year: 2014
Objective: Informed decision making requires transparent and evidence-based (=balanced) information on the potential benefit and harms of medical preventions. An analysis of German HPV vaccination leaflets revealed, however, that none met the standards of balanced risk communication. Methods: We surveyed a sample of 225 girl-parent pairs in a before-after design on the effects of balanced and unbalanced risk communication on participants' knowledge about cervical cancer and the HPV vaccination, their perceived risk, their intention to have the vaccine, and their actual vaccination decision. Results: The balanced leaflet increased the number of participants who were correctly informed about cervical cancer and the HPV vaccine by 33 to 66 absolute percentage points. In contrast, the unbalanced leaflet decreased the number of participants who were correctly informed about these facts by 0 to 18 absolute percentage points. Whereas the actual uptake of the HPV vaccination 14 months after the initial study did not differ between the two groups (22% balanced leaflet vs. 23% unbalanced leaflet; p=.93, r=.01), the originally stated intention to have the vaccine reliably predicted the actual vaccination decision for the balanced leaflet group only (concordance between intention and actual uptake: 97% in the balanced leaflet group, rs=.92, p=.00; 60% in the unbalanced leaflet group, rs=.37, p=.08). Conclusion: In contrast to a unbalanced leaflet, a balanced leaflet increased people's knowledge of the HPV vaccination, improved perceived risk judgments, and led to an actual vaccination uptake, which first was robustly predicted by people's intention and second did not differ from the uptake in the unbalanced leaflet group. These findings suggest that balanced reporting about HPV vaccination increases informed decisions about whether to be vaccinated and does not undermine actual uptake. © 2014 The Authors.
Schnell T.,Medical School Hamburg
Nervenarzt | Year: 2013
Comorbid substance use disorders in schizophrenia are mostly associated with an unfavorable course of the disease and with difficulties in clinical management. Therefore, some therapists tend to react to these patients in a resigned manner. However, there is growing evidence for higher cognitive functioning and less severe deficits in brain morphology of these patients compared to patients without cannabis use. A common interpretation refers to relatively low vulnerability for psychosis in some of these patients, who mainly became schizophrenic because of the propsychotic properties of cannabis. Low vulnerability is reflected by a higher cognitive functioning; therefore, the pessimistic view of therapists seems unjustified for at least a subgroup of young patients. Provided that patients are treated in adequate therapeutic settings and that they stop using cannabis, a lower vulnerability may be associated with overall better socio-rehabilitative outcome parameters. © 2013, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Junge A.,Medical Assessment and Research Center |
Junge A.,Medical School Hamburg |
Dvorak J.,Medical Assessment and Research Center
British Journal of Sports Medicine | Year: 2015
Background: FIFA has surveyed match injuries in its tournaments since 1998. Aim: To analyse the incidence and characteristics of match injuries incurred during the 2014 FIFA World Cup in comparison to previous FIFA World Cups. Methods: The chief physicians of the participating teams reported all newly incurred injuries of their players after the match on a standardised report form. 124 (97%) forms were returned. Results: A total of 104 injuries were reported, equivalent to an incidence of 1.68 injuries per match (95% CI 1.36 to 2.00). 64 (63.4%) injuries were caused by contact with another player. Thigh (26; 25%) and head (19; 18%) were the most frequently injured body parts. The most frequent diagnosis was thigh strain (n=18). Five concussions and three fractures to the head were reported. While most thigh strains (15/17; 88.2%) occurred without contact, almost all head injuries (18/19; 94.7%) were caused by contact. 0.97 injuries per match (95% CI 0.72 to 1.22) were expected to result in absence from training or match. Eight injuries were classified as severe. The incidence of match injuries in the 2014 FIFA World Cup was significantly lower than the average of the four preceding FIFA World Cups, both for all injuries (2.34; 95% CI 2.15 to 2.53) and time-loss injuries (1.51; 95% CI 1.37 to 1.65). Conclusions: The overall incidence of injury during the FIFA World Cups decreased from 2002 to 2014 by 37%. A detailed analysis of the injury mechanism is recommended to further improve prevention strategies. © 2015, BMJ Publishing Group. All rights reserved.