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Strobach T.,Medical School Hamburg | Schubert T.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg
Psychology and Aging | Year: 2017

The present study investigated the ability of older adults in contrast to younger adults to automatize new choice tasks as a result of simultaneous dual-task practice. Importantly, the study was carried out in conditions optimal for dual-task performance and task automatization. Despite this, the results of detailed analyses were not consistent with the assumption that either older or younger adults are able to automatize new choice tasks; neither group showed evidence of automatization. Even in analyses focusing on high dual-task performers (i.e., individuals who performed equally well in single and dual tasks) the results were not consistent with this assumption. Instead, it seems to be the case that both older and younger adults continue to use capacity-limited processes to process choice tasks after dual-task practice. These conclusions are consistent with findings from studies using single-task practice and tests of task automatization in dual tasks (Maquestiaux, Laguë-Beauvais, Ruthruff, Hartley, & Bherer, 2010; Maquestiaux, Didierjean, Ruthruff, Chauvel, & Hartley, 2013). © 2017 American Psychological Association.

Wegner M.,University of Bern | Schuler J.,University of Bern | Budde H.,Medical School Hamburg | Budde H.,Reykjavik University
Psychoneuroendocrinology | Year: 2014

It has been previously shown that the implicit affiliation motive - the need to establish and maintain friendly relationships with others - leads to chronic health benefits. The underlying assumption for the present research was that the implicit affiliation motive also moderates the salivary cortisol response to acute psychological stress when some aspects of social evaluation and uncontrollability are involved. By contrast we did not expect similar effects in response to exercise as a physical stressor. Fifty-nine high school students aged M=14.8 years were randomly assigned to a psychosocial stress (publishing the results of an intelligence test performed), a physical stress (exercise intensity of 65-75% of HRmax), and a control condition (normal school lesson) each lasting 15min. Participants' affiliation motives were assessed using the Operant Motive Test and salivary cortisol samples were taken pre and post stressor. We found that the strength of the affiliation motive negatively predicted cortisol reactions to acute psychosocial but not to physical stress when compared to a control group. The results suggest that the affiliation motive buffers the effect of acute psychosocial stress on the HPA axis. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Toth P.P.,Illinois College | Dayspring T.D.,Medical School Hamburg
Expert Opinion on Drug Safety | Year: 2011

Introduction: Rosuvastatin is a highly efficacious statin approved for use throughout the world. Rosuvastatin has been exhaustively evaluated in the setting of a broad variety of dyslipidemias and cardiovascular disease states in clinical trials encompassed within the GALAXY program. Areas covered: The efficacy and adverse event profile of rosuvastatin are evaluated based on the results of randomized, controlled clinical trials and observational studies available in the Medline database. Expert opinion: Rosuvastatin is a safe and efficacious lipid modifying drug in a broad variety of patient populations (men and women, irrespective of race) for treating multiple forms of dyslipidemia. Rosuvastatin reduces atherogenic lipoproteins and triglycerides and increases high-density lipoprotein cholesterol better than other statins. Compared to other statins, it has no excess signal for liver, skeletal muscle or renal toxicity. This is supported by evidence from both an extensive clinical trial program as well as post-marketing surveillance. The incidence of myalgia with this drug is comparable to that observed with other statins. Rosuvastatin does not depend on cytochrome P450 3A4-dependent metabolism and has a favorable drug interaction profile. Care must be taken to reduce the dose of rosuvastatin in patients of Asian ancestry or with stage IV chronic kidney disease (severe renal insufficiency), as well as patients being treated with protease inhibitors or cyclosporine. © 2011 Informa UK, Ltd.

Wegwarth O.,Max Planck Institute for Human Development | Kurzenhauser-Carstens S.,Medical School Hamburg | Gigerenzer G.,Max Planck Institute for Human Development
Vaccine | Year: 2014

Objective: Informed decision making requires transparent and evidence-based (=balanced) information on the potential benefit and harms of medical preventions. An analysis of German HPV vaccination leaflets revealed, however, that none met the standards of balanced risk communication. Methods: We surveyed a sample of 225 girl-parent pairs in a before-after design on the effects of balanced and unbalanced risk communication on participants' knowledge about cervical cancer and the HPV vaccination, their perceived risk, their intention to have the vaccine, and their actual vaccination decision. Results: The balanced leaflet increased the number of participants who were correctly informed about cervical cancer and the HPV vaccine by 33 to 66 absolute percentage points. In contrast, the unbalanced leaflet decreased the number of participants who were correctly informed about these facts by 0 to 18 absolute percentage points. Whereas the actual uptake of the HPV vaccination 14 months after the initial study did not differ between the two groups (22% balanced leaflet vs. 23% unbalanced leaflet; p=.93, r=.01), the originally stated intention to have the vaccine reliably predicted the actual vaccination decision for the balanced leaflet group only (concordance between intention and actual uptake: 97% in the balanced leaflet group, rs=.92, p=.00; 60% in the unbalanced leaflet group, rs=.37, p=.08). Conclusion: In contrast to a unbalanced leaflet, a balanced leaflet increased people's knowledge of the HPV vaccination, improved perceived risk judgments, and led to an actual vaccination uptake, which first was robustly predicted by people's intention and second did not differ from the uptake in the unbalanced leaflet group. These findings suggest that balanced reporting about HPV vaccination increases informed decisions about whether to be vaccinated and does not undermine actual uptake. © 2014 The Authors.

Comorbid substance use disorders in schizophrenia are mostly associated with an unfavorable course of the disease and with difficulties in clinical management. Therefore, some therapists tend to react to these patients in a resigned manner. However, there is growing evidence for higher cognitive functioning and less severe deficits in brain morphology of these patients compared to patients without cannabis use. A common interpretation refers to relatively low vulnerability for psychosis in some of these patients, who mainly became schizophrenic because of the propsychotic properties of cannabis. Low vulnerability is reflected by a higher cognitive functioning; therefore, the pessimistic view of therapists seems unjustified for at least a subgroup of young patients. Provided that patients are treated in adequate therapeutic settings and that they stop using cannabis, a lower vulnerability may be associated with overall better socio-rehabilitative outcome parameters. © 2013, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Junge A.,Medical Assessment and Research Center | Junge A.,Medical School Hamburg | Dvorak J.,Medical Assessment and Research Center
British Journal of Sports Medicine | Year: 2015

Background: FIFA has surveyed match injuries in its tournaments since 1998. Aim: To analyse the incidence and characteristics of match injuries incurred during the 2014 FIFA World Cup in comparison to previous FIFA World Cups. Methods: The chief physicians of the participating teams reported all newly incurred injuries of their players after the match on a standardised report form. 124 (97%) forms were returned. Results: A total of 104 injuries were reported, equivalent to an incidence of 1.68 injuries per match (95% CI 1.36 to 2.00). 64 (63.4%) injuries were caused by contact with another player. Thigh (26; 25%) and head (19; 18%) were the most frequently injured body parts. The most frequent diagnosis was thigh strain (n=18). Five concussions and three fractures to the head were reported. While most thigh strains (15/17; 88.2%) occurred without contact, almost all head injuries (18/19; 94.7%) were caused by contact. 0.97 injuries per match (95% CI 0.72 to 1.22) were expected to result in absence from training or match. Eight injuries were classified as severe. The incidence of match injuries in the 2014 FIFA World Cup was significantly lower than the average of the four preceding FIFA World Cups, both for all injuries (2.34; 95% CI 2.15 to 2.53) and time-loss injuries (1.51; 95% CI 1.37 to 1.65). Conclusions: The overall incidence of injury during the FIFA World Cups decreased from 2002 to 2014 by 37%. A detailed analysis of the injury mechanism is recommended to further improve prevention strategies. © 2015, BMJ Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

Dumoulin A.,Ecole Normale Superieure de Paris | Triller A.,Ecole Normale Superieure de Paris | Kneussel M.,Medical School Hamburg
Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience | Year: 2010

Regulation of synaptic transmission is essential to tune individual-to-network neuronal activity. One way to modulate synaptic strength is to regulate neurotransmitter receptor numbers at postsynaptic sites. This can be achieved either through plasma membrane insertion of receptors derived from intracellular vesicle pools, a process depending on active cytoskeleton transport, or through surface membrane removal via endocytosis. In parallel, lateral diffusion events along the plasma membrane allow the exchange of receptor molecules between synaptic and extrasynaptic compartments, contributing to synaptic strength regulation. In recent years, results obtained from several groups studying glycine receptor (GlyR) trafficking and dynamics shed light on the regulation of synaptic GlyR density. Here, we review (i) proteins and mechanisms involved in GlyR cytoskeletal transport, (ii) the diffusion dynamics of GlyR and of its scaffolding protein gephyrin that control receptor numbers, and its relationship with synaptic plasticity, and (iii) adaptative changes in GlyR diffusion in response to global activity modifications, as a homeostatic mechanism. © 2010 Dumoulin, Triller and Kneussel.

Mansour W.Y.,Medical School Hamburg | Mansour W.Y.,Cairo University | Rhein T.,Medical School Hamburg | Dahm-Daphi J.,Medical School Hamburg
Nucleic Acids Research | Year: 2010

Non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ), the major repair pathway for DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) in mammalian cells, employs a repertoire of core proteins, the recruitment of which to DSB-ends is Ku-dependent. Lack of either of the core components invariably leads to a repair deficiency. There has been evidence that an alternative end-joining operates in the absence of the core components. We used chromosomal reporter substrates to specifically monitor NHEJ of single I-SceI-induced-DSB for detailed comparison of classical and alternative end-joining. We show that rapid repair of both compatible and non-compatible ends require Ku-protein. In the absence of Ku, cells use a slow but efficient repair mode which experiences increasing sequence-loss with time after DSB induction. Chemical inhibition and PARP1-depletion demonstrated that the alternative end-joining in vivo is completely dependent upon functional PARP1. Furthermore, we show that the requirement for PARP1 depends on the absence of Ku but not on DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs). Extensive sequencing of repair junctions revealed that the alternative rejoining does not require long microhomologies. Together, we show that mammalian cells need Ku for rapid and conservative NHEJ. PARP1-dependent alternative route may partially rescue the deficient repair phenotype presumably at the expense of an enhanced mutation rate. © The Author(s) 2010. Published by Oxford University Press.

Pretis M.,Medical School Hamburg
Infants and Young Children | Year: 2016

This article assesses the situation of preschool children in Austria facing the need to implement the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disability. Eligibility criteria for preventive preschool services and the necessary labeling of children as "disabled" or "at risk" are assessed as inhibiting factors within educational systems that ostensibly facilitate "education" for all. On the operative level, existing support systems across Austria differ in their level of inclusiveness. The kindergarten system can be seen to offer a more inclusive service for children aged 0-3 years. Nurseries and child minder services particularly lack inclusive strategies or resources. Because of economic restrictions and the persistence of ambivalent attitudes among mainstream teachers, the school system faces major obstacles, including initiatives of parents to opt for special schools to ensure social integration and specific (therapeutic) resources. This article emphasizes the need for concrete methods, exchange, and resources for people working with children with special needs and reflects on the partial paradox of current parallel developments. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc.

Foeldvari I.,Medical School Hamburg
Current Rheumatology Reports | Year: 2015

Juvenile systemic sclerosis is an orphan disease of the macro- and microvasculature with an unknown etiology. Although pediatric and adult classification systems have been developed, neither has been validated yet. Recent publications have shown a shift in the subset pattern in juvenile-onset adult patients, with a better outcome in these patients as compared with young adult patients. As a first step in assessing activity, damage, and severity, a pediatric severity score—a modification of the adult Medsger scale—was proposed but has not been validated. An activity score also has been developed but has not yet been published. Currently, treatment approaches are based only on adult data, and problems exist in extrapolating these data to a pediatric population. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

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