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AIM: To provide pertinent information on the upper class in regards to their general health status, illnesses, typology of illnesses, health care seeking behaviours and factors which determine their (1) moderate-to-very good health status, (2) illness, and (3) health care seeking behaviour in order to make available to policy specialists and public health practitioners information on this group, to be used as a guide in their decision making policies. METHOD: A sample of 2,734 respondents from the wealthiest 20% and second wealthy social hierarchies was extracted from a cross-sectional survey of 6,783 respondents. An administered questionnaire was used to collect the data, which were stored and analyzed using SPSS for Windows 16.0. The questionnaire was modelled on the World Bank's Living Standards Measurement Study household survey. RESULTS: The majority of the sample stated at least good health status (83.3%), with 0.5% indicating very poor health status, and 15.3% who indicated an illness in the last 4-week period. Four variables emerged as statistically correlated with moderate-to-very good health status of those in the upper class (i.e. second wealthy and wealthiest 20%). The model explained 33.2% of the variance in moderate-to-very good health status, and that the model is a good fit for the data.Three variables emerged as statistically correlated with self-reported illness. The significant variables (i.e. health care-seeking behaviour, good health status, and marital status) accounted for 72.4% of the variability in self-reported illness. Three variables emerged as statistically significant predictors of health care-seekers - Model fit. The statistically significant predictors (i.e. good health status, selfreported illness, marital status) accounted for 76.4% of the variance in health care-seeking behaviour of the upper class. CONCLUSION: Rural residents continue to have lower moderate-to-very good health status when compared to the general population, and the second wealthy and the wealthiest 20% in Jamaica. Although only 4 percent of the upper social hierarchy utilizes the public health care system, there is still a demand for public health services for this group, and it must be taken into account as a part of the general planning for the health care system of the country. Source


Bourne P.A.,Socio Medical Research Institute | Clarke-Christian J.,Constant Spring Primary and Junior High School | Sharpe-Pryce C.,Northern Caribbean University | Hudson-Davis A.,Capella University | Francis C.,University of Technology, Jamaica
African Journal of Psychiatry (South Africa) | Year: 2015

Introduction: Conflicts are normal, natural, and necessary in human relations and the problem is not the existence of conflict but how it is managed by the involved parties. With crime being the leading national problem in Jamaica and evidence showing that acts of violence retard the quality of education in schools, conflict management is important in resolving many conflicts before they digress to the stage of serious crimes. Objectives: This study sought to 1) identify conflict management style and strategies that educational leaders use to manage conflicts in two Primary and Junior High schools in St. Andrew, Jamaica, 2) elucidate classroom teachers perception of conflict management styles and strategies used in their educational institution, and 3) examine students'perception conflict management styles and strategies used in their educational institution. Materials and Methods: Mixed methodology was employed for this research. The sample was selected based on two criteria. These were 1) persons who employed in or attending a Primary and-or Junior High school, and 2) the schools were located in Upper St. Andrew, Jamaica. Seventy-seven participants were selected based on two aforementioned criteria. Ten conflict management style and strategies emerged in this study, including avoidance, compromise, teaching social skills, dispute resolution foundation, counseling, and accommodation. Results: The school's educational leaders opined that the Conflict Management Strategies that they employ is based on the nature, severity and frequency of the social deviant behaviour exhibited by the students. Conclusion: The findings are pertinent as they can be used to formulate policy interventions and aid in the development of conflict management approaches that are geared towards effectively addressing conflicts in schools. © 2015 Bourne PA, et al. Source


Bourne P.A.,Socio Medical Research Institute | Pryce C.S.,Northern Caribbean University | Francis C.,University of Technology, Jamaica | Davis A.H.,Capella University | And 6 more authors.
African Journal of Psychiatry (South Africa) | Year: 2015

Introduction: The educational system of Jamaica is designed whereby performance is assessed based on formal evaluation (or test). This test culture places immense pressure on students at the primary level to successful complete some examinations in order for placement into select schools. Objectives: The present study seeks to evaluate psychological stress among students who take the G.S.A.T examination in the Corporate Area schools in Jamaica and assess whether psychological stressors influence academic performance. Methods: For this research, mixed methodology was employed to investigate the phenomenon of stressors among students who took the 2013 G.S.A.T examination. For the survey instrument (questionnaire), the large volume of data were stored, retrieved and analyzed using the Statistical Packages for the Social Sciences (S.P.S.S) for Windows version 21.0 (SPSS Inc; Chicago, IL, USA). Findings: The overall academic performance of the surveyed respondents was high (75.8 ± 19.4; 95% CI: 72.4- 79.2), with students in the preparatory school (92.4 ± 4.1) outperformed those in the primary school (71.0 ± 19.4)- t-test =10280, P < 0.0001. The level of stress experienced by those in the public school was greater (29.9 ± 6.0; 95% CI: 28.9 - 30.1) than those in the private school (26.0 ± 3.9; 95% CI: 24.5- 27.4- t-test=-3.300, P=0.001). Five factors determine overall academic performance: 1) stress level, 2) parental involvement, 3) school type, 4) nervous on taking the first G.S.A.T examination and 5) school choice (traditional or non-traditional high school). The five factors accounted for 35.8 percentage points of the variance in overall academic performance (Adjusted R2). Conclusion: Parental involvement is crucial in academic performance among students who took the 2013 G.S.A.T examination and students experienced moderately high stress, which offers some insight in the examination and the information can be used to better guide policy formulation. © 2015 Bourne PD, et al. Source


Bourne P.A.,Socio Medical Research Institute | Hudson-Davis A.,Socio Medical Research Institute | Sharpe-Pryce C.,Socio Medical Research Institute | Clarke J.,Socio Medical Research Institute | And 6 more authors.
International journal of emergency mental health | Year: 2014

INTRODUCTION: Like medicine, public health practitioners seek to understand causes of mortality, practices of humans and issues that can change population conditions, in order to preserve and care for life. The murder pandemic has been such in Jamaica that the World Bank sponsored a qualitative study on crime in urban areas in Jamaica in the late 1990s to provide a platform to guide policy intervention and programmes. As a result this study will fill the gap in the literature by providing the evidence to support that divorce and marriage are public health concerns from the perspective of murders.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of divorce and marital relationships on murders.MATERIALS AND METHODS: The data for this study are taken from various Jamaica Government Publications. The period for this work is from 1950 through 2013. Data were recorded, stored and retrieved using the Statistical Packages for the Social Sciences (SPSS) for Windows, Version 21.0. The level of significance that is used to determine statistical significance is less than 5% (0.05). Ordinary least square (OLS) regression analyses and curve estimations were used to determine models and best fitted models.RESULTS: On average, annually, 523 Jamaicans are murdered (± 484), with there being 9,531 marriages (± 22,747) and 904 divorces (± 468). Logged marriage rate and divorce rate are factors of murder rate, with both independent factors accounting for 82.2% of the variability in the murder rate. Both factors are positively correlated with the murder rate, with the divorce rate accounting for most of the variance in the murder rate (R2 = 79.2%).CONCLUSION: Death can be extremely devasting to families, however, murder among married couples can severely disrupt the lives of both families along with any children from such relationship. Source

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